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University of California 

At Los Angeles 
The Library 



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18$^ 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY 



NUTRITION 

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE MINIMAL 

PROTEID REQUIREMENT OF THE 

HEALTHY MAN 

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 



BY 

RUSSELL H. CHITTENDEN, 
PH.D., LL.D., Sc.D. 

DIRECTOR OF THE SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL OF TALE TTNIVERSITT 

AND PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY ; MEMBER OF THE 

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES; PRESIDENT OF THE 

AMERICAN PHYSIOLOGICAL SOCIETY J MEMBER OF 

THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, ETO. 



\ I >\: ; V , '. s* ** ' ' 

' 



NEW YORK 
FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY 

1907 



3535 * 



Copyright, 1904, 
BY FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY 



Published in November, 1904 



THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, CAAIBRIDGE, U. S. A. 

8 1. . 




Libraiy 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FACING PACK 

Group of soldiers at work in the Gymnasium 136 

Side view of Fritz 198 

Back view of Fritz 204 

Front view of Coffman and Steltz 212 

Back view of Coffman and Steltz 220 

Side view of Zooman and Cohn 234 

Back view of Zooman and Cohn 240 

Side view of Loewenthal and Morris 258 

Group of soldiers exercising in the Gymnasium 262 

Front view of Sliney 272 

Soldiers exercising in the Gymnasium 284 

Soldiers exercising in the Gymnasium 296 

Side view of Stapleton 328 

Back view of Stapleton 366 

Front view of W. L. Anderson and Bellis 440 

Back view of W. L. Anderson and Bellis . 442 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

OF FINANCIAL AID IN MEETING THE EXPENSE OF THE EXPERIMENTS 
HEREIN DESCRIBED 

THE writer has been most generously aided by substantial 
grants from the Bache Fund of the National Academy of 
Sciences, and from the Carnegie Institution of Washington ; 
also by large donations from Mr. Horace Fletcher of Venice, 
and from Mr. John H. Patterson of Dayton, Ohio. In addi- 
tion, the War Department of the United States met in large 
measure the expense of maintaining at New Haven the Detach- 
ment of Volunteers from the Hospital Corps of the United 
States Army, detailed here through the courtesy of Surgeon- 
General Robert Maitland O'Reilly. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

OF AID IN THE CONDUCT OF THE EXPERIMENTS 

THE successful carrying out of the experiments in all their 
details, especially the chemical work, has been rendered pos- 
sible by the active and continuous co-operation of the writer's 
colleague, Lafayette B. Mendel, Ph.D., Professor of Physio- 
logical Chemistry in the Sheffield Scientific School. 

Efficient aid in the routine chemical and other work of the 
laboratory in connection with the experiments has been ren- 
dered by Frank P. Underbill, Ph.D., Arthur L. Dean, Ph.D., 
Harold C. Bradley, B.A., Robert B. Gibson, Ph.B., Oliver E. 
Closson, Ph.B., and Charles S. Leavenworth, Ph.B. 

Dr. William G. Anderson, Director of the Yale Gymnasium, 
with the co-operation of his assistants, has rendered valuable 
aid in looking after the physical development of the men 



vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

under experiment, in arranging for frequent strength tests, 
as well as in prescribing the character and extent of their 
work in the Gymnasium. The greater portion of the training 
of the soldiers was under the personal supervision of William 
H. Callahan, M.D., Medical Assistant at the Gymnasium, 
while Messrs. William Chase, Anton Muller, John Stapleton, 
and H. R. Gladwin, Assistant Instructors in the Gymnasium, 
led the drills and looked after the actual muscular training 
of the men. 

In the study of " Reaction Time " and other matters of 
psychological interest the work was under the direction of 
Charles H. Judd, Ph.D., in charge of the Yale Psychological 
Laboratory, aided by Warren M. Steele, B.A., and Cloyd N. 
McAllister, Ph.D. 

In the morphological study of the blood, etc., Dr. Wallace 
DeWitt, Lieutenant in command of the Army detail, rendered 
valuable aid. Dr. DeWitt likewise co-operated in all possible 
ways during his stay in New Haven to maintain the integrity 
of the conditions necessarily imposed on the soldier detail in 
an experiment of this character. 

Further, acknowledgments are due the several non-com- 
missioned officers of the Hospital Corps for their intelligent 
co-operation and interest. Finally, to the men of the Hospital 
Corps who volunteered for the experiment, our thanks are due 
for their cheerful compliance with the many restrictions placed 
upon them during their six months' sojourn in New Haven, 
and for the manly way in which they conducted themselves 
under conditions not always agreeable. 

To the students of the University who volunteered as sub- 
jects of experiment our acknowledgments are due for their 
intelligent co-operation, keen interest, and hearty compliance 
with the conditions imposed. 



ACE 



THERE is no subject of greater physiological importance, or 
of greater moment for the welfare of the human race, than 
the subject of nutrition. How best to maintain the body in 
a condition of health and strength, how to establish the high- 
est degree of efficiency, both physical and mental, with the 
least expenditure of energy, are questions in nutrition that 
every enlightened person should know something of, and yet 
even the expert physiologist to-day is in an uncertain frame 
of mind as to what constitutes a proper dietary for different 
conditions of life and different degrees of activity. We hear 
on all sides widely divergent views regarding the needs of the 
body, as to the extent and character of the food requirements, 
contradictory statements as to the relative merits of animal 
and vegetable foods ; indeed, there is great lack of agreement 
regarding many of the fundamental questions that constantly 
arise in any consideration of the nutrition of the human body. 
Especially is this true regarding the so-called dietary standards, 
or the food requirements of the healthy adult. Certain general 
standards have been more or less widely adopted, but a careful 
scrutiny of the conditions under which the data were collected 
leads to the conclusion that the standards in question have a 
very uncertain value, especially as we see many instances of 
people living, apparently in good physical condition, under a 
regime not at all in harmony with the existing standards. 

Especially do we need more definite knowledge of the true 
physiological necessities of the body for proteid or albuminous 
foods, i.e., those forms of foods that we are accustomed to 
speak of as the essential foods, since they are absolutely 
requisite for life. If our ideas regarding the daily quantities 
of these foods necessary for the maintenance of health and 



viii PREFACE 

strength are exaggerated, then a possible physiological economy 
is open to us, with the added possibility that health and vigor 
may be directly or indirectly increased. Further, if through 
years and generations of habit we have become addicted to 
the use of undue quantities of proteid foods, quantities way 
beyond the physiological requirements of the body, then we 
have to consider the possibility that this excess of daily food 
may be more or less responsible for many diseased conditions, 
which might be obviated by more careful observance of the 
true physiological needs of the body. 

First, however, we must have more definite information as 
to what the real necessities of the body for proteid food are, 
and this information can be obtained only by careful scientific 
experimentation under varying conditions. This has been 
the object of the present study, and the results obtained are 
now placed before the public with the hope that they will 
prove not only of scientific interest and value, but that they 
will also serve to arouse an interest in the minds of thought- 
ful people in a subject which is surely of primary importance 
for the welfare of mankind. That the physical condition of 
the body exercises an all-powerful influence upon the mental 
state, and that a man's moral nature even is influenced by his 
bodily condition are equally certain; hence, the subject of 
nutrition, when once it is fully understood and its precepts 
obeyed, bids fair to exert a beneficial influence not only upon 
bodily conditions, but likewise upon the welfare of mankind 
in many other directions. 

In presenting the results of the experiments, herein de- 
scribed, the writer has refrained from entering into lengthy 
discussions, preferring to allow the results mainly to speak 
for themselves. They are certainly sufficiently convincing 
and need no superabundance of words to give them value ; 
indeed, such merit as the book possesses is to be found in 
the large number of consecutive results, which admit of no 
contradiction and need no argument to enhance their value. 
The results presented are scientific facts, and the conclusions 
they justify are self-evident. 



CONTENTS 



Page 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v 

PREFACE vii 

INTRODUCTORY 1 

I. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH PROFESSIONAL MEN. 

Chittenden : Daily Record of Nitrogen Excretion, etc 24 

First Nitrogen Balance, with comparison of income and output, 

amount and character of the daily food 34 

Second Nitrogen Balance, with composition of daily food, etc. . 4-3 

Mendel : Daily Record of Nitrogen Excretion, etc 53 

First Nitrogen Balance, with comparison of income and output, 

amount and character of the daily food 60 

Second Nitrogen Balance, with composition of daily food, etc. . 67 

Underbill : Daily Record of Nitrogen Excretion, etc 79 

First Nitrogen Balance, with comparison of income and output, 

composition of the daily food, etc 87 

Second Nitrogen Balance, with composition of daily food, etc. . 93 

Dean : Daily Record of Nitrogen Excretion, etc 98 

Nitrogen Balance, with comparison of income and output, amount 

and character of the daily food 103 

Beers: Daily Record of Nitrogen Excretion, etc Ill 

First Nitrogen Balance, with comparison of income and output, 

amount and character of the daily food 114 

Second Nitrogen Balance, with composition of daily food, etc. . 121 

Summary of Results ; True Proteid Requirements 127 

II. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH VOLUNTEERS FROM THE HOSPITAL CORPS 
OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY. 

Description of the Men 134 

Daily Routine of Work 135 



x CONTENTS 

Page 
Daily Record of Nitrogen Excretion, etc., for each of the thirteen 

men under experiment 139 

Average Daily Output of Nitrogen 199 

Nitrogen Metabolized per kilo of Body- Weight 201 

Changes in Body- Weight during the Experiment 202 

First Nitrogen Balance, with comparison of income and output, 

amount and character of the daily food 203 

Second Nitrogen Balance, with composition of daily food, etc. . . 223 

Third Nitrogen Balance, with composition of daily food, etc. . . 242 

Summary regarding Nitrogen Requirement 254 

Physical Training of the Men Report by Dr. Anderson of the 

Yale Gymnasium 255 

Body Measurements 261 

Strength or Dynamometer Tests 262 

Comparison of the Total Strength of the Men at the beginning and 

end of the Experiment 274 

Reaction Time Experiments Report by Dr. Judd of the Yale 

Psychological Laboratory 27G 

Character and Composition of the Blood 283 

General Conclusions 285 

Daily Dietary of the Soldier Detail 288 



III. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH UNIVERSITY STUDENTS, TRAINED IN 
ATHLETICS. 

Consumption of Proteid Food by Athletes . . 327 

Description of the Men 329 

Daily Record of Nitrogen Excretion, etc., for each of the eight men 

under Experiment 332 

Average Daily Excretion of Metabolized Nitrogen 364 

Metabolized Nitrogen per kilo of Body- Weight 365 

Daily Diet Prescribed . 366 

Nitrogen Balance, with comparison of income and output, and 

amount and character of the daily food, etc 375 

The Physical Condition of the Men v 434 

Strength or Dynamometer Tests . . \ . . . - 436 

Report by Dr. Anderson of the Yale Gymnasium 439 

Reaction Time Report by Dr. Judd of the Yale Psychological 

Laboratory 442 

General Summary; True Physiological Requirements for Proteid 

Food . 454 



CONTENTS xi 

IV. 

THE SYSTEMIC VALUE OF -PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN 

NUTRITION. 

Page 

Diseases due to Perversion of Nutrition 455 

Waste Products of Proteid Metabolism may be Dangerous to Health 456 

Origin and Significance of Uric Acid 458 

Modification of Uric Acid Excretion by diminishing the amount of 

Proteid Food . . . . 463 

Tables showing Excretion of Uric Acid by the three groups of men 

under observation ; Uric Acid per kilo of Body- Weight, etc. . 467 

V. 

ECONOMIC AND SOCIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF THE RESULTS . 471 

VI. 
GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 474 

VII. 
DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIONS . 477 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY 
IN NUTRITION 

INTRODUCTORY 

A3 the result of many years of observation and experiment 
certain general conclusions have been arrived at regarding 
the requisite amounts of food necessary for the maintenance 
of health and strength. Certain dietary standards have been 
set up which have found more or less general acceptance in 
most parts of the civilized world ; standards which have been 
reinforced and added to by man's aptitude for self-indulgence. 
Carl Voit, of Munich, whose long and successful life as a 
student of Nutrition renders his conclusions of great value, 
considers that an adult man of average body-weight (70-75 
kilos) doing moderate muscular work requires daily 118 grams 
of proteid or albuminous food, of which 105 grams should be 
absorbable, 56 grams of fat, and 500 grams of carbohydrate, 
with a total fuel value of over 3000 large calories, in order 
to maintain the body in equilibrium. The Voit standard or 
daily diet is accepted more or less generally as representing 
the needs of the body under normal conditions of life, and 

NOTE. For the benefit of lay readers, metabolism, a word frequently made 
use of, may be defined as a term applied to the collective chemical changes 
taking place in living matter. When these metabolic changes are construc- 
tive, as iu the building up of tissue protoplasm from the absorbed food mate- 
rial, they are termed anabolic ; when they are destructive, as in the breaking 
down of living matter or in the decomposition of the materials stored up in 
the tissues and organs, they are termed katabolic. Proteid metabolism, or 
more exactly proteid katabolism, therefore, means the destructive decom- 
position of proteid or albuminous matter in the living body and is practically 
synonymous with nitrogenous metabolism, since the entire nitrogen income 
is mainly supplied by the proteids or albuminous matters of the food. The 
chief carbon income, on the other hand, is supplied by fats and carbohy- 
drates, such as starches and sugars. 

1 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



the conclusions arrived at by other investigators along these 
same lines have been more or less in accord with Voit's 
figures. In confirmation of this statement the following data 
may be quoted : 

AVERAGE DIETS. 





1 






a 




i 






1 


I 


1 


111 


! 




1 




S 


K 





W >3 


3 


OJ 







grams 


grams 


grams 


grams 


grams 


grams 


grams 


Proteid .... 


130 


100 


131 


134 


125 


114 


105 


Carbohydrates . 


550 


240 


494 


523 


400 


551 


641 


Fats 


40 


100 


68 


79 


125 


54 


63 


Fuel value (calo- 
















ries) || .... 


3160 


2324 


3195 


3436 


3315 


3229 


3235 



In many of these diets it is to be noted that the proteid 
requirement is placed at even a higher figure than Voit's 
standard. Similarly, Erisman, studying the diets of Russian 
workmen having a free choice of food and doing moderately 
hard work, found the daily diet to be composed of 131.8 grams 
of proteid, 79.7 grams of fat, and 583. o grams of carbohydrate, 
with a total fuel value of 3675 large calories. Further, Hult- 
gren and Landergren^T found that Swedish laborers doing hard 
work had as their daily diet 189 grams of proteid, 110 grams 
of fat, and 714 grams of carbohydrate, with a total fuel value 
of 4726 large calories. Voit found that German soldiers on 
active service consumed daily 145 grams of proteid, 100 grams 
of fat, and 500 grams of carbohydrate, with a total fuel value 



* Die Ernahrung des Menschen. Munich, 1876. 

t Untersuchungen u. d. Ernahr. schwedischer Arbeiter. Stockholm, 1891. 

t Ein Beitrag zur Lehre vom Eiweissbedarf des gesunden Menschen. 
Pfliiger's Archiv f. d. gesammte Physiologic. Band 48, p. 578. 

D. Militararztl. Zeitschr., 1901, p. 622. Quoted by Hirschf eld, Archiv. f. 
Physiologic, 1903, p. 381. 

|| Large calories, or kilogram-degree units of heat. 

T Jahresbericht filr Thierchemie, 1891, p. 300. The figures given in the 
above table represent the diet for men doing a moderate amount of work. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 3 

of 3574 large calories. Lichtenfelt,* studying the nutrition 
of Italians, states that an Italian laborer doing a moderate 
amount of work requires 110.5 grams of proteid and a total 
fuel value for the daily food of 2698 calories, while at hard 
labor he needs 146 grams of proteid daily, with carbohydrates 
and fat sufficient to give 3088 large calories. In our own 
country Atwater,f who has made many valuable observations 
upon the dietetic habits of different classes of people and 
under different conditions of life, has stated that a somewhat 
more liberal allowance of proteid would seem desirable, say 
125 grams, with a total fuel value of 3500 large calories for a 
man doing severe muscular labor. 

In what is perhaps the latest book on alimentation, Armand 
Gautier,:}: writing of the French people, states that the ordi- 
nary man in that climate needs daily 110 grams of albumi- 
nous food, 68 grams of fat, and about 423 grams of amylaceous 
or saccharine food. It is possible, however, says Gautier, 
that the quantity of albuminous food can be reduced, if 
necessary, to 78 grams per day in case a man is not doing 
work and takes in addition at least 50 grams of fat and 485 
grams of carbohydrate food. Where, however, an individual 
works eight to ten hours a day, the ration, says Gautier, must 
be increased to at least 135 grams of albuminous food, with 
85 to 100 grams of fat, and with from 500 to 900 grams of 
starchy food. 

While these figures may be taken as showing quite con- 
clusively the dietetic standards adopted by mankind, there is 
no evidence whatever that they represent the real needs or 
requirements of the body. We may even question whether 
simple observation of the kinds and amounts of food consumed 
by different classes of people under different conditions of life 
have any very important bearing upon this question. They 



* Ueber die Ernahrung der Italiener. Ffliiger's Archiv. f. d. gesammte 
Physiologie, Band 99, p. 1 (1903). 

t Bulletin No. 40. United States Department of Agriculture, p. 63. 

J L'Alimentation et les Re'gimes chez 1'Houame sain et chez les Malades, 
Paris, 1904. 



4 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

throw light upon dietetic habits, it is true, but such observa- 
tions give no information as to how far the- diets in question 
serve the real needs of the body. We may find, for example, 
that under certain given conditions of diet the people in ques- 
tion have the appearance of being well nourished, and that 
they do their work with apparent ease and comfort ; but might 
not these same results follow with smaller amounts of food? 
If so, there must of necessity be a certain amount of physio- 
logical economy under the more restricted diet, and a conse- 
quent ultimate gain to the body through diminished wear and 
tear of the bodily machinery. 

Indeed, experimental work and observations scattered 
through the last few years have suggested the possibility 
of much lower standards of diet sufficing to meet the real 
physiological needs of the body. Thus, Hirschfeld,* in 1887, 
found in experimenting on himself (24 years of age and 
weighing 73 kilos) that it was possible to maintain nitrogen 
equilibrium on a diet containing only 5 to 7.5 grams of nitro- 
gen per day, or 35 to 45 grams of proteid, for a period of ten 
to fifteen days. The amount of non-nitrogenous food con- 
sumed, however, was fairly large, especially the amount of 
butter, frequently 100 grams a day the average fuel, value 
ranging from 3750 to 3916 large calories daily. In 1888 
Hirschfeld,f again experimenting on himself, maintained nitro- 
gen equilibrium for several days on 7.5 grams of nitrogen per 
day, with fats and carbohydrate sufficient to yield a total fuel 
value of 3462 large calories as the daily average. The chief 
criticism of Hirschfeld' s experiments is that he failed to obtain 
in all cases definite analytical data of the food-stuffs employed 
and failed to determine the nitrogen of the faeces. Still his 
results are of value as indicating the possibility of maintaining 
nitrogenous equilibrium for a brief time at least on a low 
proteid intake. 



* Untersuchungen Uber den Eiweissbedarf des Menschen. Pfliiger's Archiv 
f. die gesamnite Physiologic. Band 41, p. 533. 

t Beitrage zur Ernalirungslehre des Menschen. Virchow's Archiv fur 
pathol. Anat. u. Physiol. Band 114, p. 811. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 5 

Kumagawa, * studying especially the diet of the Japanese 
and experimenting on himself (27 years old and weighing 48 
kilos), found with a purely vegetable diet, containing per day 
54.7 grams of proteid, 2.5 grams of fat, and 569.8 grams of 
carbohydrate, that he showed for a period of nine days a plus 
balance of nitrogen, indicating that his body was laying on 
about 4 grams of proteid per day. The nitrogen excreted per 
urine and faeces amounted to 8.09 grams per day, while the 
nitrogen in the daily food amounted to 8.75 grams. It is 
interesting to observe in these experiments, as indicating the 
degree of absorption of the vegetable food (composed in large 
measure of rice) that the daily average of nitrogen in the 
urine amounted to 6.069 grams and in the fasces 2.029 grams. 
In other words, of the 54.7 grams of nitrogen-containing food 
only 37.8 grams were absorbed, 12.69 grams passing out with 
the faeces. The total fuel value of the absorbed food per day 
was 2478 large calories. Similarly, Hirschfeld f has called 
attention to the fact that with many vegetable foods espe- 
cially, not more than 75 per cent of the ingested proteid can 
be digested and absorbed, thus emphasizing the necessity of 
paying heed to the character of the proteid food in considering 
the nutritive value of a given diet. 

In some experiments reported by C. Voit | in 1889, on the 
diet of vegetarians, E. Voit and Constantinidi found that 
nitrogenous equilibrium was established in one man with 
about 8 grams of nitrogen, corresponding to 48.5 grams of 
proteid as the daily diet, with large amounts of starchy foods 
and some fat. Similarly, Nakahama in the same year, study- 
ing the diet (mostly vegetable) and nutritive condition of 
thirteen German laborers in Leipzig, found that their daily 

* Vergleichende Untersuehungen iiber die Ernahrung mit gemisehter und 
rein vegetablischer Kost mit Beriieksichtigung des Eiweissbedarfes. Virchow's 
Archiv fur pathol. Anat. u. Physiol. Band 116, p. 370. 

t Die Ernahrungder Soldaten vom physiologischen und volkswirthschaf tli- 
clien Standpunkt. Achiv f. Physiologic 1903, p. 380. 

J Ueber die Kost eines Vegetariers. Zeitschr. f. Biologie. Band 25, p. 261. 

Ueber den Eiweissbedarf des Erwachsenen mit Beriicksichtigung der 
Bekiistigung in Japan. Archiv f. Hygiene. Band 8, p. 78. 



6 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

food contained on an average 85 grams of proteid, but Carl 
Voit criticising these results states that the men were of 
comparatively light body-weight about 60 kilos and not 
well nourished. 

Kellner and Mori,* studying the nutrition of a Japanese 
(weighing 52 kilos and 23 years of age) state that on a purely 
vegetable diet containing 11.34 grams of nitrogen, of which 
only 8.58 grams were digested, there was a distinct loss of 
body-weight, with a daily loss to the body of 1.16 grams of 
nitrogen. On a mixed diet, however,- containing fish, it was 
possible to establish nitrogenous equilibrium with a daily diet 
containing 17.48 grams of nitrogen, of which 15.27 grams 
were digested and utilized. Similarly, Caspari, f 29 years 
old and weighing 66.2 kilos, found that while he could main- 
tain his body in nitrogenous equilibrium on 1>3.26 grams of 
nitrogen per day, he could not accomplish it on 10.1 grams 
of nitrogen, though his daily food contained 3200 large 
calories. 

Other investigators, however, have found no great difficulty 
in establishing nitrogenous equilibrium in man with much 
lower quantities of proteid food. Thus, Klemperer found 
in the case of two young men of 64 and 65.5 kilos body- weight 
respectively, in an experiment lasting eight days, that nitrog- 
enous equilibrium was established on 4.38 and 3.58 grams of 
nitrogen per day, but with a daily diet containing in addition 
to the small amount of proteid 264 grams of fat, 470.4 grams 
of carbohydrate, and 172 grains of alcohol, with a total fuel 
value of 5020 large calories. 

Peschel, too, has reported experimental results showing 
that he was able to establish nitrogenous equilibrium for a 



* Untersuchungen ttber die Ernahrung der Japaner. Zeitschr. f. Biologic. 
Band 25, p. 102. 

t Ein Beitrag zur Frage der Ernahrung bei verringerter Eiweisszufuhr. 
Archiv f. Physiologie, Jahrgang 1901, p. 323. 

t Untersuchungen iiber Stoffwechsel und Ernahrung in Krankheiten. 
Zeitschr. f. klin. Medizin. Band 16, p. 550 

Untersuchungen iiber den Eiweissbedarf des gesunden Menschen. Ber- 
lin, 1891. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 7 

brief period with 7 grams of nitrogen daily, 5.31 grams ap- 
pearing in the urine and 1.58 grains in the fyeces. 

Caspari and Glaessner,* in a five-days' experiment with two 
vegetarians, found that the wife consumed daily, on an average, 
5.33 grams of nitrogen, with fats and carbohydrates to equal 
2715 calories, while the man took in 7.82 grams of nitrogen 
and 4559 calories. Both persons laid on nitrogen in spite of 
the low intake of proteid food. 

Siven's f experiments, however, are perhaps worthy of more 
careful consideration. Of 60 kilos body-weight and 30| 
years of age, his experiments conducted on himself extended 
through vtlijr-ty-two days with establishment of nitrogenous 
equilibrium on 6.26 grams of nitrogen. Moreover, in another 
experiment he was in nitrogen equilibrium for a day or two 
at least on 4.5 grains of nitrogen. In Siven's experiment, the 
most noticeable feature is the added fact that the total intake 
of food per day was comparatively low, with a fuel value of 
only 2444 large calories. In this connection we may call 
attention to the recent experiments of Landergren4 who 
found with four individuals fed on a daily diet containing 
only 2.1 to 2.4 grains of nitrogen, but with a large amount of 
carbohydrate, some fat and alcohol, that on the fourth day 
of this " specific nitrogen hunger " only 3 to 4 grams of nitro- 
gen were metabolized and appeared in the urine. In other 
words, a healthy adult man having a sufficient intake of non- 
nitrogenous food seemingly need not metabolize more proteid 
than suffices to yield 3 to 4 grams of nitrogen per day. 

Such data as these, of which many more might be quoted, 
surely warrant the question, how far are we justified in as- 
suming the necessity for the rich proteid diet called for by 
the Voit standard ? Voit, however, with many other physiol- 



* Ein Stoffwechselversuch an Vegetarianern. Biocliemisches Ccntralblatt 
Band 2, p. 144 (1903). 

t Ueber das Stickstoffgleichgewicht beim erwachsenen Menschen. Skan- 
dinavisches Archiv f. Physiol. Band 10, p. 91. 

t Untersuchungen liber die Eiweissumsetzung des Menschen. Skandina- 
visehes Archiv f. Physiol. Band 14, p. 121 (1903). 



8 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

ogists would apparently object to any diminution of the daily 
118 grains of proteid for the moderate worker, on the ground 
that an abundance of proteid in the food is a necessity for the 
maintenance of physical vigor and muscular activity. This 
view is certainly reinforced by the customs and habits of 
mankind ; but we may well query whether our dietetic habits 
will bear criticism, and in the light of modern scientific in- 
quiry we may even express doubt as to whether a rich proteid 
diet adds anything to our muscular energy or bodily strength. 

How far can our natural instinct be trusted in the choice of 
diet? We are all creatures of habit, and our palates are 
pleasantly excited by the rich animal foods with their high 
content of proteid, and we may well question whether our 
dietetic habits are not based more upon the dictates of our 
palates than upon scientific reasoning or true physiological 
needs. There is a prevalent opinion that to be well nourished 
the body must have a large excess of fat deposited throughout 
the tissues, and that all bodily ills and weaknesses are to be 
met and combated by increased intake of food. There is 
constant temptation to increase the daily ration, and there is 
almost universal belief in the efficacy of a rich and abundant 
diet to strengthen the body and to increase bodily and mental 
vigor. Is there any justification for these beliefs? None, 
apparently, other than that which comes from the customs 
of generations of high living. 

It is self-evident that the smallest amount of food that will 
serve to keep the body in a state of high efficiency is physio- 
logically the most economical, and hence the best adapted for 
the needs of the organism. -Any excess over and above what 
is really needed is not only uneconomical, but may be directly 
injurious. This is especially true of the proteid or albumi- 
nous foods. It is, however, quite proper to question whether 
a brief experiment of a few days in which nitrogenous equi- 
librium is perhaps established at the low level of 4 to 5 grams 
of nitrogen, the equivalent of 25 to 35 grams of proteid, is to be 
accepted as fixing the daily requirements of the healthy man, 
offsetting the customs or habits of a lifetime. Voit himself, 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 9 

however, has clearly emphasized the general principle that 
the smallest amount of proteid, with non-nitrogenous food 
added, that will suffice to keep the body in a state of continual 
vigor is the ideal diet. Proteid decomposition products are a 
constant menace to the well-being of the body; any quantity of 
proteid or albuminous food beyond the real requirements of the 
body may prove distinctly injurious. We see the evil effects 
of uric acid in gout, but there are many other nitrogenous 
waste products of proteid katabolism, which with excess of 
proteid food are liable to be unduly conspicuous in the fluids 
and tissues of the body, and may do more or less damage 
prior to their excretion through the kidneys. Further, it 
requires no imagination to understand the constant strain 
upon the liver and kidneys, to say nothing of possible influ- 
ence upon the central and peripheral parts of the nervous 
system, by these nitrogenous waste products which the body 
ordinarily gets rid of as speedily as possible. They are an 
ever present evil, but why increase them unnecessarily ? This 
question brings us back to the starting-point. What is the 
minimal proteid requirement for the healthy man, or rather, 
how far can we safely and advantageously diminish our 
proteid intake below the commonly accepted standards? 

The question of safety is a pertinent one. Thus, Munk * 
some years ago (1893) sounded a warning on this point which 
was later confirmed by Rosenheim.f Both of these observers 
reported that in dogs fed for some time on a low proteid diet, 
but with an abundance of carbohydrate and fat, there was 
after some weeks (6-8) a loss of the power of absorption from 
the alimentary tract, dependent not alone upon a changed 
condition of the epithelial cells of the intestine, but also upon 
a diminished secretion of the digestive juices, loss of body- 
weight, strength, and vigor, followed speedily by death. If 



* Ueber die Folgen einer ausreichenden, aber eiweissarmen Nahrung. Ein 
Beitrag zur Lehre vom Eiweissbedarf. Virchow's Archiv fur pathol. Anat. u. 
Physiol. Band 132, p. 91. 

t Weitere Untersuchungen iiber die Schadlichkeit eiweissarmer Nahrung. 
Pfliiger's Archiv f. die gesammte Physiol. Band 54, p. 61. 



10 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

these results were really due to the low proteid diet, they 
suggest a grave danger which must not be lightly passed by. 
Jagerroos * has likewise observed, experimenting on dogs, 
that there was, after some months, a striking disturbance of 
the intestines on a low proteid intake, which, however, was 
eventually traced to a distinct infection, and probably in no 
manner connected with the diminished amount of proteid in 
the diet. In these various experiments on dogs carried out 
by Munk, Roseuheim, and by Jagerroos, there was of neces- 
sity great monotony in the diet, and in Munk's experiments 
no fresh meat at all was fed, but simply dried food. In other 
words, if the diet was in any sense responsible for the poor 
health of the animals, it is fully as plausible to attribute the 
results to the abnormal conditions under which the animals 
were kept as to any specific effect due to the low proteid in- 
take. It is very essential that the food of dogs, as of men, 
shall fulfil all ordinary hygienic conditions. It must be not 
only of sufficient quantity for the true needs of the body, but 
it should also have the necessary variety with reasonable de- 
gree of digestibility, and proper volume or bulk. When 
these qualities are lacking, it is not strange if deviations from 
the normal gradually develop. That the low intake of proteid 
food could be responsible for the condition existing in Munk's 
and Rosenheim's experiments is not plausible ; a view which 
is strongly reinforced by many observations, notably those of 
Albu f on a woman thirty-seven years old and weighing 37.5 
kilos, who had followed a vegetarian diet for six years, and 
who while under Albu's care for two years consumed only 
34 grams of proteid per day, the total fuel value of the food 
being only 1400 calories per day. This woman was in nitro- 
genous equilibrium on 5.4 grams of nitrogen, and on this diet 
had freed herself from the illness to which she had long been 
subject. 

* Ueber die Folgen einer ausreichcnden, aber eiweissarmen Nahrung. Skan- 
dinavisches Arc-hiv f. Physiol. Band 13, p. 375. 

t Zur Bewertung der vegetarischen Dial. Berliner klin. Wochenschr. 
1901. p. 647 and 670. See also, Albu, die vegetarishe Diat. Leipzig, 1902. 
p. 65. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 11 

Volt's * vegetarian is described by Voit himself as a man 
twenty-eight years old, weighing 57 kilos, well nourished, 
with well developed muscles, etc. He had lived on a purely 
vegetable diet for three years, and was found to be in ni- 
trogenous equilibrium on 8.2 grams of nitrogen. No men- 
tion is made of any disagreeable effects connected with this 
low proteid ration, although persisted in for several years. 
Jaffa's f experiments and observations on the fruitarians and 
nutarians of California " showed in every case (two women 
and three children) that though the diet had a low protein 
and energy value, the subjects were apparently in excellent 
health and had been so during the five to eight years they had 
been living in this manner." In comparing the income and 
outgo of nitrogen on a diet composed mainly of nuts and 
fruits, it was observed in two subjects that 8 grams of nitro- 
gen were sufficient to bring about nitrogen equilibrium, while 
with two other subjects on a like diet the nitrogen required 
daily for equilibrium was about 10 grams. The diet used in 
these experiments, however, was of necessity more or less 
restricted in variety, and was without doubt somewhat monot- 
onous. Jaffa appears to agree with Caspari that the minimum 
amount of proteid required daily varies with the individual, 
and may even vary with the same individual at different 
times. Further, Jaffa, in .harmony with Siven, believes that 
after the body has suffered a loss of nitrogen, there is at once 
an effort to attain nitrogenous equilibrium, and that any gain 
of nitrogenous body material is a comparatively slow process. 
If this is true, it is obvious that the living substance of the 
tissue protoplasm must be slowly formed from the proteid of 
the diet. This, says Jaffa, should serve as a warning to any- 
one contemplating any appreciable decrease in the proteid of 
the daily diet. 

Another statement made by Jaffa may be quoted in this 

* See Zeitschr. f. Biologic. Band 25, p. 255. 

t Further Investigations among Fruitarians at the California Agricultural 
Experiment Station. 1901-1902. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Bulletin 
No. 132. 



12 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

connection, since it illustrates the attitude taken by many 
physiologists on this question. " Even if it could be proved," 
says Jaffa, " by a large number of experiments that nitrogen 
equilibrium can be maintained on a small amount of protein, 
it would still be a great question whether or not it would be 
wise to do so. There must certainly be a constant effort on 
the part of the human organism to attain this condition, and 
with a low protein supply it might be forced to do so under 
conditions of strain. In such a case the bad results might be 
slow in manifesting themselves, but might also be serious and 
lasting. It has also been suggested that when li ving at a fairly 
high protein level the body is more resistant to disease and 
other strains than when the protein level is low." While these 
suggestions demand careful consideration, it is equally evident 
that there is another side to the question, viz., the possible 
danger to the body from the physiological action of the larger 
amounts of nitrogenous waste products which result from an 
excess of proteid food, and which float about through the 
system prior to their excretion. In addition, we must not 
overlook the great loss of energy to the body in handling and 
getting rid of the surplus of unnecessary food of whatever kind 
introduced into the alimentary tract, to say nothing of the 
danger of intestinal putrefaction and toxaemia when from any 
cause the system loses its ability to digest and absorb the excess 
of food consumed. Further, the possible strain on the kidneys 
and other organs must not be overlooked. Hence we may 
well query on which side lies the greater danger. To an 
unprejudiced observer, one not wedded to old-time tradition, 
it would seem as if great effort was being made to sustain the 
claims of a high-proteid intake. It is surely well to be care- 
ful, but it is certainly not necessary to magnify imaginary 
dangers to the extent of suppressing all efforts toward the 
establishment of possible physiological economy. 

In a paper read before the Physiological Section of the 
British Medical Association in 1901 by Dr. van Someren, 
claim is made of the existence of a reflex of deglutition, the 
proper working of which protects from the results of mal- 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 13 

nutrition by preventing the intake of any excess of food. 
Thorough mastication and insalivation aid in the more com- 
plete utilization of the food and render possible great economy, 
so that body-weight and nitrogen equilibrium are both main- 
tained on an exceptionally small amount of food. This 
principle had been worked out by Mr. Horace Fletcher on 
himself in an attempt to restore his health to a normal con- 
dition, with such beneficial results that he was speedily 
restored to a state of exceptional vigor and well-being. De- 
liberation in eating, necessitated by the habit of thorough 
insalivation, it is claimed results in the occurrence of satiety 
on the ingestion of comparatively small amounts of food, and 
hence all excess of food is avoided. 

In the autumn of 1901, Mr. Fletcher and Dr. van Someren 
visited the physiological laboratories of Cambridge University, 
and as stated by Sir Michael Foster * the matter was more 
closely inquired into with the assistance of physiological ex- 
perts. Observations were carried out on various individuals, 
and as stated by Professor Foster " the adoption of the habit 
of thorough insalivation of the food was found in a consensus 
of opinion to have an immediate and very striking effect upon 
appetite, making this more discriminating, and leading to the 
choice of a simple dietary, and in particular reducing the crav- 
ing for flesh food. The appetite, too, is beyond all question 
fully satisfied with a dietary considerably less in amount than 
with ordinary habits is demanded." ..." In two individuals 
who pushed the method to its limits it was found that complete 
bodily efficiency was maintained for some weeks upon a dietary 
which had a total energy value of less than one-half of that 
usually taken, and comprised little more than one-third of the 
proteid consumed by the average man." Finally, says Foster, 
" it may be doubted if continued efficiency could be main- 
tained with such low values as these, and very prolonged 
observations would be necessary to establish the facts. But 
all subjects of the experiments who applied the principles 

* See Horace Fletcher, The A-B-Z of our own Nutrition. (1903.) New 
York. p. 48. 



14 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

intelligently agreed in finding a very marked reduction in 
their needs, and experienced an increase in their sense of well- 
being and an increase in their working powers." 

In the autumn of 1902 and in the early part of 1903, Mr. 
Fletcher spent several months with the writer, thereby giving 
an opportunity for studying his habits of life. For a period 
of thirteen days in January he was under constant observation 
in the writer's laboratory, when it was found that the average 
daily amount of proteid metabolised was 41.25 grams, his 
body-weight (75 kilos) remaining practically constant. Later, 
a more thorough series of observations was made, involving a 
careful analysis of the daily diet, together with analysis of the 
excreta. For a period of six days the daily diet averaged 
44.9 grams of proteid, 38.0 grams of fat, and 253 grams of car- 
bohydrate, the total fuel value amounting to only 1606 large 
calories per day. The daily intake of nitrogen averaged 7.19 
grams, while the daily output through the urine was 6.30 
grams and in the fseces 0.6 gram ; i. e., a daily intake of 
7.19 grams of nitrogen, with a total output of 6.90 grams, 
showing a daily gain to the body of 0.29 gram of nitrogen,, 
and this on a diet containing less than half the proteid re- 
quired by the Voit standard and having only half the fuel 
value of the Voit diet. Further, it was found by careful and 
thorough tests made at the Yale Gymnasium that Mr. Fletcher, 
in spite of this comparatively low ration was in prime physical 
condition. In the words of Dr. Anderson, the Director of the 
Gymnasium, "the case is unusual, and I am surprised that 
Mr. Fletcher can do the work of trained athletes and not give 
marked evidences of over-exertion. . . . Mr. Fletcher per- 
forms this work with greater ease and with fewer noticeable 
bad results than any man of his age and condition I have ever 
worked with." * It is not our purpose here to discuss how 
far these results are due to insalivation, or the more thorough 
mastication of food. The main point for us is that we have 
here a striking illustration of the establishment of nitrogen 

* Fora fuller account of this study, see Chittenden, Physiological Economy 
in Nutrition. Popular Science Monthly, June, 1903. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 15 

equilibrium on a low proteid diet and great physiological 
economy as shown by the low fuel value of the food consumed, 
coupled with remarkable physical strength and endurance. 

With data such as these before us we see the possible im- 
portance of a fuller and more exact knowledge of true dietary 
standards. We find here questions suggested, the answers to 
which are of primary importance in our understanding of the 
nutritive processes of the body; greater ease in the main- 
tenance of health, increased power of resistance to disease 
germs, duration of life increased beyond the present average, 
greater physiological economy and greater efficiency, increased 
mental and physical vigor with less expenditure of energy on 
the part of the body. All these questions rise before us in 
connection with the possibility of maintaining equilibrium 
on a lowered intake of food, especially nitrogenous equi- 
librium, with a diminished consumption of proteid or albumi- 
nous food. Is it not possible that the accepted dietary standards 
are altogether too high ? 

It is of course understood that there can be no fixed dietary 
standard suitable for all people, ages, and conditions of life. 
Dietary standards at the best are merely an approximate in- 
dication of the amounts of food needed by the body, but these 
needs -are obviously changeable, varying with the degree of 
activity of the body, especially the amount of physical work 
performed, to say nothing of differences in body-weight, sex, 
etc. Further, it is doubtless true that there is what may be 
called a specific coefficient of nutrition characteristic of the 
individual, a kind of personal idiosyncrasy which exercises in 
some degree a modifying influence upon the character and 
extent of the changes going on in the body. Still, with due 
recognition of the general influence exerted by these various 
factors the main question remains, viz., how far the usually 
accepted standards of diet are correct ; or, in other words, is 
there any real scientific ground for the assumption that the 
average individual doing an average amount of work requires 
any such quantity of proteid, or of total nutrients, as the ordi- 
nary dietetic standards call for? Cannot all the real phy- 



16 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

siological needs of the body be met by a greatly reduced 
proteid intake, with establishment of continued nitrogenous 
equilibrium on a far smaller amount of proteid food than the 
ordinary dietary standards call for, and with actual gain to 
the body? 

Just here we may emphasize why prominence is given to 
the establishment of nitrogenous equilibrium, and why the 
proteid intake assumes a greater importance than the daily 
amounts of fat and carbohydrate consumed. Fats and car- 
bohydrates when oxidized in the body are ultimately burned 
to simple gaseous products, viz., carbonic acid and water. 
Hence, these waste products are easily and quickly elimin- 
ated and cannot exercise much deleterious influence even 
when formed in excess. To be sure, there is waste of energy 
in digesting, absorbing, and oxidizing the fats and carbohy- 
drates when they are taken in excessive amounts. Once in- 
troduced into the alimentary canal they must be digested, 
otherwise they will clog the intestine or undergo fermenta- 
tion, and so cause trouble. Further, when absorbed they may 
be transformed into fat and deposited in the various tissues and 
organs of the body ; a process desirable up to a certain point, 
but undesirable when such accumulation renders the body 
gross and unwieldy. With proteid foods, on the other hand, 
the story is quite different. These substances, when oxidized, 
yield a row of crystalline nitrogenous products which ulti- 
mately pass out of the body through the kidneys. Prior to their 
excretion, however, these products frequently spoken of as 
toxins float about through the body and may exercise more 
or less of a deleterious influence upon the system, or, being 
temporarily deposited, may exert some specific or local influ- 
ence that calls for their speedy removal. Hence, the impor- 
tance of restricting the production of these bodies to the 
minimal amount, owing to their possible physiological effect 
and the part they are liable to play in the causation of many 
diseased conditions. Further, the elimination of excessive 
amounts of these crystalline nitrogenous bodies through the 
kidneys places upon these organs an unnecessary burden which 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 17 

is liable to endanger their integrity and possibly result in seri- 
ous injury, to say nothing of an early impairment of function. 

The present experiments were undertaken to throw light 
upon this broad question of a possible physiological economy 
in nutrition, and with special reference to the minimal proteid 
requirement of the healthy man under ordinary conditions of 
life. The writer as a student of physiology has always main- 
tained that man is disposed to eat far more than the needs of 
the body require, but his active interest in this problem was 
aroused especially by his observations of Mr. Fletcher and the 
marked physiological economy the latter was able to practice, 
not only without detriment, but apparently with great gain to 
the body as regards strength, vigor, and endurance, coupled 
with an apparent resistance to disease. While Mr. Fletcher 
and Dr. Van Someren would doubtless emphasize the impor- 
tance of insalivation as a means of controlling the appetite and 
thereby regulating the consumption of food in harmony with 
the real needs of the body, it is of primary importance for the 
physiologist and for mankind to know definitely how far it is 
possible to reduce the intake of food with perfect safety and 
without- loss of that strength, mental and physical, vigor, and 
endurance which are characteristic of good health. Further, 
it is equally plain that if there is possible gain to the body 
from a practice of physiological economy in diet, we should 
know how far this can be accomplished by simple restriction 
in the amount of food without complicating the problem by 
other factors. 

In planning the conduct of this series of experiments the 
writer has clearly recognized that, while it may be possible, as 
previous experiments have shown, to maintain body equilib- 
rium and nitrogen equilibrium on a low proteid diet for a 
brief period, this fact does not, as Munk has previously 
pointed out, by any means establish the view that such a diet 
will prove efficient in maintaining equilibrium for a long 
period, or that bodily strength and vigor can be kept up and 
the proper resistance to disease secured. Hence, it seemed 



18 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

necessary to so arrange the experiments that they should con- 
tinue not for a few days or weeks merely, but through months 
and years. Further, it is very questionable whether the re- 
stricted diet (restricted in variety) frequently made use of for 
convenience in ordinary metabolism experiments is well adapted 
for bringing out the best results. Hence, it was decided to 
avoid so far as possible any monotony of diet, giving due rec 
ognition to the psychical influences liable to affect secretion, 
digestion, etc., so admirably worked out by Pawlow in his 
classical experiments on these subjects ; influences which are 
unquestionably of great importance in controlling and modi- 
fying, in some measure at least, the nutritive changes in the 
body. Again, it is evident that to have experiments of this 
character broadly useful, they must be tried upon a large 
number of people and under different conditions of life, in 
order to avoid so far as possible the influence of personal 
idiosyncrasy and thereby escape misleading conclusions. 

The experiments have been conducted with three distinct 
types or classes of individuals : 

1st. A group of five men of varying ages, connected with 
the University as professors and instructors ; men who while 
leading active lives have not engaged in very active muscular 
work. They were selected as representatives of the mental 
worker rather than the physical worker, although several of 
them in the performance of their daily duties had to be on 
their feet in the laboratory a good portion of the day. 

2d. A detail of thirteen men, volunteers from the Hospital 
Corps of the United States Army and representatives of the 
moderate worker ; men who for a period of six months took 
each week day a vigorous amount of systematic exercise in the 
gymnasium, in addition to the routine work connected with 
their daily life as members of the United States Hospital 
Corps. These men were of different nationalities, ages, and 
temperaments. 

3d. A group of eight young men, students in the Univer- 
sity, all thoroughly trained athletes, and some of them with 
exceptional records in athletic events. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 19 

I. EXPERIMENTS WITH PROFESSIONAL MEN. 

Before preceding with a detailed account of the experimen- 
tal work, it may be well again to emphasize that what is es- 
pecially desired is to ascertain how far, if any, the intake of 
proteid food can be diminished without detriment to the body, 
i. e., with maintenance of nitrpgen and body equilibrium and 
without impairment of bodily and mental vigor. Further, if 
a lower proteid standard than that generally adopted can be 
established, it is desirable to ascertain whether it can be main- 
tained indefinitely, or for a long period of time, without loss 
of strength and vigor. Obviously, it is of primary importance 
that we should know quite definitely what the minimal proteid 
requirement of the healthy man per kilo of body-weight really 
is, and the experimental work about to be detailed has aimed 
especially to determine whether it is possible to materially 
lower the amount of daily proteid food, without detriment to 
the bodily health and with maintenance of physical and mental 
vigor. 

The writer, fully impressed with his responsibility in the 
conduct of an experiment of this kind, began with himself in 
November, 1902. At that time he weighed 65 kilos, was 
nearly 47 years of age, and accustomed to eating daily an 
amount of food approximately equal to the so-called dietary 
standards. Recognizing that the habits of a lifetime should 
not be too suddenly changed, a gradual reduction was made in 
the amount of proteid or albuminous food taken each day. 
In the writer's case, this resulted in the course of a month or 
two in the complete abolition of breakfast, except for a small 
cup of coffee. A light lunch was taken at 1.30 p. M., followed 
by a heavier dinner at 6.30 p. M. Occasionally, however, the 
heartier meal was taken at noontime, as the appetite suggested. 
It should be added that the total intake of food was gradually 
diminished, as well as the proteid constituents. There was 
no change, however, to a vegetable diet, but a simple introduc- 
tion of physiological economy. Still, there was and is now a 
distinct tendency toward the exclusion of meat in some metis- 



20 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

ure, the appetite not calling for this form of food in the same 
degree as formerly. At first, this change to a smaller amount 
of food daily was attended with some discomfort, but this soon 
passed away, and the writer's interest in the subject was aug- 
mented by the discovery that he was unquestionably in im- 
proved physical condition. A rheumatic trouble in the knee 
joint, which had persisted for a year and a half and which only 
partially responded to treatment, entirely disappeared (and has 
never recurred since). Minor troubles, such as " sick head- 
aches " and bilious attacks, no longer appeared periodically as 
before. There was greater appreciation of such food as was 
eaten ; a keener appetite and a more acute taste seemed to be 
developed, with a more thorough liking for simple foods. By 
June, 1903, the body- weight had fallen to 58 kilos. 

During the summer the same simple diet was persisted in 
a small cup of coffee for breakfast, a fairly substantial dinner 
at midday and a light supper at night. Two months were 
spent in Maine at an inland fishing resort, and during a part 
of this time a guide was dispensed with and the boat rowed 
by the writer frequently six to ten miles in a forenoon, some- 
times against head winds (without breakfast), and with much 
greater freedom from fatigue and muscular soreness than in 
previous years on a fuller dietary. The test of endurance and 
fitness for physical work which the writer thus carried out 
" on an empty stomach " tended to strengthen the opinion 
that it is a mistake to assume the necessity for a hearty meal 
because heavy work is about to be done. It is certainly far 
more rational from a physiological standpoint to leave the 
hearty meal until the day's work is accomplished. We seem- 
ingly forget that the energy of muscular contraction comes 
not from the food-stuffs present at the time in the stomach 
and intestinal tract, but rather from the absorbed material 
stored up in the muscles and which was digested and absorbed 
a day or two before. Further, it is to be remembered that the 
very process of digestion draws to the gastro-intestinal tract a 
large supply of blood, and that a large amount of energy is 
needed for the processes of secretion, digestion, absorption, and 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 21 

peristalsis, which are of necessity incited by the presence of 
food in the stomach and intestine, thereby actually diminish- 
ing the amount of energy available at the place where it is 
most needed. Why, then, draw upon the resources of the body 
just at a time, or slightly prior to the time, when the work we 
desire to perform, either muscular or mental, calls for a copious 
blood supply in muscle or brain, and when all available energy 
is needed for the task that is to be accomplished ? 

We are too wont to compare the working body with a ma- 
chine, the boiler, engine, etc., overlooking the fact that the 
animal mechanism differs from the machine in at least one im- 
portant respect. When we desire to set machinery in opera- 
tion we must get up steam, and so a fire is started under the 
boiler and steam is generated in proportion as fuel is burned. 
The source of the energy made use of in moving the machin- 
ery is the extraneous combustible material introduced into the 
fire-b^x, but the energy of muscular contraction, for example, 
comes not from the oxidizable food material in the stomach, 
but from the material of the muscle itself. In other words, in 
the animal body it is a part of the tissue framework, or mate- 
rial that is closely incorporated with the framework, that is 
burned up, and the ability to endure continued muscular strain 
depends upon the nutritive condition of the muscles involved, 
and not upon the amount of food contained in, or introduced 
into, the stomach. All physiologists will, I think, acknowledge 
the soundness of this reasoning, but how few of us apply the 
principle in practice. It is perfectly logical to begin the work 
of the day with a comparatively empty stomach, after we 
have once freed ourselves from the habit of a hearty breakfast, 
and in the writer's experience both mental and physical 
work have become the easier from this change of habit. The 
muscle and the brain are given opportunity to repair the waste 
they have undergone, by the taking of food at times when the 
digestive processes will not draw upon the energy that in 
activity is needed elsewhere. 

Further, it is easy to understand why on a restricted diet, 
especially of proteid foods, there should be a diminished sense 



22 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

of fatigue in connection with vigorous or continued muscular 
work, and why at the same time there should be an increased 
power of endurance, with actual increase of strength. With 
a diminished intake of proteid food there is a decreased for- 
mation of crystalline nitrogenous waste products, such as 
uric acid and the purin bases, to say nothing of other bodies 
less fully known, which circulating through the system are 
undoubtedly responsible, in part at least, for what we term 
fatigue. We need not consider here whether the sense of 
fatigue is due to an action of these substances upon the 
muscles themselves, upon the motor nerves or their end- 
plates, or upon the central nervous system ; it is enough for 
the present purpose to emphasize the probable results of their 
presence in undue amount. Lastly, we may emphasize what 
is pretty clearly evident to-day, viz., that the energy of mus- 
cular contraction comes preferably from the oxidation, not of 
the nitrogenous or proteid constituents of the muscles, but 
of the non-nitrogenous components of the tissue ; another 
reason why excess of proteid food may be advantageously 
avoided. Moreover, proteid food stimulates body metabolism 
in general, and hence undue amounts of proteid in the diet 
augment unnecessarily the metabolism or combustion of the 
non-nitrogenous material of the muscle, thereby destroying 
what would otherwise be preserved as a source of energy in 
muscular contraction, when the muscles are called upon for 
the performance of their daily functions. 

On the writer's return to New Haven in the fall of 1903, 
he was surprised to find that his body-weight was practically 
the same as early in July. In the period between November, 
1902, and July, 1903, the body had lost 8 kilos under the 
gradual change of diet, but from July to October, 1903, the 
weight had apparently remained stationary, from which it 
might fairly be assumed that the body had finally adjusted 
itself to the new conditions. 

What now was the condition of the body as regards nitro- 
gen metabolism ? To answer this question the entire twenty- 
four hours' urine was collected practically eveiy day, from 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 28 

October 13, 1903, to June 28, 1904, representing a period of 
nearly nine months. This daily output through the kidneys 
was analyzed each day with special reference to the total 
nitrogen,* as a measure of the amount of proteid material 
metabolized. Total volume of the urine, specific gravity, uric 
acid, phosphoric acid, indican, and other points were also 
considered, the more important results being indicated in the 
following tables. 



* All figures for nitrogen throughout the book, whether referring to food, 
urine, or faeces, were obtained by exact chemical analysis, using the Kjel- 
dahl-Gunning method. 

Uric acid was determined by the method of Folin, i.e., precipitation of 
the urine with ammonium sulphate, etc., and titration with potassium per- 
manganate. 

Phosphoric acid was estimated by titration with a standard uranium 
solution, using potassium ferrocyanide as an indicator. 

At times, as will be seen from the tables, nitrogen, uric acid, etc., were not 
determined in each day's urine. In such cases, an aliquot part of each twenty- 
four hours' urine was taken and the analyses made with the mixed samples 
for the given period, the figures thus obtained showing the average daily 
composition for that period. 



24 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
CHITTENDEN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grains 


gram 


grams 


Oct. 13 


57.5 


380 


1027 


6.46 


0.376 


1.10 


14 




660 


1027 


6.51 






15 




400 


1022 


5.40 


0.352 


1.02 


16 




600 


1027 


6.45 


. . . 




17 


57.4 


477 


1030 


6.40 






18 




670 


1027 


7.20 


0.406 


1.10 


19 




435 


1027 


6.13 






20 




465 


1028 


6.83 


0.476 


0.92 


21 


. 


460 


1029 


6.51 


. . . 




22 




465 


1027 


6.14 


0.370 


0.96 


27 




445 


1023 


5.62 


0.385 


0.79 


28 




405 


1027 


5.08 






Nov. 1 




390 


1029 


5.68 


0.372 


0.42 


2 




530 


1027 


6.33 






3 




470 


1027 


6.92 


0.412 


0.75 


4 




425 


1028 


5.88 






5 




375 


1029 


4.93 


0.330 


0.79 


7 




545 


1028 


6.57 


. . 




8 


57.4 


456 


1029 


5.82 


0.371 


0.65 


9 




415 


1027 


5.43 


. 




10 




615 


1025 


6.45 


0.430 


1.17 


11 




410 


1028 


4.80 






12 




580 


1026 


5.64 


0.371 


1.02 


13 




584 


1027 


6.82 






14 




605 


1029 


6.36 


. 


. 


15 




405 


1028 


6.80 


0.384 


0.73 


16 




425 


1027 


6.43 






17 




455 


1028 


5.27 


0.367 


0.76 


18 




675 


1027 


6.62 






19 




447 


1027 


5.34 


0.389 


0.77 


20 




480 


1029 


6.00 






21 


67.5 


400 


1029 


6.71 




. 


22 




382 


1029 


5.62 


0.379 


0.97 


23 


67.7 


350 


1029 


5.33 






24 




422 


1029 


6.43 


0.400 




25 


. . . 


435 


1030 


5.79 






26 


67.6 


445 


1030 


6.09 


0.430 


1.01 


27 


. . . 


430 


1030 


6.17 






29 


. . . 


454 


1027 


5.66 


0.420 


0.93 


30 




455 


1023 


5.56 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 25 
CHITTENDEN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


jjrama 


Dec. 1 




420 


1028 


5.31 


0.450 


0.92 


2 




465 


1027 


6.17 




. 


3 




430 


1027 


5.34 


0.350 


0.82 


4 




365 


1029 


4.77 


. . . 




5 




430 


1030 


5.83 




. 


6 




515 


1028 


5.90 


0.393 


1.08 


7 




400 


1028 


5.57 






8 




390 


1028 


4.99 


0.328 


1.02 


9 




405 


1030 


5.17 






10 


57.0 


370 


1026 


4.64 


0.308 


0.90 


11 


. . 


327 


1030 


4.65 


0.325 


1.11 


12 




390 


1027 


5.16 


0.346 


1.01 


13 




429 


1029 


5.66 


. 




14 




360 


1030 


4.84 


. 




15 




295 


1029 


4.32 


0.291 


0.82 


16 




445 


1029 


6.27 




. 


17 




390 


1032 


5.59 


0.358 


0.73 


18 




420 


1030 


5.62 




. 


19 




415 


1027 


5.03 






20 


57.5 


390 


1030 


5.71 


0.402 


0.78 


21 




360 


1023 


4.25 






22 




360 


1030 


5.13 


0.342 


0.79 


23 




400 


1031 


6.08 






24 




435 


1030 


6.44 


. 




25 




450 


1029 


5.13 


0.329 


0.77 


26 




465 




5.55 


... 




27 




470 


. . 


6.53 






28 




535 




8.18 


. 




29 




635 


. . . 


7.67 




. 


30 




656 




9.68 


. 




31 


57.6 


490 


1031 


7.61 


0.455 


0.92 


1904 














Jan. 1 




415 


1030 


6.41 


. 




2 




490 


1031 


6.56 






3 




460 


1030 


6.91 


0.319 


0.79 


4 


58.1 


430 


1030 


5.72 


. 


. 


5 




570 


1028 


6.36 


0.402 




6 




445 


1028 


5.68 


. 




7 




510 


1028 


5.91 


0.367 


0.99 


8 j . . . 


420 


1028 


5.37 







26 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
CHITTENDEN. 



Date 


Body- 


Urine. 




weight. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PjO s . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


gram 


Jan. 9 


. . . 


660 


1027 


7.29 






10 


. 


635 


1024 


6.32 


0.414 


0.99 


11 


. . . 


410 


1028 


4.87 






12 




450 


1027 


6.48 






13 


. 


410 


1027 


5.34 


0.435 




14 


. 


532 


1028 


6.22 


0.502 




15 




530 


1028 


5.98 




. 


16 




515 


1030 


6.18 






17 


. 


537 


1030 


6.73 


0.429 




18 


57.8 


395 


1029 


6.09 






19 




450 


1030 


5.72 


0.427 




20 




420 


1026 


4.76 






21 


. . . 


410 


1029 


5.26 


0.401 




22 




485 


1029 


5.41 


. . . 




23 


. 


440 


1031 


5.07 






24 




485 


1029 


5.61 


0.407 




25 


. . . 


545 


1027 


6.18 






26 




485 


1028 


6.69 


0.440 




27 




435 


1028 


6.64 


. . 




28 


. . . 


490 


1029 


6.18 


0.423 




29 


. 


450 


1029 


6.68 


. 


. . 


30 


. . . 


475 


. . . 


6.69 


0.376 




31 




490 




6.61 






Feb. 1 


. 


490 


1030 


6.47 






2 


57.5 


400 


1031 


6.12 


0.219 




3 




415 


1030 


5.85 






4 


. . . 


545 


1027 


6.77 


0.327 




6 


. 


450 


1030 


5.64 


. . . 




6 


. . . 


485 


1027 


6.01 






7 




450 


1026 


6.62 






8 


67.4 


415 


1027 


5.88 






9 


. . . 


540 


1026 


667 


0.449 


. . . 


10 




410 


1029 


5.61 






11 




600 


1025 


6.70 




. 


12 




430 


1029 


6.57 


0.437 


. . . 


13 




416 


1028 


6.60 






14 




480 


1028 


6.42 


0.497 




15 




395 


1030 


4.95 






16 




600 


1029 


6.97 


0.364 




17 




450 


1030 


6.62 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 27 



CHITTENDEN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P,0 5 . 


1904 
Feb. 18 


kilos 
57.3 


c.c. 
430 


1030 


grams 
6.86 


gram 
0.279 


grams 


19 


. . . 


460 


1029 


6.21 


. 




20 




455 


1027 


6.46 


. . . 




21 


. . . 


500 


1027 


6.16 


0.424 


. . . 


22 




445 


1028 


5.15 


. . . 




23 




456 


1027 


5.63 


. . . 


. 


24 


. . . 


420 


1028 


6.27 




. . . 


25 




560 


1027 


6.28 


0.403 


. 


26 




630 


1026 


6.27 




. 


27 




570 


1026 


6.87 






28 




515 


1028 


6.27 


0.496 




29 




450 


1030 


5.43 






Mar. 1 




460 


1027 


6.02 


. . 




2 




445 


1029 


6.16 


. 


. 


3 




690 


1028 


6.30 






4 




415 


1029 


5.40 


. 




5 


57.5 


425 


1027 


5.48 




. 


6 




648 


1025 


5.92 


0.370 




7 




400 


1029 


4.68 






8 




630 


1028 


6.77 


. . . 




9 




560 


1028 


6.84 




. 


10 




560 


1028 


6.64 






11 




495 


1028 


5.79 






12 




515 


1021 


6.80 




. 


13 


. . 


520 


1029 


6.43 


0.370 




14 




600 


1025 


6.12 




. . 


15 




520 


1026 


6.87 




. 


16 


67.6 


525 


1026 


6.13 


. . . 




17 


. . . 


490 


1026 


4.97 






18 




450 


1027 


5.08 






19 




600 


1024 


5.85 




. . . 


.20 




600 


1022 


6.91 






21 


57.4 


430 


1025 


6.52 






22 
23 
24 
25 


57.2 
57.3 


458 
400 
365 
420 


1033 
1029 
1029 
1029 


5.94 
6.61 
4.31 
5.39 


0.321 
daily 
average 


1.20 
daily 
average. 


26 


57.5 


435 


1027 


5.85 






27 


. 


595 


1026 


6.33 






28 




545 


1027 


6.00 







28 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
CHITTENDEN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


grain 


gram 


Mar. 29 




435 


1028 


4.86 






30 




575 


1026 


6.26 






31 


. . . 


495 


1026 


6.26 




. . . 


Apr. 1 


. . . 


570 


1026 


6.33 




. . . 


2 




440 


1030 


6.07 






3 




487 


1026 


6.11 


0.375 


. . . 


4 


. 


410 


1028 


. 5.78 




. 


5 




390 


1028 


5.38 






6 


56.8 


490 


1028 


5.66 






7 


56.5 


530 


1027 


5.69 






8 




440 


1029 


5.41 


. . 


. 


9 




465 


1019 


6.05 


. 




10 


56.8 


500 


1029 


6.00 


0.382 




11 




500 


1028 


6.18 






12 


56.4 


475 


1029 


5.55 


0.366 


0.870 


Daily aver, for ? 
six months. > 




466 


1027 


5.82 


0.386 


0.899 


13 




545 


1029 


6.77 






14 




440 


1027 


5.89 






15 




500 


1028 


5.91 


. . 




10 




485 


1028 


5.49 






17 




405 


1029 


5.09 


0.393 




18 




465 


1029 


6.11 






19 




510 


1030 


7.68 






20 




430 


1031 


6.99 






21 


56.6 


615 


1029 


8.67 






22 




320 


1030 


6.03 






23 


57.1 


355 


1032 


6.72 






24 




455 


1027 


5.97 


. . . 




25 




380 


1027 


4.93 






26 


. . 


450 


1028 


4.97 


0.366 




27 




600 


1025 


6.62 


0.553 




28 


56.9 


385 


1029 


6.66 


0.507 




29 


. 


415 


1029 


5.28 


0.488 




30 


56.9 


462 


1029 


6.69 


0.413 




May 1 




486 


1027 


6.64 


0.409 


. . . 


2 




405 


1028 


4.11 


0.320 




3 


57.1 


505 


1027 


5.48 


. . . 




4 


. 


456 


1026 


5.27 






5 




380 


1026 


4.88 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 29 
CHITTENDEN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grains 


gram 


gram 


May 6 




530 


1027 


6.30 






7 




470 


1024 


6.44 






8 


57.0 


460 


1027 


6.07 






9 




460 


1026 


4.28 






10 


57.4 


493 


1028 


5.26 






11 




415 


1029 


4.61 






12 




530 


1029 


5.98 






13 




415 


1031 


4.72 






14 


57.2 


405 


1031 


4.98 


0.468 


. . . 


15 




600 


1029 


5.31 




. 


16 




505 


1027 


5.03 




. 


17 




650 


1020 


6.69 




. 


18 




550 


1027 


5.81 


. . . 


. . . 


19 




560 


1027 


6.05 




. 


20 




615 


1027 


6.64 




. . . 


21 


56.9 


380 


1032 


6.20 


0421 




22 


. . . 


475 


1028 


5.73 




. . . 


23 




378 


1028 


4.60 






24 


. . 


383 


1029 


4.48 






25 




635 


1025 


5.14 




. 


26 


56.9 


355 


1028 


4.37 






27 




435 


1026 


4.93 






28 


57.5 


555 


1028 


5.99 


0.397 




29 


57.7 


565 


1027 


6.27 






30 


. . . 


700 


1020 


6.60 






31 




500 


1025 


5.13 


. . . 




June 1 




630 


1023 


5.41 




. 


2 




510 


1020 


4.16 


. . . 




3 




630 


1023 


5.25 




. 


4 


57.6 


390 


1029 


5.25 






5 




400 


1025 


4.87 




. . . 


6 




430 


1027 


5.16 


. 




7 




480 


1028 


5.15 




. . . 


8 




410 


1027 


4.95 


. 


. . . 


9 




420 


1026 


4.51 






10 




395 


1026 


4.27 




. . 


11 


57.5 


510 


1030 


5.91 






12 




530 


1027 


5.95 






13 


57.6 


485 


1027 


5.35 






14 




470 


1030 


5.1G 







30 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



CHITTENDEN. 





Body- 


Urine. 


Date. 


weight. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


June 15 




560 


1024 


4.91 






16 


57-6 


390 


1029 


5.26 


. 


. 


17 




408 


1027 


5.17 






18 


57.9 


412 


1030 


5.07 




. 


19 




458 


1025 


5.44 


. 




20 


58.0 


380 


1026 


4.49 




. 


21 




480 


1023 


5.04 






' 22 


57.8 


580 


1025 


6.16 






23 


57.9 


535 


1025 


5.26 






24 


57.6 


570 


1024 


5.30 






25 




410 


1027 


4.43 


0.397 


1.08 


26 


57.4 


400 


1027 


4.66 


daily 


daily 


27 


57.4 


405 


1027 


4.98 


average. 


average. 


Daily av. from ) 
Oct. 13, 1903 ) 




468 


1027 


5.69 


0.392 


0.904 


Daily av. from "i 














April 13 to > 








540 






June 27 3 














June 28 


57.5 


595 


1026 


6.75 







Scrutiny of the tables shows that during this period of nine 
months the body-weight was practically constant. The daily 
volume of urine was exceptionally small and fairly regular in 
amount, the average daily output for the nine months being 
468 c.c. It is a noticeable fact that with a diminished intake 
of proteid food there is far less thirst, and consequently a 
greatly decreased demand for water or other fluids. Further, 
in view of the small nitrogenous waste there is no need on 
the J)art of the body for any large amount of fluid to flush out 
the kidneys. The writer has not had a turbid urine during 
the nine months' period. With heavier eating of nitrogenous 
foods, an abundant water supply is a necessity to prevent the 
kidne} T s from becoming clogged, thereby explaining the fre- 
quent beneficial results of the copious libations of mineral 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 31 

waters, spring waters, etc., frequently called for after, or with, 
heavy eating. Obviously, a small volume of urine each day 
means so much less wear and tear of the delicate mechanism 
of the kidneys. Somewhat noticeable, in a general way, is 
the apparent relationship between the volume of the urine 
and the nitrogen output, in harmony with the well-known 
diuretic action of urea. The specific gravity of the urine 
shows variation only within narrow limits, the daily average 
for the nine months being 1027. 

Uric acid is noticeably small in quantity, the average daily 
output for the nine months' period, based upon the determina- 
tions made, being only 0.392 gram. 

Chief interest, however, centres around the figures for total 
nitrogen, since these figures give for each day the extent of 
the proteid metabolism ; i. e., the amount of proteid material 
broken down in the body each day in connection with the wear 
and tear of the bodily machinery. To fully grasp the sig- 
nificance of these data, it should be remembered that the 
prevalent dietary standards are based upon the assumption 
that the average adult must metabolize each day at least 16 
grams of nitrogen. Indeed, that is what actual analysis of 
the urine indicates in most cases. If now we look carefully 
through the figures shown in the above tables, covering a 
period from October 13, 1903, to June 28, 1904, it is seen 
that the daily nitrogen excretion is far different from 16 
grams. Indeed, the figures for nitrogen are exceedingly low, 
and, moreover, they vary little from day to day. The average 
daily output of nitrogen through the urine for the entire 
period of nearly nine months is only 5.699 grams. 

For the first six months the average daily excretion 
amounted to 5.82 grams of nitrogen, while from April 1 2 
to June 28 the average daily excretion of nitrogen was 5.40 
grams, thus showing a slight tendency downward. On the 
whole, however, there is shown a somewhat remarkable uni- 
formity in the daily excretion. Thus, the average daily excre- 
tion for the month of November was 5.79 grams of nitrogen, 
for the month of March 5.66 grams, thus showing very little 



32 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

difference in the output of nitrogen through the kidneys in 
these two periods, three months apart In other words, the 
extent of proteid katabolism was essentially the same through- 
out the entire nine months, implying that the amount of pro- 
teid food eaten must have been fairly constant, and that the 
body had adapted itself to this new level of nutrition from 
which there was no tendency to deviate. There was no 
weighing out of food and no attempt to follow any specified 
diet. The greatest possible variety of simple foods was 
indulged in, and the dictates of the appetite were followed 
with the single precaution that excess was avoided. In other 
words, it was temperance in diet, and not prohibition. Yet 
it is equally true, in the writer's case at least, that the appe- 
tite itself unconsciously served as a regulator, since there 
was, as a rule, no necessity to hold the appetite in check to 
avoid excess. Doubtless, the writer's knowledge of the gen- 
eral composition of food-stuffs has had some influence in the 
choice of foods, and thereby aided in bringing about this 
somewhat remarkable uniformity in the daily output of nitro- 
gen for such a long period of time on an unrestricted diet. 

What now do the nitrogen figures show regarding the 
amount of proteid material metabolized each day? It will 
be remembered that the Voit standard calls for 118 grams of 
proteid or albuminous food daily, of which 105 grams should 
be absorbable, in order to maintain the body in a condition 
of nitrogen equilibrium, and in a state of physical vigor and 
general tone. This would mean a daily excretion through 
the urine of at least 16 grams of nitrogen. The daily output 
of nitrogen in the case under discussion, however, was 5.699 
grams for a period of nearly nine months. This amount of 
nitrogen excreted through the urine means only 35.6 grams 
of proteid metabolized, or about one-third the amount called 
for by the Voit standard, or the standards generally adopted 
as expressing man's daily requirement of proteid food. But 
was the body in nitrogenous equilibrium on this small amount 
of proteid food ? Naturally, this question might be answered 
in the affirmative, on the basis of the constancy in body- 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 33 

weight for the period from October to June, but more de- 
cisive proof is needed. The question was therefore settled 
by a careful comparison of the income and output, in which 
all the food eaten was carefully weighed and analyzed, while 
the nitrogen of the urine and fseces was determined with 
equal accuracy. The first experiment of this character to 
be quoted is for the week commencing March 20, a period 
of six days. 

Following are the diets made use of each day, the weights 
of the various food-stuffs being given in grams. Likewise is 
shown the nitrogen content of the several food-stuffs for each 
day, and also a comparison of the nitrogen intake with the 
output of nitrogen through the urine: 



34 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



CHITTENDEN. 

Sunday, March 20, 1904. 

Breakfast, 7.46 A. M. One cup coffee, i. e., coffee 137.5 grams, cream 30.5 
grams, sugar 9 grams. 

Dinner, 1.30 P.M. Stewed chicken 50 grams, mashed potato 131 grams, bis- 
cuit 49 grams, butter 13 grams, chocolate pudding 106 grams, one small 
cup coffee, i. e., coffee 64 grams, sugar 12 grams, cheese crackers 29 
grams. 

Supper, 6.30 P.M. Lettuce sandwiches 56 grams, biscuit 35 grams, butter 
6 grams, one cup tea, i.e., tea 170 grams, sugar 7 grams, sponge cake 
47 grams, sliced oranges 82 grams. 



Coffee ... 64 + 137.5 = 
Cream .... . . 


201.5 
305 


X 

x 


0.042 
041 


Sugar . . . 12 + 9 + 7 = 
Chicken . 


28.0 
500 


X 

x 


0.00 
4.70 


Mashed potato . .... 


131 


x 


030 


Biscuit .... 35 + 49 = 
Butter 13 + 6 = 
Chocolate pudding .... 
Cheese crackers . ... 


84.0 
19.0 
106.0 
290 


X 
X 
X 

x 


1.49 
0.10 
0.86 
254 


Lettuce sandwich 
Tea 


56.0 
1700 


x 
x 


0.92 
0048 


Sponge cake ....... 
Sliced orange 
Total nitrogen 


47.0 
82.0 
in food . 


X 
X 


0.98 
0.073 


Total nitrogen 


in urine 




. . . . 



Per cent Nitrogen.* Total Nitrogen. 

0.085 gram. 

0.125 

0.000 

2.350 

0.393 

1.251 

0.019 

0.911 

0.737 

0.515 

0.082 

0.461 

0.060 

6.989 grams. 

5.910 



Fuel value of the food . . . 1708 calories. 



* All foodstuffs were analyzed from large samples, to diminish as much as 
possible the errors of analysis. Nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl- 
(iunning method, the figures given being the average of closely agreeing 
duplicate analyses. 

While nitrogen was thus determined in every sample of food by direct 
chemical analysis, the fuel value of the food was calculated mainly by use 
of the data furnished by the Bulletin issued from the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations. No. 28 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 35 



CHITTENDEN. 



Monday, March 21, 1904. 

Breakfast, 7.45 A.M. Coffee 119 grams, cream 30 grams, sugar 9 grams. 
Lunch, 1.30 P.M. One shredded wheat biscuit 31 grams, cream 116 grams, 

wheat gems 33 grams, butter 7 grams, tea 185 grams, sugar 10 grams, 

cream cake 53 grams. 
Dinner, 6.30 P.M. Pea soup 114 grams, lamb chop 24 grams, boiled sweet 

potato 47 grams, wheat gems 76 grams, butter 13 grams, cream cake 52 

grams, coffee 61 grams, sugar 10 grams, cheese crackers 16 grams. 



Food. 



Grams. 



Coffee . . . . 119 + 61 = 180 

Cream . . . . 30 + 116 = 146 

Sugar . . . 9 + 10 + 10 = 29 

Shredded wheat biscuit ... 31 

Tea .......... 185 

Wheat gems . . 33 + 76 = 109 

Butter .... 7 + 13 = 20 

Cream cake . . 53 + 52 = 105 

Pea soup ........ 114 

Lamb chop ....... 24 

Sweet potato ....... 47 

Cheese crackers ...... 16 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.042 rr 


0.076 gram. 


x 


0.41 = 


0.600 


X 


0.00 = 


0000 


X 


1.62 = 


0.502 


X 


0048 = 


0.089 


X 


1.46 


1.691 


X 


0.10 = 


0.020 


X 


0.97 = 


1.018 


X 


1.00 = 


1.140 


X 


4.54 = 


1.090 


X 


0.18 = 


0.085 


X 


2.54 = 


0.410 






6.621 grams. 






6.520 



Fuel value of the food . . . 1713 calories. 



36 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



CHITTENDEN. 



Tuesday, March 22, 1904. 

Breakfast, 7.45 A.M. Coffee 97 grams, cream 26 grams, sugar 9 grams. 

Lunch, 1.30 p. M. Baked potato 83 grams, fried sausage 36 grams, soda bis- 
cuit 39 grams, butter 12 grams, tea 137 grams, sugar 10 grams, cream 
meringue 59 grams. 

Dinner, 6.30 P. M. Chicken broth 146 grams, bread 52 grams, butter 15 grams, 
creamed potato 76 grams, custard 76 grams, coffee 50 grams, sugar 11 
grams, cheese crackers 10 grams. 



Food. 
Coffee . . . 


Grams. 

. 97 + 50 = 147 
26 


Per< 

X 
X 
X 
X 

x 

X 

x 

X 
X 
X 
X 

x 

X 

x 


:ent Nitrogen. 

042 = 
0.42 
0.00 = 
0.40 = 
3.06 = 
1.66 = 
0.10 
0.048 
0.92 = 
0.78 
1.66 = 
0.42 = 
0.82 = 
2.54 = 


Sugar . . 
Baked potato 


9 + 10 + 11 = 30 
83 


Fried sausage 
Soda biscuit 


36 

... .39 


Butter . . . 
Tea 


. 12 + 15 = 27 
137 


Cream meringue 
Chicken broth . 
Bread . . . 


59 


146 
.... 52 


Creamed potato 
Custard . . . 
Cheese crackers 


76 
76 
10 
Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 









Total Nitrogen. 

0.060 gram. 

0.109 . 

0.000 

0.332 

1.101 

0.647 

0.027 

0.066 

0.543 

1.138 

0.863 

0.319 

0.623 

0.254 

6.082 grams 

5.940 



Fuel value of the food 



1398 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 37 



CHITTENDEN. 



Wednesday, March 23, 1904. 

Breakfast, 7.45 A. M. Coffee 103 grams, cream 30 grams, sugar 10 grams. 
Lunch, 1.30 p. M. Creamed codfish 64 grams, potato balls 54 grams, biscuit 44 

grams, butter 22 grams, tea 120 grams, sugar 10 grams, wheat griddle 

cakes 133 grams, maple syrup 108 grams. 
Dinner, 6.30 p. M. Creamed potato 85 grams, biscuit 53 grams, butter 15 

grams, apple-celery-lettuce salad 50 grams, apple pie 127 grams, coffee 

67 grams, sugar 8 grams, cheese crackers 17 grams. 



Food. < 


3rams. 


Per 


cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Coffee . . . .103 + 67 = 


170 


X 


0.042 





0.071 gram. 


Sugar . .10+10+8 = 


28 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Cream 


30 


X 


0.43 





0.129 


Potato balls 


54 


X 


0.68 





0.367 


Creamed codfish 


64 


X 


1.26 





0.806 


Biscuit . ... 44 + 63 = 


97 


X 


1.66 


= 


1.610 


Butter .... 22 + 15 = 


37 


X 


0.10 





0.037 


Tea ... 


120 


X 


0.048 





0.058 


Wheat griddle cakes .... 


133 


X 


1.32 


= 


1.760 


Maple syrup 


108 


X 


0.019 


= 


0.021 


Creamed potato ...... 


85 


x 


0.53 





0.450 


Cheese crackers 


17 


x 


2.54 


_ 


0.431 


Apple-celery salad 


50 


X 


0.20 





0.100 


Apple pie 


197 


V 


0.76 





0.953 


Total nitrogen in food . . 




. 


. 6.793 grams. 


Total nitrogen in urine 


. 5.610 



Fuel value of the food 



1984 calories. 



38 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



CHITTENDEN. 



Thursday, March 24, 1904. 

Breakfast, 7.45 A. M. Coffee 100 grains, cream 25 grams, sugar 8 grams. 
Lunch, 1.30 P.M. Shredded wheat biscuit 29 grams, cream 118 grams, wheat 

gems 60 grams, butter 8 grams, tea 100 grams, sugar 7 grams, apple pie 

102 grams. 
Dinner, 6.30 P.M. Milk-celery soup 140 grams, bread 15 grams, butter 1 gram, 

lettuce sandwiches 62 grams, tea 100 grams, sugar 10 grams, lemon pie 

109 grams. 



Food. 
Coffee . . . 
Cream . . . 
Sugar . . . 8 - 
Shredded wheat t 
Wheat gems . 
Butter . . . 
Tea .... 


100 

. 25 + 118 = 143 
f 7+ 10 = 25 
>iscuit ... 29 
60 


Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 
X 0.042 - 0.042 gram. 
X 0.43 = 0.615 
X 0.00 = 0.000 
X 1-76 = 0.510 
X 1.17 = 0.702 
X 0.10 = 0.009 
X 0.048 = 0.096 
X 0.75 = 0.765 
X 0.42 = 0.588 
X 1.36 = 0.204 
X 1.02 = 0.632 
X 0.82 = 0.894 
5.057 grams 
. 4.310 


. 8+ 1 = 9 

100+100 = 200 
.... 102 


Milk-celery soup 
Bread . . . 
Lettuce sandwich 
Lemon pie . . 


140 


15 
62 
109 


Total nitrogen in food . 
Total nitrogen in urine 



Fuel value of the food ... 1594 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 39 



CHITTENDEN. 



Friday, March 25, 1904. 

Breakfast, 7.45 A. M. Coffee 100 grams, crt- am 25 grams, sugar 9 grams. 
Lunch, 1.30 p. M. Halibut with egg sauce 108 grams, mashed potato 89 grams, 

biscuit 48 grams, butter 10 grams, chocolate-cream cake 90 grams, tea 

100 grams, sugar 9 grams. 
Dinner, 6.30 P.M. Milk-celery soup 121 grams, lettuce sandwiches 61 grams, 

creamed potato 65 grams, lettuce-apple-celery salad 74 grams, coffee 

70 grams, sugar 10 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 


Coffee . . . .100 + 70 = 


170 


X 


0.042 


= 


0.071 gram. 


Cream 


25 


X 


0.40 


= 


0.100 


Sugar . . . . 9 + 9+10 = 


28 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


Halibut, etc 


108 


X 


3.02 





3.262 


IVfashed potato 


89 


X 


0.26 





0.231 


Biscuit . 


48 


x 


1.52 


_ 


0.730 


Butter 


10 


x 


0.10 


_ 


0.010 


Tea 


100 


X 


0.048 





0.048 


Chocolate-cream cake .... 


90 


X 


0.99 





0.891 


Celery-milk soup 


121 


x 


0.52 


= 


0.629 


Lettuce sandwich 


61 


X 


0.98 


= 


0.598 


Lettuce-apple salad 


74 


x 


0.21 


= 


0.155 


Creamed potato 


65 


X 


0.37 


= 


0.241 


Total nitrogen 


in food 








, 6.966 grams. 


Total nitrogen in urine 


5.390 



Fuel value of the food 



1285 calories. 



40 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Chittenden. 





Nitrogen 
Taken in. 


Nitrogen in Urii 


Output. 
ae. Weight of Faeces * (dry). 


March 20 


6.989 grams. 


6.91 grams. 


3.6 grams. 


21 


6.621 


5.62 


0.0 


22 


6.082 


5.94 


12.0 


23 


6.793 


5.61 


18.5 


24 


6.057 


4.31 


23.0 


25 


6.966 


5.39 


16.9 








74.0 grams contain 








6.42% N. 




38.508 


32.68 + 


4.75 grams nitrogen. 



38.608 grams nitrogen. 37.43 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for six days = 1.078 grains. 

Nitrogen balance per day = +0.179 gram. 



Average Intake. 

Calories per day 1613. 

Nitrogen per day 0.40 grams. 



* The faeces of this period were separated by lampblack. They were dried 
on a water-bath after admixture with alcohol and a little sulphuric acid, nitro- 
gen being determined by the Kjeldahl-Gunning method on samples of the dry 
mixture from the six-day period. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 41 

Examination of the results shown in the foregoing balance 
makes it quite clear that the body was essentially in nitrogen- 
ous equilibrium. Indeed, there was a slight plus balance, 
showing that even with the small intake of proteid food the 
body, was storing up nitrogen at the rate of 0.16 gram per 
day. The average daily intake of nitrogen for the six days' 
period was 6.40 grams, equal to 40.0 grams of proteid or 
albuminous food. The average daily output of nitrogen 
through the urine and faeces was 6.24 grams. The average 
daily output of nitrogen through the urine for the six days' 
period was 5.44 grams, corresponding to the metabolism of 34 
grams of proteid material When these figures are contrasted 
with the usually accepted standards of proteid requirement for 
the healthy man, they are certainly somewhat impressive, 
especially when it is remembered that the body at that date 
had been in essentially this same condition for at least six 
months, and probably for an entire year. The Voit standard of 
118 grams of proteid, with an equivalent of at least 18 grams 
of nitrogen and calling* for the metabolism of 105 grams of 
proteid, or 16.5 grams of nitrogen per day, makes clear how 
great a physiological economy had been accomplished. In 
other words, the consumption of proteid food was reduced to 
at least one-third the daily amount generally considered as 
representing the average requirement of the healthy man, and 
this with maintenance of body-weight at practically a constant 
point for the preceding ten months, and, so far as the writer 
can observe, with no loss of vigor, capacity for mental and 
physical work, or endurance. Indeed, the writer is disposed 
to maintain that he has done more work and led a more active 
life in every way during the period of this experiment, and 
with greater comfort and less fatigue than usual. His health 
has certainly been of the best during this period. 

In this connection it may be well to call attention to the 
completeness of the utilization of the daily food in this six 
days' experiment, as shown by the small amount of refuse dis- 
charged per rectum, indicating as it does the high efficiency of 
the digestive processes and of the processes of absorption. 



42 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

The refuse matter for the entire period of six days amounted 
when dry to only 74 grams, and when it is remembered how 
large a proportion of this refuse must of necessity be com- 
posed of the cast-off secretions from the body, it will be seen 
how thorough must have been the utilization of the food by 
the system. The loss of nitrogen to the body per day 
through the faeces amounted to only 0.79 gram, and this on 
a mixed diet containing considerable matter not especially 
concentrated, and on some days with noticeable amounts of 
food, such as salads, not particularly digestible. 

Finally, emphasis should be laid upon the fact that this 
economy of proteid food, this establishment of nitrogen equi- 
librium on a low proteid intake, was accomplished without 
increase in the daily intake of non-nitrogenous foods. In 
fact, the amount of fats and carbohydrates was likewise 
greatly reduced, far below the minimal standard of 3000 cal- 
ories as representing the potential energy or fuel value of the 
daily diet. Indeed, during the balance period of six days just 
described the average fuel value of the food per day was only 
a little over 1600 calories. 

As the experiment continued and the record for the months 
of April and May was obtained, it became evident from the 
nitrogen results that the rate of proteid katabolisin was being 
still more reduced. A second balance experiment was there- 
fore tried with a view to seeing if the body was still in nitro- 
gen equilibrium, and also to ascertain whether the fuel value 
of the food still showed the same low calorific power. For 
a period of five days, June 23 to 27, the intake of food and 
the entire output were carefully compared, with the results 
shown in the accompanying tables. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 43 



CHITTENDEN. 



Thursday, June 23, 1904. 

Breakfast. Coffee 123 grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 11 grams. 

Lunch. Omelette 50 grams. French fried potatoes 70 grams, bacon 10 grams, 

wheat gems 43 grams, butter 9 grams, strawberries 125 grams, sugar 20 

grams, cream cake 59 grams. 
Dinner. Beefsteak 34 grams, peas 60 grams, creamed potato 97 grams, bread 

26 grams, butter 17 grams, lettuce-orange salad 153 grams, crackers 43 

grams, cream cheese 15 grams, coffee 53 grams, sugar 12 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Coffee . . . .123 + 53 = 176 

Cream 60 

Sugar . . 11 + 20+12 = 43 

Omelette 50 

French fried potatoes .... 70 

Bacon . 10 

Wheat gems 43 

Butter .... 9 + 17 = 26 

Strawberries 125 

Cream cake 59 

Beefsteak 34 

Peas 60 

Creamed potato 97 

Bread 26 

Lettuce-orange salad .... 153 

Crackers 43 

Cream cheese 15 

Total nitrogen in food . 

Total nitrogen in urine 



Per ci 


ant Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.045 


53 


0.079 gram. 


X 


0.35 





0.175 


X 


a.oo 





0.000 


X 


1.32 


= 


0660 


X 


0.37 





0.259 


X 


3.43 





0.343 


x 


1.49 





0.641 


X 


0.13 





0.034 


X 


0.11 





0.138 


X 


0.98 





0.578 


X 


4.14 





1.408 


X 


0.97 





0.582 


X 


0.34 





0.330 


X 


1.23 





0.320 


X 


0.15 





0.230 


X 


1.40 





0.602 


X 


1.62 


= 


0.243 








. 6.622 grams 








5.260 



Fuel value of the food .... 1863 calories. 



44 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



CHITTENDEN. 



Friday, June , 190$. 

Breakfast. Coffee 96 grams, sugar 8 grams, milk 32 grams. 

Lunch. Creamed codfish 89 grams, baked potato 95 grams, butter 10 grams, 

hominy gems 58 grams, strawberries 86 grams, sugar 26 grams, ginger 

snaps 47 grams. 
Dinner. Cold tongue 14 grams, fried potato 48 grams, peas 60 grams, wheat 

gems 30 grams, butter 11 grams, lettuce-orange salad with mayonnaise 

dressing 155 grams, crackers 22 grams, cream cheese 14 grams, ginger 

snaps 22 grams, coffee 58 grams, sugar 10 grams. 



is. Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 



Coffee .... 96 + 58 = 
Sugar ... 8 + 26 + 10 = 
Milk 
Creamed codfish 
Baked potato 


154 X 
44 X 

32 X 
89 X 
95 X 
21 X 
58 X 
86 X 
69 X 
14 X 
48 X 
60 X 
30 X 
155 X 
22 X 
14 X 


0.045 = 
0.00 = 
0.51 
1.78 = 
0.29 
0.13 = 
1.20 
0.11 = 
1.15 = 
4.87 = 
0.37 
0.94 = 
1.45 = 
0.15 = 
1.40 = 
1.62 


0.069 gram. 
0.000 
0.163 
1.584 
0.276 
0.027 
0.696 
0.095 
0.794 
0.682 
0.178 
0.564 
0.435 
0.233 
0.308 
0.227 
6.331 grams. 
5.300 


Butter . . . 
Hominy gems . 
Strawberries . 
Ginger snaps . 
Cold tongue 


. 10 + 11 = 


. 47 + 22 = 


Fried potato . 
Peas 




Wheat gems 
Lettuce-orange salad, etc. . . 
Crackers . . ". 


Cream cheese . 


Total nitrogen : 
Total nitroeen 


in urine 





Fuel value of the food 



1506 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 45 



CHITTENDEN. 



Saturday, June 25, 1904. 

Breakfast. Coffee 101 grams, milk 36 grams, sugar 13 grams. 

Lunch. Omelette 50 grams, bacon 9 grams, French fried potato 23 grams, 

biscuit 29 grams, butter 8 grams, cream cheese 17 grams, iced tea 150 

grams, sugar 15 grams, ginger snaps 42 grams. 
Dinner. Wheat popovers 57 grams, butter 10 grams, lettuce-orange salad with 

mayonnaise dressing 147 grams, cream cheese 21 grams, crackers 22 

grams, cottage pudding 82 grams, coffee 48 grams, sugar 11 grams. 



Food. 

Coffee . . . .101 + 48 = 
Milk 
Sugar. . . 13+*15 + 11 = 
Omelette 
Bacon 


Grams. Pe 

149 X 
36 X 
39 X 
50 X 
9 X 
23 X 
29 X 
18 X 
150 X 
42 X 
38 X 
57 X 
147 X 
22 X 
82 X 
in food . . 
in urine 




Biscuit 


Butter 8 + 10 = 
Iced tea 
Ginger snaps 
Cream cheese . . 17 + 21 = 
Wheat popovers 
Lettuce-orange salad .... 
Crackers 


Cottage pudding 
Total nitrogen 
Total nitrogen 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 



0.045 

0.46 

0.00 

1.42 

2.60 

0.57 

1.35 

0.13 

0.018 

1.15 

1.62 

1.64 

0.15 

1.40 

0.76 



0.067 gram. 

0.166 

0.000 

0.710 

0.239 

0.131 

0.392 

0.023 

0.027 

0.483 

0.616 

0.935 

0.221 

0.308 

0.623 

4.941 grams 



Fuel value of the food 



1392 calories. 



46 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



CHITTENDEN. 



Sunday, June 26, 1904. 

Breakfast. Coffee 122 grams, cream 31 grams, sugar 8 grams. 

Dinner. Roast lamb 50 grams, baked potato 52 grams, peas 64 grams, biscuit 

32 grams, butter 12 grains, lettuce salad 43 grams, cream cheese 21 

grains, toasted crackers 23 grams, blanc mange 164 grams. 
Supper. Iced tea 225 grams, sugar 29 grams, lettuce sandwich 51 grams, 

strawberries 130 grams, sugar 22 grams, cream 40 grams, sponge cake 31 

grains. 



Food. Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Coffee 


122 


X 


0045 


= 


0.055 gram. 


Cream . . . . 31 + 40 


71 


X 


0.32 


= 


0.227 


Sugar ... 8 + 29 + 22 - 


59 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


Roast lamb 


50 


X 


4.28 





2.140 


Baked potato 


52 


X 


0.29 


= 


0.151 


Peas . . 


64 


X 


1.04 


= 


0.666 


Biscuit 


32 


V* 


1.35 





0.432 


Butter 


12 


x 


0.13 


_ 


0.016 


Lettuce salad 


43 




0.23 


_ 


0.099 


Cream cheese 


21 


X 


1.62 


I 


0.340 


Toasted crackers 


23 


X 


1.36 





0.313 


Blanc mange 


164 


x 


0.35 


S3 


0.574 


Iced tea 


225 


X 


0.018 





0.041 


Lettuce sandwich 


51 


x 


0.85 





0.434 


Strawberries 


130 


x 


0.11 


= 


0.143 


Sponge cake 


31 


y 


0.94 





0291 


Total nitrogen ir 


i food . 


. 






5.922 grams. 


Total nitrogen in 


urine 








4.660 



Fuel value of the food . . 1533 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 47 



CHITTENDEN. 



Monday, June 27, 1904. 

Breakfast. Coffee 112 grams, cream 22 grams, sugar 10 grams. 

Lunch. Roast lamb 9 grams, baked potato 90 grams, wheat gems 47 grams, 

butter 12 grams, sugar 25 grams, iced tea 250 grams, vanilla eclair 

47 grams. 
Dinner. Lamb chop 32 grams, asparagus 49 grams, butter 17 grams, creamed 

potato 107 grams, bread 35 grams, lettuce-orange salad with mayonnaise 

dressing 150 grams, cream cheese 12 grams, crackers 21 grams, coffee 

63 grams, sugar 9 grams. 



Food. 

Coffee . . . .112 + 63 = 
Cream 
Sugar . . . 10 + 25 + 9 = 
Iced tea 


Grams. 

175 
22 
44 
250 
90 
47 
29 
9 
47 
32 
49 
107 
35 
150 
12 
21 

in food 
in urine 


Per cent Nitrogen. 

X 0.045 = 
X 0.32 = 
X 0.00 
X 0.018 = 
X 0.25 = 
X 1.65 = 
X 0.13 = 
X 4.28 = 
X 0.85 = 
X 4.57 = 
X 0.59 = 
X 0.40 = 
X 1.33 
X 0.23 = 
X 1.62 = 
X 1.35 = 


Baked potato 
Wheat gems 


Butter .... 12 + 17 = 
Roast lamb 
Vanilla eclair . 








Bread 
Lettuce-orange salad, etc. . . 
Cream cheese . ... 


Crackers 

Total nitrogen 
Total nitrogen 








Total Nitrogen. 

0.079 gram. 

0.070 

0.000 

0.045 

0.225 

0.776 



0.385 
0.400 
1.462 
0.289 
0.428 
0.466 
0345 
0.194 
0.284 

5.486 grams 



Fuel value of the food . . 1454 calories. 



48 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. CHITTENDEN. 



Nitrogen Output. 
Taken In. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 


June 23 


6.622 grams. 


5.26 grams. 


10.6 




24 


6.331 


5.30 


30.7 




25 


4.941 


4.43 


14.2 




26 


5.922 


4.66 


11.9 




27 


6.486 


4.98 


15.2 




82.6 grams contain 








6. 


08% N. 




29.302 


24.63 + 


5.022 grams nitrogen. 



29.302 grams nitrogen. 29.652 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for five days = 0.350 gram. 
Nitrogen balance per day = 0.070 gram. 



Average Intake. 



Calories per day 
Nitrogen per day 



1549. 

5.860 grams. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 49 

Examination of these figures makes quite clear that the 
body was still in nitrogen equilibrium, or essentially so, the 
minus balance being so small as to have little significance. 
The body-weight was still stationary, and yet during this 
balance period the average daily intake of nitrogen was only 
5.86 grams, corresponding to 36.62 grams of proteid or albu- 
minous food. Further, the average daily fuel value of the 
food was only 1549 calories, a trifle less than in the preceding 
period. The average daily output of nitrogen through the 
urine for this period was 4.92 grams, corresponding to the 
metabolism of 80.7 grams of proteid food. Hence, the results 
of this period confirm those of the preceding period and make 
it quite clear that this subject, with a body- weight of 57.5 
kilos, can be maintained in body equilibrium, and in nitrogen 
equilibrium, on a daily diet containing only 5.8 grams of ni- 
trogen and with a fuel value of about 1600 calories. Under 
these conditions, as in the last balance period, the daily amount 
of nitrogen metabolized was very small, averaging only 4.92 
grams. Comparison of this figure with the accepted standard 
of 16 grams of nitrogen makes quite clear the extent of the 
physiological economy which is attainable by the body, and 
emphasizes also the extent of the unnecessary and worse than 
useless labor put upon the body by the prevalent dietetic 
habits of the majority of mankind. 

It is of course understood that the low fuel value which 
sufficed to keep the writer in body equilibrium would not 
meet the requirements of a more active life, with greater phys- 
ical labor. The writer has led a very busy life during the 
year of this experiment, but it has been mental activity rather 
than physical, although doubtless he has exercised as much 
as the ordinary professional worker not accustomed to athletic 
sports. The results of the experiment, however, make it quite 
clear that a man of the above body-weight, even though he 
lead a very active life not involving great physical labor 
can maintain his body in equilibrium indefinitely with an in- 
take of 36 to 40 grams of proteid or albuminous food, and with 
a total fuel value of about 1600 calories. Further, it is to be 

4 



50 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

understood that there is no special form of diet involved in 
the accomplishment of such a result. Scrutiny of the daily 
diet, tabulated in the two balance periods, will show the char- 
acter of the food made use of. Personal likes and dislikes 
must naturally enter into the choice of any diet, and freedom 
of choice, freedom to follow the dictates of one's appetite, 
with such regulation as comes from the use of reason and in- 
telligence, are all that is necessary to secure the desired end. 
Physiological economy in nutrition is easily attainable and 
does not involve the adoption of vegetarianism. It does 
mean, however, temperance and simplicity in diet, coupled 
with intelligent regulation, which, however, soon becomes a 
habit and eventually leads to a moderation in diet which fully 
satisfies all the cravings of appetite as completely as it suffices 
to maintain the body in equilibrium and in a general condi- 
tion of health and vigor. 

Taking the data recorded above, we may now calculate the 
nitrogen requirement of the body per kilo of body- weight. 
With the body-weight placed at 57 kilos and with an aver- 
age daily elimination of nitrogen for nearly nine months of 
5.699 grams, or practically 5.7 grams, it is evident that the 
nitrogen metabolized per kilo of body-weight in the present 
instance was exactly 0.1 gram. If we take the lower figure of 
5.40 grams of nitrogen, the average daily excretion from 
April 13 to June 27, we find the nitrogen requirement to be 
0.0947 gram per kilo of body-weight. Translating these figures 
into terms of proteid or albuminous matter, they mean the 
utilization or metabolism of 0.625 gram of proteid matter daily 
per kilo of body-weight, under the conditions of life, activity, 
and general food consumption prevailing throughout this pe- 
riod of nearly nine months with this particular individual. 

Whether we are justified in saying that this figure rep- 
resents the minimal proteid requirement of this particular 
individual is perhaps questionable, since the proteid or nitro- 
gen requirement will of necessity vary somewhat with the 
amount of non-nitrogenous food consumed. Doubtless, the 
nitrogen metabolism could be reduced still lower by increas- 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 51 

;,ng the intake of non-nitrogenous food, but under the above 
conditions of life, following a plan of living both congenial 
and satisfactory, one that fully sufficed to keep the body in 
equilibrium and with the practice of a general physiological 
economy, we may say that the metabolism of 0.1 gram of 
nitrogen per kilo of body-weight was quite sufficient to meet 
all the requirements of the body. Health, strength, mental 
and physical vigor have been maintained unimpaired, and 
there is a growing conviction that in many ways there is a 
distinct improvement in both the physical and mental condi- 
tion. Greater freedom from fatigue, greater aptitude for 
work, greater freedom from minor ailments, have gradually 
become associated in the writer's mind with this lowered 
proteid metabolism and general condition of physiological 
economy. The writer, however, is fully alive to the necessity 
of caution in the acceptance of one's feelings as a measure of 
physical or mental condition, but he has been keenly watchful 
for any and every sign or symptom during the course of these 
experiments, and is now strongly of the opinion that there is 
much good to be gained in the adoption of dietetic habits that 
accord more closely with the true physiological needs of the 
body. If a man of 57 kilos body-weight can maintain a con- 
dition of equilibrium, with continuance of health, strength, 
and vigor (to say nothing of possible improvement), with a 
daily consumption of say 40 grams of proteid food and suffi- 
cient non-nitrogenous food to yield 2000 calories, why should 
he load up his system each day with three times this amount 
of proteid food, with enough more fat and carbohydrate to 
yield 3000 plus calories? 

Finally, the writer in summing up his own experience is in- 
clined to say that while he entered upon this experiment simply 
with a view to studying the question from a purely scientific 
and physiological standpoint, he has become so deeply im- 
pressed with the great gain to the body by this practice of 
physiological economy, and his system has become so accus- 
tomed to the new level of nutrition that there is no desire to 
return to the more liberal dietetic habits of former years. 



52 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

Obviously, it is not wise nor safe to draw too broad deduc- 
tions from a single individual, nor from a single experiment 
even though it extends over a long period of time ; conse- 
quently, we may turn our attention to other individuals with 
presumably different personality and different habits of life. 
The writer's colleague, Dr. Lafayette B. Mendel, Professor of 
Physiological Chemistry in the Sheffield Scientific School, 
kindly volunteered to become a subject of experiment. With 
a body-weight of 76 kilos, 32 years of age, and of strong 
physique, he commenced to modify his diet about the middle 
of October, 1903, diminishing gradually the amount of proteid 
food with the results shown in the following tables, where are 
given, as in the preceding experiment, the amounts of nitrogen 
in the urine, as a measure of the quantity of proteid metabo- 
lized, uric acid, and other factors of interest in this connection. 

The collection of data commenced on October 26, 1903. 
During some weeks the urine of each day was not analyzed by 
itself, but an aliquot part was taken from the 24 hours' quan- 
tity, and at the end of a week the determinations were made 
on the mixture, thereby giving the average daily composition 
for the period. With Dr. Mendel, as in the writer's case, there 
was no prescribing of food, but perfect freedom of choice. 
The appetite was satisfied each day, but with a gradual dimi- 
nution of proteid food, especially of meat. Dr. Mendel ap- 
peared to accomplish the desired end best by keeping up a 
liberal allowance of non- nitrogenous food, and the total poten- 
tial energy of the daily diet was not so greatly diminished as 
in the writer's case. In other words, he appeared to need more 
food, but succeeded without great effort in reducing the pro- 
teid intake to nearly as low a level as in the preceding experi- 
ment. For the period of three months from January 4 
to April 3, 1904, the average daily excretion of nitrogen 
amounted to 6.46 grams, which means the metabolism of 40.37 
grains of proteid or albuminous food per day for this quarter 
of the year. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 53 



MENDEL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Oct. 26 


76.2 


1310 


1019 


10.53 


. 




27 


75.0 


1650 


1016 


13.46 


0.580 


1.90 


28 


74.5 


915 


1023 


11.03 


. . . 




29 


745 


825 


1025 


11.48 


0.629 


1.87 


30 


74.6 


1330 


1018 


13.17 






31 


74.5 


1045 


1021 


12.37 






Nov. 1 


74.5 


1030 


1020 


10.38 


0.602 


1.59 


2 




1080 


1017 


9.59 






3 


74.5 


1058 


1016 


8.86 


0.528 


1.63 


4 


74.5 


975 


1019 


866 






5 


71.5 


1030 


1021 . 


8.90 


0.514 


1.83 


6 




1230 


1015 


8.11 


. . . 




7 


74.6 


1450 


1016 


8.18 






8 


74.0 


970 


1019 


7.91 


0.424 


1.92 


9 


74.0 


620 


1028 


772 






10 


74.0 


543 


1027 


6.60 


0.390 


1.17 


11 


74.0 


1160 


1016 


7.03 






12 


74.0 


863 


1024 


5.37 


0.422 


1.52 


13 


74.0 


1410 


1015 


8.12 






14 


74.0 


1265 


1017 


8.04 


0.494 


1.94 


16 


74.0 


760 


1021 


6.93 






17 


74.0 


850 


1021 


7.34 


0.393 


1.50 


18 


74.0 


757 


1020 


6.84 


0.364 




19 


74.0 


720 


1025 


7.35 


0.456 


1.25 


20 


74.0 


655 


1027 


7.23 


0.474 




21 


74.0 


985 


1021 


7.44 


0.397 




22 


74.5 


590 


1026 


7.65 


0.395 


1.20 


28 


74.5 


1100 










24 


74.0 


1200 


1017 








25 




1030 










26 


74.0 


850 




7.00 


0.410 


1.72 


27 




935 


1020 


daily 


daily 


daily 


28 


74.5 


870 


1021 


average 


average 


average. 


29 


74.5 


993 


1017 








30 


74.5 


650 


1023 








Dec. 1 


74.5 


960 


1018 








2 




790 


1023 


7.28 


0.480 


1.80 


3 


74.0 


880 


1023 








4 




1200 


101(5 


j 







54 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



MENDEL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA- 


1903 


kilns 


c.c. 




grains 


gram 


grams 


Dec. 6 
6 


74.0 


930 
1080 


1021 
1019 


? 7.28 
) daily av. 


048U 
daily av. 


1.80 
daily av. 


7 


73.5 


790 


1023 








8 


73.5 


965 


1025 








9 


74.0 


1130 


1017 








10 


73.0 


630 


1031 


7.63 


0.438 


1.91 


11 


73.0 


925 


1019 








12 




1395 


1014 








13 


730 


1010 


1018 








14 




1030 


1020 


7.73 




. 


15 


73.0 


875 


1021 


7.88 






16 


. 


625 


1027 


6.48 






17 




700 


1027 


7.60 






18 




880 


1022 


8.39 






19 




935 


1020 


7.68 






20 




1075 


1019 


7.35 






21 




523 


1032 


6.37 


0.259 


1.10 


22 




1455 


1017 


8.99 






23 




920 


1021 


8.33 






24 




725 


1025 


8.66 






25 




865 


1024 


8.51 






26 




710 


1027 


7.54 






27 




910 


1026 








28 


. . 


30 


1026 








29 




730 


1027 








30 




670 


1033 








31 




630 


. . . 


7.64 


0.438 


1.16 


1904. 














Jan. 1 


. . 


550 










2 




1030 


1022 








3 


. 


1020 


1019 


, 






4 




750 


1021 


5.63 






6 




1030 


1016 


5.31 






6 


730 


815 


1023 


5.77 






7 


72.7 


930 


1019 


6.02 


0.436 


1.41 


8 


73.5 


1135 


1017 


5.72 






9 


72.2 


995 


1020 


639 






10 




1175 


1017 


6.84 






11 


72.0 


1050 


1017 


6.17 


0.443 


1.43 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 55 



MENDEL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


1V> S . 


1901 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Jan. 12 


72.2 


1230 


1015 


6.71 






13 


71.8 


1250 


1016 


7.43 






14 
15 
16 
17 


71.8 


1140 

965 
860 
1030 


1015 
1019 
1023 
1018 


7.05 
5.99 
6.71 
5.81 


f- 0.443 
daily 
average 


1.43 
daily 
average. 


18 




730 


1028 


5.74 






19 




825 


1023 


'6.58 






20 




1035 


1021 


6.70 






21 




725 


1030 


6.96 


[ 0.465 


1.48 


22 




815 


1023 


6.99 






23 




950 


1018 


6.27 






24 


71.6 


790 


1025 


5.93 






25 


71.3 


740 


1027 


5.33 






26 




600 


1030 


5.44 






27 




965 


1020 


6.89 






28 




1045 


1015 


6.33 


k 0.429 


1.29 


29 




895 


1017 


6.28 






30 


70.6 


660 


1027 


6.53 






31 




905 


1021 


6.79 






Feb. 1 


71.7 


695 


1025 


5.13 






2 




950 


1023 


6.84 






3 




1210 


1019 


8.10 






4 


71.5 


985 


1020 


6.74 


- 0.451 


1.40 


5 




1155 


1020 


6.51 






6 


71.1 


1035 


1019 


6.27 






7 


70.8 


760 


1025 


6.98 






8 


70.5 


800 


1022 


6.29 


. 


. . 


9 


70.6 


1150 


1023 


7.52 


0.448 




10 


70.4 


770 


1022 


6.75 


0.318 


. 


11 


69.2 


520 


1031 


6.71 


0.458 




12 


694 


565 


1033 


8.24 


0.390 




13 


69.4 


560 


1030 


7.83 


0.420 


. . . 


14 


69.2 


690 


1027 


7.99 


0.447 




15 


69.5 


680 


1027 


7.50 






16 




995 


1019 


6.86 






17 




1055 


1018 


5.63 


0.420 




18 


. . . 


1185 


1015 


6.11 






19 




712 


1025 


5.72 







56 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IX NUTRITION 



MENDEL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


l'A, 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


gram 


Feb. 20 


70.5 


1000 


1021 


7.38 


) 0.420 




21 


70.6 


1235 


1014 


693 


J daily UT. 




22 


. . . 


900 


1018 


6.16 






23 


70.2 


840 


1020 


5.49 






24 


. . . 


875 


1017 


5.83 






25 


70.5 


1450 


1018 


8.09 


0.488 




26 


70.2 


1485 


1015 


6.68 






27 


. 


1300 


1013 


593 






28 


69.2 


735 


1022 


5.91 






29 


. 


575 


1030 


6.21 






Mar. 1 




975 


1019 


7.51 






2 


70.5 


1240 


1015 


7.29 






3 




1400 


1013 


6.63 


0.462 


. 


4 


70.2 


1375 


1016 


7.34 






5 


6y.9 


1100 


1017 


700 






6 


70.0 


900 


1020 


6.51 


j 




7 


70.5 


970 


1017 


5.5:} 


1 




8 


70.9 


1220 


1015 


5.56 






9 


70.9 


1285 


1015 


5.70 






10 




1000 


1020 


6.24 


10.413 




11 


70.8 


1120 


1017 


5.98 






12 




1285 


1015 


655 






13 


70.4 


1110 


1015 


6.79 






14 


700 


690 


1024 


6.92 


1 




15 


706 


1240 


1017 


729 






16 


70.8 


1450 


1016 


7.47 






17 


70.2 


780 


1022 


6.41 


0.485 




18 




1230 


1012 


6.57 






19 


70.1 


780 


1027 


6.41 






20 




950 


1020 


6.21 






21 


70.7 


1005 


1020 


6.36 






22 


70.9 


1525 


1014 


6.50 






23 


706 


825 


1023 


6.39 






24 


70.4 


550 


1029 


6.07 


0527 




25 




1070 


1018 


6.93 






26 


70.8 


1100 


1017 


6.40 






27 


70.6 


1115 


1016 


6.82 






28 
29 


70.2 
705 


1185 
1370 


1015 
1014 


6.22 
6.58 


0.389 





PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 57 



MENDEL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Mar. 30 


70.3 


1185 


1016 


6.26 






31 


70.3 


1325 


1013 


5.96 






Apr. 1 




1060 


1016 


6.30 


0.389 




2 


70.6 


1115 


1016 


6.42 


daily 




3 


70.3 


1290 


1013 


6.39 


average 




4 


70.0 


845 


1022 


6.44 


1 




5 




1110 


1020 


6.39 






6 




1055 


1022 


7.53 






7 




575 


1027 


6.42 


0.356 


1.54 


8 




650 


1031 


6.94 






9 




795 


1026 


7.06 






10 




1230 


1020 


7.01 






11 




850 


1021 


5.61 






12 


. 


1005 


1018 


6.66 






13 




695 


1020 


5.75 






14 


69.6 


910 


1027 


5.79 


0.419 




15 


70.1 


1000 


1018 


6.42 






16 


70.9 


1590 


1016 


6.30 






17 


70.8 


1250 


1015 


5.25 






18 


70.5 


985 


1020 


5.79 






19 


70.7 


1230 


1016 


5.90 






20 


70.5 


1485 


1014 


5.70 






21 


70.1 


1125 


1023 


7.09 


0.453 




22 


70.3 


1665 


1013 


7.09 






23 


G9.8 


935 


1023 


6.06 






24 


69.7 


1100 


1018 


6.07 






25 


69.6 


935 


1021 


5.78 






26 


69.9 


1000 


1021 


6.18 






27 


70.1 


1295 


1015 


6.06 






28 


70.0 


1425 


1013 


5.56 


- 0.373 


. 


29 


70.2 


990 


1022 


6.24 






30 


702 


1100 


1021 


7.32 






May 1 


70.0 


1380 


1014 


5.96 






2 


69.8 


1050 


1016 


5.35 


1 




3 


69.8 


700 


1022 


5.46 






4 


69.5 


900 


1019 


6.48 






5 


69.6 


750 


1023 


6.52 


}- 0.260 




6 


69.7 


1120 


1019 


726 






7 




1010 


1020 


6.00 


I 





58 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



MENDEL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1004 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


gram 


May 8 




1165 


1015 


6.01 


0.26C 




9 


69.7 


880 


1020 


5.38 






10 


70.0 


935 


1019 


5.22 






11 


69.6 


1050 


1017 


6.05 






12 


69.8 


950 


1020 


6.15 


0.408 




13 




1060 


1020 


6.62 


daily 




14 


69.5 


1520 


1015 


6.47 


average. 




15 


69.3 


1345 


1014. 


6.65 






16 


69.0 


1230 


1015 


5.09 






17 


68.4 


775 


1019 


5.11 






18 


69.2 


660 


1021 


6.06 






19 


68.6 


905 


1018 


7.17 






20 


69.4 


685 


1022 


6.33 






21 


69.1 


1142 


1018 


6.78 






22 


69.5 


1055 


1019 


5.70 


. 0.325 




23 


69.6 


1053 


1018 


5.75 






24 


69.8 


895 


1020 


6.39 ' 






25 


69.4 


900 


1018 


6.05 




* 


26 


69. 7 


725 


1025 


6.55 






27 


70.0 


705 


1026 


7.36 






28 


71.0 


1115 


1020 


8.23 


1 0.476 




29 




1370 


1016 


7.83 







30 


69.7 


740 


1023 


7.10 


J 




31 


. 


1135 


1017 


593 






June 1 




1300 


1018 


6.86 






2 




1420 


1014 


6.06 






3 


69.7 


1447 


1015 


7.03 






4 




1383 


1016 


5.97 






5 


. 


1530 


1015 


6.43 






6 




870 


1023 


5.53 






7 


. 


1010 


1013 


4.91 






8 




815 


1019 


5.53 









. . . 


865 


1019 


6.59 






10 


69.7 


1110 


1015 


6.36 






11 




1410 


1017 


6.95 






12 


69.1 


1510 


1014 


6.07 






13 


. . . 


1100 


1016 


6.94 






14 




1090 


1018 


5.43 






15 




1380 


1017 


6.46 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 59 



MENDEL. 







Urine. 


Date. 


Body- 
weight. 




Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


June 16 


70.0 


1760 


1014 


6.65 






17 


. 


1755 


1013 


6.63 






18 




1075 


1026 


6.06 


. 




19 


70.0 


1285 


1016 


6.55 






20 




685 


1022 


5.44 






21 




595 


1024 


6.93 


. 




22 




655 


1023 


7.07 






23 




1230 


1015 


7.45 






Daily aver, from 












Xov. 10, 1903. 


1001 


1020 


6.53 


0.419 


1.46 



From November 10, 1903, to June 23, 1904, a period of 
about seven months and a half, the average daily excretion of 
nitrogen through the urine was 6.53 grams. In other words, 
throughout this long period the average daily amount of pro- 
teid matter metabolized was 40.8 grams, only a little more than 
i one-third the amount called for by the Voit standard. Until 
February, the body-weight gradually fell, but from the early 
part of February until the end of the experiment the body- 
weight remained practically stationary at 70 kilos. Dr. Men- 
del, however, from the necessities of his daily work in the 
laboratory was compelled to a much greater degree of physical 
activity than the subject of the preceding experiment, and con- 
sequently required a larger amount of non-nitrogenous food 
than the latter. Further, owing to his greater physical activ- 
ity and the necessary variations in this daily activity, it was 
not so easy at first to attain equilibrium. 

On February 9, a balance experiment of six days was com- 
menced, with a careful comparison of the nitrogen intake and 
output. In the accompanying tables are shown all of the 
data. By scrutiny of these it will be seen that Dr. Mendel had 
adopted essentially a vegetarian diet. During this period of 



60 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

six days, however, he was not in nitrogen equilibrium, neither 
was he strictly in body equilibrium, since there was a distinct 
tendency for the body to fall off in weight. In this connec- 
tion it may be mentioned that there is always a tendency dur- 
ing a balance experiment of this character for the subject to 
eat less than he is ordinarily accustomed to, owing to the 
tediousness of weighing every particle of food consumed. 
Further, for the same reason, and to avoid excess of chemical 
work in the analysis of samples of food, he is inclined to 
limit his diet to a few articles and thereby unconsciously 
restricts his intake of food, sometimes disastrously so. ' 



MENDEL. 



Tuesday, February 9, 1904. 

Breakfast. Bread 33 grams, sugar 20 grams, coffee and milk 210 grams. 
Lunch. Consomme 150 grams, sweet potato 170 grams, bread 135 grams, 

tomato 106 grams, coffee and milk 210 grams, sugar 20 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 75 grams, mashed potato 200 grams, string beans 91 grams, 

apple pie 282 grams, coffee and milk 210 grams, sugar 20 grams, water 

100 grams. 



Food. Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 

Bread . . .33+135 + 75 = 243 X 1.36 = 3.30 grams. 

Sugar ... 20+ 20 + 20 = 60 X 0.00 = 0.00 

Coffee (breakfast) 210 X 0.10 = 0.21 

Consomme 150 X 0.38 = 0.57 

Sweet potato 170 X 0.28 = 0.48 

Tomato 106 X 0.19 = 0.20 

Coffee (lunch) 210 X 0.15 = 0.32 

Potato 200 X 0.36 = 0.72 

String beans 91 X 0.26 = 0.24 

Apple pie 282 X 0.49 = 1.38 

Coffee (dinner) 210 X 0.099 = 0.21 

Total nitrogen in food 7.63 grama 

Total nitrogen in urine 7.52 



Fuel value of the food .... 2297 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 61 
MENDEL. 

Wednesday, February JO, 1904. 

Breakfast. Bread 37 grams, sugar 20 grams, coffee and milk 210 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 110 grams, sugar 7 grams, milk 250 grams, apple fritters 

90 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 37 grams, sugar 21 grams, baked beans 100 grams, cranberry 

sauce 125 grams, coffee and milk 210 grams, molasses candy 54 grams. 



Pood. 


Grams. 


Per 


cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 


Bread . . .37 + 110 + 37 


= 184 


X 


1.65 





3 04 grams, 


Sugar ... 20 + 7 + 21 


= 48 


X 


0.00 





0.00 


Coffee (breakfast) 


. 210 


X 


0.12 





0.25 


Milk 


. 250 


X 


0.55 





1.37 


Apple fritters 


90 


x 


0.45 





0.40 


Baked beans 


. 100 


X 


1.40 


_ 


1.40 


Cranberry sauce 


. 125 


X 


0.04 


= 


0.05 


Coffee (dinner) 


. 210 


X 


0.11 


= 


0.23 


Candy 


. 54 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.03 


Total nitroge 


n in food 








6.77 crams. 



Fuel value of the food .... 1673 calories. 



Thursday, February 11, 1904- 

Breakfast. Bread 40 grams, sugar 20 grams, coffee and milk 210 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 95 grams, sweet potato 130 grams, sugar 7 grams, milk 250 

grams, peach preserve 93 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 90 grams, mashed potato 100 grams, tomato pure'e 135 grams, 

baked beans 75 grams, lemon pie 110 grams, coffee and milk 210 grams, 

sugar 21 grams. 



Food. Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 

Bread ... 40 + 95 + 90 = 225 X 1.75 = 3.94 grams. 

Sugar ... 20+ 7 + 21 = 48 X 0.00 = 0.00 

Coffee (breakfast) 210 X 0.096 = 0.20 

Sweet potato . 130 X 031 = 0.40 

Milk 250 X 0.51 = 1.27 



62 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



MENDEL. 

Peach preserve 93 

Potato 100 

Tomato puree 135 

Baked beans 75 

Lemon pie 110 

Coffee (dinner) 210 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine . 



X 


0.09 





0.08 


X 


0.36 


= 


0.36 


x 


0.33 





0.45 


X 


1.30 





0.98 


X 


061 





0.67 


X 


0.13 


= 


0.27 








8.62 grams. 
6.71 



1 



Fuel value of the food 



1828 calories. 



Friday, February 12, 1904. 

Breakfast. Bread 58 grams, sugar 21 grams, coffee and milk 210 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 120 grams, sugar 21 grams, custard 76 grams, milk 250 grams, 

coffee and milk 125 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 67.5 grams, sugar 21 grams, mashed potato 150 grams, lima 

beans 80 grams, coffee and milk 210 grams, apple dumpling 131 grams, 

molasses candy 27 grams. 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 



Bread . 58 + 120 + 67.5 
Sugar . 21+21 + 21 
Coffee (breakfast) . . . , 
Custard , 
Milk 
Coffee (lunch) 
Potato 


= 245.5 
= 63.0 
, . 210.0 
, . 76.0 
. 250.0 
. 125.0 
. 150.0 
. 80.0 
. 210.0 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


1.71 

0.00 
0.11 
0.83 
0.48 
0.078 
0.37 
0.90 
0.12 
0.72 
0.06 


= 


4.20 grams. 
0.00 
0.23 
0.63 
1.20 
0.10 
0.56 
0.72 
0.25 
0.94 
0.00 
8.83 grams. 
8.24 


Coffee (dinner) 
Apple dumpling 
Candy 






, . 131.0 
5>7n 




Total nitrogen in food . 
Total nitroeren in urine . 



Fuel value of the food .... 1929 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



MENDEL. 

Saturday, February 13, 1904. 

Breakfast. Bread 47.5 grams, sugar 28 grams, coffee and milk 210 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 57 grams, sugar 40 grams, sweet potato 135 grams, quince 

preserve 73 grams, apple turnovers 118 grams, coffee and milk 

310 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 59 grams, mashed potato 175 grams, peas 80 grams, apple pie 

141.5 grams, sugar 21 grams, coffee and milk 210 grams. 

Food. Grams. Per cent Nitrogen . Total Nitrogen. 



Bread . . 47.5 + 57 + 59 = 


164.0 


X 


1.64 


= 


2.69 grams. 


Sugar . . 28 +40 + 21 = 


89.0 


X 


0.00 





0.00 . 


Coffee (breakfast) 


210.0 


X 


0.11 


= 


0.23 


Sweet potato 


135.0 


X 


0.37 


= 


0.50 


Quince preserve 


73.0 


X 


0.047 


= 


0.03 


Apple turnovers 


118.0 


X 


0.96 


= 


1.13 


Coffee (lunch) 


310.0 


X 


0.16 


= 


0.47 


Potato 


175.0 


x 


0.37 





0.65 


Peas . . ... 


80.0 


x 


0.96 


_ 


0.77 


Apple pie 


141.5 


X 


0.43 


= 


0.61 


Coffee (dinner) 


210.0 


x 


0.11 


__ 


0.23 


Total nitrogen 


in food . 








7.31 grams 


Total nitrogen 


in urine . 








7.83* 



Fuel value of the food .... 2057 calories. 



64 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



MENDEL. 



Sunday, February 14, 1904. 

Breakfast. Bread 50 grams, sugar 21 grams, banana 92.5 grams, coffee and 

milk 210 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 108.5 grams, sugar 28 grams, baked potato 165 grams, apple 

sauce 114 grams, coffee and milk 210 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 63 grams, sugar 28 grams, succotash 75 grams, mashed potato 

200 grams, chocolate layer cake 80 grams, ice cream 73 grams, coffee and 

milk 210 grams. 

Food. Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 

Bread . 50 + 108.5 + 63 = 221.5 X 1.75 = 3.87 grams. 

Sugar . 21+ 28 +28 = 77.0 X 0.00 = 0.00 

Banana 925 X 0.20 = 0.19 

Coffee (breakfast) 210.0 X 0.11 = 0.23 

Baked potato 165.0 X 0.41 = 0.68 

Apple sauce 114.0 X 0.029 = 0.03 

Coffee (lunch) 210.0 X 0.10 = 0.21 

Succotash 75.0 X 0.57 = 0.43 

Mashed potato 200.0 X 0.37 = 0.74 

Chocolate cake 80.0 X 0.75 = 0.60 

Ice cream 73.0 X 0.58 = 0.42 

Coffee (dinner) 210.0 X 0.11 = 0.23 

Total nitrogen in food 7.63 grams 

Total nitrogen in urine 7.99 



Fuel value of the food .... 2065 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 65 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Zfendel. 



Nitrogen Output. 
Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 


Feb. 9 


7.63 grams. 


7.52 grams. . . . 


10 


6.77 


6.75 






11 


8.62 


6.71 






12 
13 


8.83 
7.31 


8.24 
7.83 


531 
> contain 5.84% N = 6.248 grm. 
54) 


N. 


14 


7.63 


7.99 


39.2 contain 6.72 % N - 2.634 










146.2 8.882 grm. 


N, 




46.79 


45.04 


+ 8.882 grams nitrogen. 




46.79 grams N 




53.92 grams nitrogen. 



Nitrogen balance for six days = 7.13 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day 1.19 grams. 

Average Intake. 

Calories per dny 1975. 

Nitrogen per day 7.83 grams. 



66 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

In this balance period of six days the average daily intake 
of nitrogen was 7.83 grams, coupled with an average fuel value 
of the food per day of 1975 calories. This latter value was 
obviously too small for a man of Dr. Mendel's body-weight, 
and doing the amount of physical work he was called upon to 
perform. Being on one's feet in a laboratory six to eight 
hours a day, in addition to the ordinary activity of a vigorous 
man leading a strenuous life, necessitates the utilization and 
oxidation of considerable food material. The average daily 
output of nitrogen through the urine amounted to 7.50 grams, 
considerably above the average daily excretion for the seven 
months' period. Still, under these conditions there was a 
minus balance of 7.13 grams of nitrogen for the six days' 
period, indicating that the body was drawing upon its stock of 
proteid material to the extent of 1.19 grams of nitrogen per 
day. This does not necessarily mean that the body had need 
of that additional amount of proteid matter each day, but 
rather that the amount of total energy required was beyond 
the potential energy supplied by the food. There not being 
sufficient non-nitrogenous food at hand, the body was com- 
pelled to draw upon its own resources, and in so doing utilized 
some of its tissue proteid. This is made quite clear by the 
results of the second balance period shortly to be described. 

It is evident, however, that while the body was not in nitro- 
gen equilibrium for this particular period of six days, there 
must have been a general condition of both body and nitrogen 
equilibrium, otherwise the body-weight would not have re- 
mained practically stationary for so long a period as from 
February 7 to June 20. 

Commencing May 18, a second nitrogen balance was at- 
tempted, in which, as in the preceding case, there was a care- 
ful comparison of income and output for seven days. There 
was as before a free choice of food, but it was essentially 
vegetable in character. A greater variety of foods was taken, 
however, and an effort was made to have the non-nitrogenous 
food somewhat more liberal in amount, though in as close 
harmony as possible with the desires of the appetite. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 67 



MENDEL. 



Wednesday, May 18, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana 92 grams, bread rolls 28 grams, cream 50 grams, coffee 

150 grams, sugar 21 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 66 grams, soup 150 grams, farina 154 grams, sweet potato 123 

grams, beans 70 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 50 

grams, sugar 14 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 42 grams, consomme 100 grams, spinach 100 grams, mashed 

potato 250 grams, apple pie 97 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 50 grams, 

sugar 21 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


IliUlillKl 


92 


x 


0.23 





0.212 grams. 


Bread rolls . . 


28 


X 


1.66 





0.465 


Creini 


50 


x 


0.46 





0.230 


Coffee . 


150 


X 


0.066 


_ 


0.099 


Sugar .... 


21 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Bread. . . . 


66 


X 


1.60 


= 


1.056 


Soup .... 


150 


x 


0.41 


= 


0.615 


Farina . . . 


154 


X 


1.09 


= 


1.678 


Sweet Potato . 


123 


x 


0.32 





0.394 


Beans . . . 


70 


X 


0.34 


= 


0.288 


Syrup . . . 


50 


X 


0.024 


= 


0.012 


Coffee . . . 


150 


x 


0.057 


= 


0.086 


Cream 


50 


x 


0.46 


_ 


0.230 


Sugar . . . 


14 


x 


0.00 


- 


0.000 


Bread . . . 


42 


XI 


1.80 


= 


0.756 


Consomme' . . 


100 


X 


0.38 


= 


0.380 


Spinach . . . 


100 


X 


0.53 


= 


0.530 


Mashed potato 


250 


X 


0.38 


= 


0.950 


Apple pie . . 


97 


X 


0.43 


= 


0.417 


Coffee. . . . 


150 


X 


0.06 





0.090 


Cream . . . 


50 


x 


0.46 


= 


0.230 


Sugar . 


. . 21 


x 


0.00 





0.000 




Total nitrogen in food 








8.668 grams. 




Total nitrogen in urine 








6.060 



Fuel value of the food .... 2359 calories. 



68 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



MENDEL. 



Thursday, May 19, 1904 

Breakfast. Banana 102 grams, bread rolls 50 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 

60 grams, sugar 21 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 57 grams, egg omelette 20 grams, hominy 137 grams, syrup 68 

grams, potatoes 128 grams, coffee 100 grams, sugar 21 grams, cream 50 

grams. 
Dinner. Tomato puree 200 grams, bread 24 grams, fried sweet potato 100 

grams, spinach 70 grams, Indian meal 100 grams, syrup 25 grams, coffee 

100 grams, sugar 21 grams, cream 40 grams. 



Food. 
Banana 


Grams. 
10'2 


Per cent Nitrogen. 
X 0.23 
X L54 = 
X 0.06 = 
X 0.47 = 
X 0.00 = 
X 1.60 
X 1.58 
X 0.20 
X 0.024 = 
X 0.49 = 
X 0.06 = 
X 047 
X 0.00 = 
X 0.53 = 
X 1.74 = 
X 0.38 = 
X 0.56 
X 0.20 = 
X 0.024 = 
X 0.06 = 

X 000 rr 

X 0.47 = 


Total Nitrogen. 
0.235 grams. 
0.770 
0.090 
0.235 
0.000 
0.912 
0.316 
0.274 
0.016 
0.627 
0.060 
0.235 
0.000 
1.060 
0.418 
0.380 
0.392 
0.200 
0.006 
0.060 
0.000 
0.188 
6.474 grams. 
7.170 


Bread rolls . 


50 


Coffee . . . 


. 150 


Cream . . . 
Sugar .... 


50 
21 


Bread . . 


57 




20 


Hominy 


. . . 137 




68 


Potatoes . . . 
Coffee . . . 
Cream . . . 
Sugar .... 
Tomato puree . 
Bread. . . . 


128 
100 
50 
21 
200 
24 
100 


Spinach . . . 


70 
100 


Syrup . . . 
Coffee . . . 
Sugar 


25 
100 
21 


Cream . . . 


40 
Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 




. . . . 


. . 



Fuel value of the food .... 2072 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 09 



MENDEL. 



Friday, May 20, 1904. 

Breakfast. Sliced orange 140 grams, coffee 100 grams, cream 30 grams, sugar 

21 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 28 grams, mashed potato 250 grams, lima beans 40 grams, 

coffee 100 grams, sugar 21 grams, cream 30 grams, fried hominy 1 15 

grams, syrup 48 grams. 
Dinner Bread 19 grams, consomme 150 grams, string beans 140 grams, 

mashed potato 250 grams, rice croquette 93 grams, cranberry jam 95 

grams, coffee 100 grams, sugar 21 grams, cream 30 grams, syrup 25 

grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Sliced orange 


140 


x 


0.20 





0.280 


Coffee . . . 


100 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.060 


Cream . . . 


30 


X 


0.44 


= 


0.132 


Sugar 


21 


x 


0.00 





0.000 


Bread .... 


28 


x 


1.71 


_ 


0.479 


Mashed potato 


250 


X 


0.30 


= 


0.750 


Lima beans 


40 


x 


0.76 


r= 


0.304 


Coffee . . 


100 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.060 


Sugar 


21 


x 


0.00 





0.000 


Cream . . . 


30 


X 


0.44 


_ 


0.132 


Fried hominy . 


115 


X 


0.57 


= 


0.656 


Syrup . . . 


48 


x 


0.024 


= 


0.012 


Bread . . . 


19 


X 


1.97 


= 


0.374 


Consomme . . 


150 


X 


0.59 





0.885 


String beans . 


140 


X 


0.36 





0.504 


Mashed potato 


250 


X 


0.34 


= 


0.850 


Rice croquettes 


93 


X 


1.06 


= 


0.986 


Cranberry jam 


95 


X 


0.03 


= 


0.029 


Coffee 


.... .100 


x 


0.06 





0.060 


Sugar 


21 


x 


0.00 


_ 


0.000 


Cream 


30 


x 


0.44 





0.132 


Syrup . . . 


25 


X 


0.024 


=S 


0.006 




Total nitrogen in food 








6.691 grams. 




Total nitrogen in urine 




. . . . 




6.330 



Fuel value of the food 



1915 calories. 



70 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IX NUTRITION 



MENDEL. 



Saturday, May 21, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana 153 grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 21 grams, cream 80 

grams. 
Lunch. Bread 25 grams, potato croquette 229 grams, Indian meal 109 grams, 

tomato 123 grams, syrup 48 grams, coffee 100 grams, sugar 14 grams, 

cream 20 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 31 grams, bean soup 100 grams, fried potato 200 grams, bacon 

5 grams, lettuce-orange salad 47 grams, prunes 137 grams, coffee 100 

grams, sugar 21 grams, cream 25 grams, banana 255 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Banana 


153 


x 


0.23 


_ 


0.352 grams. 


Coffee 


150 


x 


0.06 


_ 


0.090 


Sugar 


21 


x 


0.00 


_ 


0.000 


Cream 


30 


x 


0.43 


_ 


0.129 


Bread 


25 


X 


1.82 


- 


0.455 


Potato croquette 


229 


X 


0.71 


= 


1.626 


Indian meal 


109 


X 


1.09 


= 


1.188 


Tomato 


123 


X 


0.17 


= 


0.209 


Syrup 


48 


x 


0.024 





0.012 


Coffee 


100 


X 


0.06 





0.060 


Sugar 


14 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Cream 


20 


X 


043 





0.086 


Bread 


31 


x 


1.62 





0.502 


Bean soup 


100 


x 


1.21 





1.210 


Fried potato 


200 


x 


0.00 





1.200 


Bacon 


5 


X 


3.05 





0.153 


Lettuce-orange salad . . . . 


47 


X 


0.21 


= 


0.099 


Prunes 


137 


X 


0.16 





0.219 


Coffee 


100 


x 


0.00 





0.060 


Sugar 


21 


X 


0.00 


I 


0.000 


Cream 


25 


x 


0.43 





0.108 


Banana 


255 


x 


0.23 




0.587 


Total nitrogen 


in food 








8.345 grams. 


Total nitrogen 


in urine 








6.780 



Fuel value of the food .... 2485 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 71 



MENDEL. 



Sunday, May 22, 1904-. 

Breakfast. Banana 220 grams, orange 60 grams, coffee 100 grams, sugar 21 

grams, cream 25 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 35 grams, potato 300 grams, fried rice 160 grams, syrup 63 

grams, ice cream 84 grams, coffee 100 grams, sugar 14 grams. 
Dinner. Cream of celery soup 100 grams, bread 21 grams, mashed potato 250 

grams, spinach 40 grains, French fried potato 100 grams, strawberry 

short-cake 120 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Banana 


... 220 


x 


0.23 





0.506 grams. 


Orange . 


60 


x 


0.20 


_ 


0.120 


Coffee ...... 


... 100 


X 


0.06 


- 


0.060 


Sugar 


... 21 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Cream 


25 


x 


0.45 





0.113 


Bread ...... 


. . . . 35 


X 


1.57 


= 


0.550 


Potato 


... ;;oo 


X 


0.30 





0.900 


Fried rice 


... 160 


x 


0.75 


= 


1.200 


Syrup 


... 63 


X 


0024 


= 


0.015 


Ice cream .... 


... 84 


X 


0.53 


= 


0.445 


Coffee 


100 


x 


0.06 


= 


0.060 


Suo'ar . 


, . 14 


x 


0.00 





0.000 


Cream of celery soup 


. ... 100 


x 


0.33 





0.330 


Bread 


. . . . 21 


X 


1.91 


= 


0.401 


Mashed potato . . 


. ... 250 


X 


0.37 


= 


0.925 


Spinach 


. . . . 40 


X 


0.55 


= 


0.220 


French fried potato . 


. ... 100 


X 


0.57 


= 


0.570 


Strawberry short-cake 


... 120 


x 


0.50 





0.600 


Total 


nitrogen in food 








7 015 grams. 


Total 


nitrosren in urine 








5.700 



Fuel value of the food . 



, 2321 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



MENDEL. 



Monday, May 23, 190$,. 

Breakfast. Banana 229 grams, coffee 125 grams, sugar 21 grams, cream 25 
grams. 

Lunch. Bread 58 grams, apple sauce 125 grams, scrambled egg 15 grams, 
consomme 75 grams, fried potato 170 grams, rice croquette 197 grams, 
syrup 68 grams, coffee 100 grams, sugar 21 grams, cream 80 grams. 

Dinner. Bread 72.5 grams, vegetable soup 100 grams, potato croquette H)8 
grams, bacon 7 grams, string beans 120 grams, water ice 77 grams, 
coffee 100 grams, cream 30 grams, sugar 14 grams, banana 270 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 
229 
125 
21 
25 
58 
125 
16 
75 
170 
197 
68 
100 
21 
30 
72.5 
100 
198 

120 
77 
100 
30 
14 
270 
in food 
in urine 


Per cent Nitrogen. 
X 0.23 
X 0.06 = 
X 0.00 = 
X 0.45 = 
X 1.63 
X 0.02 = 
X 2.07 
X 0.65 = 
X 0.60 
X 0.61 = 
X 0.024 = 
X 0.06 = 
X 0.00 = 
X 0.45 
X 1.75 = 
X 0.70 = 
X 0.77 
X 3.28 = 
X 0.22 
X 0.006 = 
X 0.06 = 
X 0.45 = 
X 0.00 = 
X 0.23 = 


Total Nitrogen. 
0.527 grams. 
0.075 
0.000 
0.113 
0.945 
0.025 
0.311 
0.488 
1.020 
1.202 
0.016 
0.060 
0.000 
0.135 
1.269 
0.700 
1.525 
0.230 
0.264 
0.005 
0.060 
0.135 
0.000 
0621 
9.726 grams. 
5.750 


Coffee 


Sugar 


Bread 
Apple sauce 
Scrambled egg 


Fried potato 
Rice croquette 
Syrup 
Coffee 
Sugar 


Bread 
Soup . 


Potato croquette 
Bacon ... 


String beans 
Water ice 
Coffee . . 


Cream 


Sugar 
Banana 
Total nitrogen 
Total nitrogen 









Fuol value of the food 



2756 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 73 



MENDEL. 



Tuesday, May 24, 1904. 

Breakfast. Orange 100 grains, rolls ."7 grams, rice 50 grams, syrup 25 grains, 

coffee 125 grams, sugar 21 grams, cream 50 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 77 grams, cream of celery soup 125 grams, mashed potato 270 

grams, tomato sauce 50 grams, farina croquette 191 grams, syrup 78 

grams, coffee 75 grams, cream 20 grams, sugar 7 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 49 grams, tomato soup 200 grams, French fried potato 200 

grams, spinach 50 grams, farina croquette 276 grams, syrup 100 grains, 

coffee 100 grams, sugar 14 grams, cream 50 grams. 



Food. 
Orange 
Bread rolls 
Rice 
Syrup 
Coffee . . ... 


Grams. 
100 
37 
50 
25 
125 


Pei 

X 
X 
X 
X 

x 


cent Nitrogen. 

0.20 = 
1.64 - 
0,36 
0.024 = 
006 


Total Nitrogen. 
0.200 grams. 
0.607 
0.180 
0.006 
0075 


Sugar 
Cream 
Bread 
Celery soup 
Mashed potato 
Tomato sauce 
Farina croquette 


21 
50 
77 
126 

270 
50 
191 

78 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

x 


0.00 = 
0.45 = 
1.66 = 
0.48 = 
0.26 = 
023 = 
0.74 = 
0024 


0.000 
0.225 
1.278 
0.600 
0.702 
0.115 
1.413 
0019 


Coffee 


75 


x 


O.H6 - 


0045 


Cream . . . . 


20 


x 


0.46 


0090 


Sugar 
Bread 
Tomato soup 
French fried potato 


7 
49 
200 
200 
50 


x 

X 

x 

X 

x 


0.00 = 
1.82 = 
0.19 
0.46 = 
054 


0.000 
0.892 
0.380 
0.920 
0270 




276 


x 


076 


2098 


Syrup 
Coffee 


100 
100 


X 

Y 


0.024 = 
0.06 


0.024 
0.060 


Sugar 


14 


x 


000 


0000 


Cream 


50 


Y 


0.45 - 


0.225 


Total nitrogen 


in food 






10 424 grams 


Total nitrogen 


in urine 






. 6.390 



Fuel value of the food . , 



3229 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Mendel. 



Nitrogen Output. 
Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Fasces (dry). 


May 18 


8.668 grams. 


6.06 grams. 


14 gran 


IS. 




19 


6.474 


7.17 


39 






20 


6.691 


6.33 


30 






21 


8.345 


6.78 


83 contain 6.06% N 5.03 grm. 


N. 


22 


7.015 


5.70 








23 


9.726 


5.75 


38 






24 


10.424 


6.39 


57 




N. 


95 contain 5.76% N = 5.47 grm. 










10.50 grm. 


N. 




57.343 


44.18 + 


10 50 grams nitrogen. 


57.343 grams N. 


54.68 grams nitrogen. 


Nitrogen balance for seven days = 


+2.663 grams. 




Nitrogen balance per day 


+0.380 gram. 






Calories per day . 
Nitrogen per day 


Average Intake. 


. 2448. 
. 8.192 grams. 









PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 75 

In this period of seven days the average daily intake of 
nitrogen was 8.192 grams, or only 0.36 gram per day more 
than in the first balance period, while the average fuel value of 
the food amounted to 2448 calories per day. Yet the average 
daily output of nitrogen through the urine for this period 
was 6.31 grams, or 1.2 grams per day less than in the first 
balance experiment. Further, under the conditions of this 
balance experiment, the body was laying up 0.380 gram of 
nitrogen per day, i. ., showing a plus balance of 2.66 grams 
of nitrogen for the seven days' period. Again, it is to be 
noted that the average daily amount of nitrogen metabolized, 
6-31 grams, was 0.22 gram less than the average daily nitro- 
gen excretion for the entire seven months' period, 6.53 grams. 
Evidently, this subject was quite able to maintain nitrogen 
equilibrium with a metabolism of only 6.31 grams of nitrogen 
per day, on a daily diet having a fuel value of about 2400 
calories. Indeed, taking into account the amount of the 
plus nitrogen balance, it is evident that the daily food was 
somewhat in excess of the real requirements of the body, 
under the then existing conditions of body-weight and bodily 
activity. 

Again, we would call attention to the thorough utilization 
of the food in this experiment, emphasizing at the same time 
the voluminous character of the diet, together with its largely 
vegetable nature. . The contrast between the diet made use 
of by Dr. Mendel and that used by the subject of the first 
experiment is quite striking, since the latter employed a 
much more concentrated diet with an average fuel value of 
only 1600 calories. Yet with a total intake of 57.343 grams 
of nitrogen for the seven days of Dr. Mendel's balance period, 
10.5 grams only passed out through the rectum, or 18.3 per 
cent, while in the second nitrogen balance of the first subject, 
with the more concentrated diet, 17.1 per cent of the total 
ingested nitrogen appeared in the fteces. In view of the 
great divergence in the character and volume of the intake, 
it is rather remarkable there should be so little difference in 
the relative utilization of the two diets. 



76 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

Finally, taking the average daily excretion of nitrogen 
through the kidneys from November 10 to June 23, as a 
measure of the nitrogen metabolized daily, viz., 6.53 grams, 
and taking the body-weight at 70 kilos, it is plain to see that 
the nitrogen metabolized per kilo of body-weight throughout 
this experiment was 0.093 gram, closely similar to the result 
obtained with the first subject. In other words, both of these 
subjects, though widely different in body-weight, under dif- 
ferent degrees of physical activity, and living on different 
forms of diet, seemingly required for the maintenance of 
equilibrium essentially the same amount of nitrogen per 
kilo of body-weight ; viz., with the first subject 0.0947 gram, 
if we take the lower figure of the last two months, and 0.093 
gram with the second subject. 

Regarding the fuel value of the daily food, Dr. Mendel 
with a body- weight of 70 kilos, during the second balance 
period, apparently utilized on an average 34.9 calories per 
kilo of body-weight daily, while the first subject, of 57 kilos 
body-weight, made use of only 28 calories per kilo. The fuel 
value of the daily food must, however, as is well known, vary 
greatly with differing degrees of physical activity, from which 
arises the necessity for corresponding variation in the amounts 
of non-nitrogenous foods ingested. 

Dr. Frank P. Underbill, instructor in physiological chemis- 
try in the Sheffield Scientific School, is another subject of 
experiment who volunteered to study on himself the effects 
of a lowered proteid intake. Prior to the experiment he was 
in the habit of eliminating from 16 to 16.5 grams of nitrogen 
per day through the kidneys, representing the usual 105 
grams of proteid food metabolized. 

Dr. Underbill, at the beginning of the experiment, July 1, 
1903, was twenty-six years of age and weighed 67.6 kilos. 
For a period of two weeks, from July 14 to August 2, he 
gradually reduced the intake of proteid food as well as the 
total amount of food consumed, doing this in part by dimin- 
ishing the quantity eaten at breakfast, and in smaller meas- 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 77 

ure at the two other meals of the day. During this period 
of two weeks, the urine and faeces were analyzed with the 
results shown in the accompanying table. Regarding the 
extent of proteid metabolism, it will be seen that the nitrogen 
content of the urine fell from 14.28 grams per day down to 
5 to 6 grams per day. Having reached this level, the subject 
maintained it throughout the summer of 1903, occasional 
analyses being made to demonstrate the level of nitrogen 
excretion. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Faeces. 


Total 
Nitrogen. 


Volume. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Moist. 


Dry. 


Nitrogen. 


1903. 




c.c. 




grams. 


grams. 


grams. 


grams. 


grams. 


July 14 


67.6 


1300 


1018 


14.28 


156.0 


30.5 


1.59 


15.87 


15 


67.6 


1095 


1020 


11.72 


70.0 


17.0 


0.80 


12.52 


16 


67.1 


860 


1021 


11.72 


182.5 


44.5 


2.12 


13.84 


17 


66.9 


675 


1022 


9.39 


134.0 


43.0 


205 


11.44 


18 


66.3 


865 


1021 


10.45 


57.5 


20.0 


0.95 


11.40 


19 


65.7 


785 


1021 


10.34 


170.0 


41.0 


1.95 


12.29 


20 


65.7 


740 


1024 


10.34 


76.0 


35.0 


1.66 


12.00 


21 


65.7 


910 


1017 


11.61 


96.0 


32.0 


1.52 


13.13 


22 


65.7 


900 


1013 


9.50 


66.0 


31.0 


1.75 


11.25 


23 


65.3 


600 


1017 


8.65 


41.0 


14.0 


0.79 


9.35 


24 


65.0 


640 


1013 


6.65 


151-0 


33.0 


1.86 


8.51 


25 


65.3 


690 


1012 


6.01 


86.0 


29.0 


1.63 


7.64 


26 


65.3 


410 


1023 


6.65 


57.0 


19.0 


1.06 


7.71 


27 


65.7 


530 


1017 


6.75 


202.0 


33.0 


1.86 


8.61 


28 


65.7 


610 


1013 


5.49 


1550 


26.0 


1.46 


6.95 


29 


66.4 


620 


1017 


5.96 


121.0 


26.0 


1.46 


7.42 


30 


66.3 


700 


1016 


5.80 


233.0 


48.0 


-i 7 1 


8.51 


31 


658 


1265 


1010 


6.70 


211.0 


36.0 


2.03 


8.73 


Aug. 1 


653 


1240 


1009 


6.23 


1720 


23.0 


1.29 


7.52 


2 


653 


760 


1016 


6.75 


214.0 


27.0 


1.42 


8.17 


11 


65.3 


5l.)0 


1017 


6.44 


152.0 


22.0 


1.34 


7.78 


12 


65.3 


405 


1024 


6.86 


70.0 


15.0 


01 


7.77 


13 


65.3 


540 


1019 


6.23 


90.0 


10.0 


0.61 


G.84 



78 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

In connection with the accompanying table of results, 
attention is called to the composition of the faeces with 
special reference to their content of nitrogen. The point to 
be emphasized is the gradual increase in the percentage con- 
tent of faecal nitrogen, associated with the changed diet and 
the general diminution of food intake. This is well illus- 
trated by the following figures, giving the percentage of 
nitrogen in the dry faeces for the three periods of July 14-21, 
July 22-30, and August 11-13: 

July 14-21, 4.77 per cent Nitrogen 
July 22-30, 5.65 " " " 
Aug. 11-13, 6.11 " " 

The diminished amount of faecal discharge means naturally 
not only a smaller intake of food, but implies also a greater 
utilization of the food ingested, and as a result the increased 
percentage of nitrogen in the discharges shows itself because 
of the relatively larger preponderance of nitrogenous secre- 
tions from the intestinal tract. 

The latter part of September, 1903, Dr. Underhi 11 attempted 
to return to his original methods of living, but found diffi- 
culty in consuming the daily quantities of food he had for- 
merly been in the habit of taking. From October 11 to 
October 25, 1903, however, he raised the consumption of 
proteid food to such a degree that the nitrogen excretion 
through the urine averaged from 10 to 12 grams per day. 
After this date he fell back to the lower proteid intake, and 
from that period to June 23, 1904, he maintained a low level 
of proteid metabolism without detriment to his bodily vigor, 
and, as he believes, with a distinct betterment. 

The following tables of results extending from October 11, 
1903, to June 23, 1904, show the data collected. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 79 
UNDERBILL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P,0, 


1903. 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grama 


Oct. 11 


65.4 


1300 


1015 


10.37 


0.611 


1.72 


12 




700 


1022 


907 




. 


18 




1050 


1022 


12.35 


0820 


2.15 


14 




1400 


1017 


12.01 




. . 


15 




870 


1020 


11.48 


0.671 


1.76 


16 




1165 


1013 


12.09 


. 




17 




840 


1020 


11.24 




. . 


18 


. 


1150 


1017 


10.00 


0.613 


1.77 


19 




678 


1022 


7.79 






20 


. 


1165 


1018 


10.76 


0.603 


1.60 


21 




1460 


1017 


11.91 


. 




22 




950 


1019 


10.71 


0.643 


1.73 


23 




1165 


1017 


12.82 






24 


65.4 


850 


1025 


12.49 






25 


. . 


850 


1022 


11.07 


0.645 


1.76 


26 




1025 


1018 








27 




775 


1018 








28 




1140 


1015 


. 8.31 


0.465 


1.18 


29 
80 
31 




765 
860 
1150 


1020 
1019 

1015 


daily 
average 


daily 
average 


daily 
average 


Nov. 1 




750 


1020 








2 




675 


1022 








3 




955 


1014 








4 




1270 


1012 


- 7.91 


0.469 


1.30 


5 




885 


1015 








6 




770 


1020 








7 




860 


1021 








8 




775 


1020 








9 




890 


1018 








10 




1070 


1018 








11 




755 


1020 


- 7.86 


0.537 


1.40 


12 




950 


1023 








18 




1100 


1017 








14 




980 


1015 








15 




630 


1020 








16 


C5.0 


700 


1020 








17 




1000 


1015 


. 7.82 


0.467 


1.49 


18 




940 


1018 








19 




770 


1023 









80 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IX Ni: TUITION 
UNDERBILL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P,0, 


1903. 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Nov. 20 




770 


1025 


^ 






21 




790 


1020 


[ 7.82 


0.467 


1.49 


22 




770 


1021 


j daily av 


daily av. 


daily av. 


23 




590 


1025 


1 






27 
28 




710 
1080 


1024 
1017 


I 8.55 


0.476 


1.67 


29 


. 


760 


1019 


j 






30 




870 


1018 


1 






Dec. 1 




860 


1017 








2 


. 


1120 


1016 








3 




1450 


1009 


7.72 


0.506 


1.43 


4 




720 


1019 








5 




720 


1019 








6 




510 


1027 








7 


65.1 


700 


1018 








8 


. . . 


650 


1018 








9 




860 


1013 








10 


. . 


975 


1020 


7.36 


0.474 


1.44 


11 




800 


1021 








12 


. . 


830 


1018 








13 




750 


1019 








14 




860 


1018 








15 




870 


1019 








16 




880 


1015 








17 




820 




8.11 


0.497 


1.35 


18 


. 


760 


1021 








19 




860 


1017 








20 




520 


1023 


j 






21 




1200 


1014 


I 7.18 




1.05 


22 


65.0 


510 


1025 


\ 






23 




650 


. 


j 






24 




670 










25 




500 




\ 6.70 


0.356 


0.07 


26 




550 










27 




850 


. . . 


1 






28 


65.2 


930 











29 
30 




1200 
750 




1- 8.70 


0.626 


1.21 


31 





1280 











PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 81 
UNDERBILL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams. 


Jan. 1 


. 


750 










2 
3 
4 




750 
870 
1230 




. 8.7 
daily av. 


0.626 
daily av. 


1.21 
daily av. 


5 




720 


1023 






* 


6 




960 


1020 








8 




760 
1000 


1022 
1017 


- 8.23 


0.630 


1.24 


9 




720 


1025 








10 


65.1 


730 


1021 








11 




700 


1016 








12 




650 


1020 








13 




700 


1024 








14 




660 


1025 


7.74 


0.618 


1.20 


15 




610 


1025 








16 




710 


1024 








17 




660 


1022 








18 




770 


1016 








19 


64.8 


700 


1022 








20 


. 


1130 


1018 








21 




830 


1020 


7.80 


0.706 


1.14 


22 




600 


1019 








23 




480 


1021 








24 




750 


1019 








25 




680 


1020 








26 




800 


1018 








27 




800 


1020 








28 




700 


1020 


- 6.85 


0.500 


1.07 


29 


G4.4 


1010 


1014 








30 




980 


1018 








31 




820 


1015 








Feb. 1 




990 


1015 


j 






2 




660 


1020 








3 


64.4 


1060 


1015 








4 


. 


980 


1017 


7.98 


0.535 


1.24 


5 




970 


1014 








6 




790 


1019 








7 




1120 


1016 








8 




715 


1021 


8.11 




. . . 


9 


64.4 


1225 


1014 


7.49 


0.450 





82 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

UXDERIIILL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


S;>. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA- 


1904. 


kilos 


c.c. 




gram* 


gram 


grams 


Feb. 10 


64.4 


770 


1018 


6.14 


0.505 




11 


64.5 


715 


1022 


8.02 


0.568 




12 




850 


1021 


8.82 


0.539 




13 




490 


1028 


7.17 


0.605 




14 


64.4 


795 


1020 


773 


0.543 




15 




780 


1021 








16 




920 


1023 








17 




660 


1021 








18 




640 


1027 


8.27 


0.558 




19 




730 


1023 


daily 


daily 




20 


. . . 


840 


1027 


average 


average 




21 


. . . 


700 


1018 


j 






22 


. . 


440 


1025 








23 




600 


1023 








24 




750 


1022 








25 


. 


830 


1017 


7.47 


0.556 




26 


64.0 


870 


1021 








27 


. 


910 


1015 








28 




950 


1014 








29 




600 


1021 


| 






Mar. 1 


. . . 


680 


1021 








2 




1120 


1011 








3 




640 


1021 


7.15 


0.526 




4 




1080 


1010 








5 


. 


1220 


1034 











. 


890 


1015 


J 






7 




1000 


1014 








8 


. 


650 


1020 








9 




750 


1020 








10 




850 


1018 


8.18 


0.682 




11 


. 


950 


1014 








12 




1000 


1016 






' 


13 


64.2 


860 


1019 








14 




840 


1020 








15 




920 


1010 








16 


. . 


750 


1020 








17 




820 


1017 


" 7.83 


0.540 




18 


. . 


1220 


1012 








19 




920 


1015 








20 




700 


1022 


J 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 83 
UNDERBILL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P S 5 . 


1904. 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Mar. 21 


. . . 


900 


1015 








22 


. . . 


980 


1013 








23 




990 


1014 








24 




750 


1020 


8.04 


0.733 


. 


25 


. . . 


820 


1017 


daily 


daily 




26 




700 


1021 


average 


average 




27 


. . . 


910 


1020 








28 




930 


1017 






. 


30 


. . . 


900 


1020 








31 


. . . 


450 










Apr. 1 




500 










2 




420 

AAA 










3 
4 




OIH) 

950 










6 




930 




7.87 


0.530 


1.44 


6 




980 


. . . 






daily 


7 




600 








average 


8 


. . . 


980 


. . . 








9 




800 










10 


. . 


810 




j 






11 


66.2 


940 


1017 


1 






12 




710 


1024 


S- 9.46 






13 


. . . 


750 


1024 


J 






14 


. 


740 


1020 


7.55 


0.496 




15 




590 


1024 


6.51 






16 




900 


1016 


7.51 






17 




1290 


1009 


611 






18 


65.2 


690 


1017 


6.96 






19 




630 


1024 


6.39 






20 




670 


1022 


7.48 






21 




900 


1021 


8.10 


0.527 




22 




980 


1017 


7.00 






23 


. 


850 


1019 


7.60 






24 




610 


1023 


733 






25 


65.0 


600 


1021 


8.23 






26 


. 


610 


1014 


6.82 






27 




600 


1023 


7.27 


0.490 




28 




970 


1015 


7.05 






29 




795 


1017 


5.91 






30 




700 


1021 


6.80 







84 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
UNDERBILL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 B . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grama 


May 1 




795 


1016 


5.72 


0.490 


. . . 


2 


65.2 


860 


1017 


6.50 






3 




1120 


1016 


6.92 






4 




1090 


1015 


6.54 






5 




580 


1021 


6.92 


0.344 




6 




700 


1020 


7.29 


daily 




7 




895 


1017 


8.97 


average 




8 




800 


1016 


7.30 






9 


65.2 


895 


1019 


6.28 






10 


. . . 


850 


1019 


6.27 






11 




960 


1019 


7.26 






12 


. . . 


690 


1022 


6.29 


0.416 




13 




990 


1017 


7.96 






14 




690 


1022 


7.21 






15 




900 


1016 


6.15 






16 


65.1 


945 


1014 


5.10 






17 




1090 


1016 


6.15 






18 


. 


620 


1020 


6.21 






19 




1110 


1015 


6.53 






20 


. 


895 


1016 


6.12 


0.364 


. . 


21 




810 


1019 


6.95 






22 




1110 


1016 


8.72 






23 


65.0 


685 


1020 


7.07 






24 




560 


1021 


6.78 






25 




1090 


1010 


6.02 






26 




610 


1017 


5.97 






27 


. . . 


790 


1016 


6.83 






28 




1100 


1014 


7.65 


0.420 




29 




650 


1021 


6.12 






30 


65.0 


630 


1021 


5.21 






31 


. 


660 


1018 


5.07 






June 1 


65.1 


920 


1014 


5.96 






2 


65.1 


800 


1013 


5.81 




. . 


3 


65.0 


950 


1014 


7.30 






4 


. . . 


790 


1015 


6.78 




. . . 


6 




780 


1020 


8.28 




. 


6 


65.1 


890 


1015 


6.89 






7 




720 


1017 


6.87 


. 




8 




960 


1015 


5.93 











1060 


1014 


4.96 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 85 
UNDERBILL. 







Urine. 


Date. 


Body- 
weight. 




Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 6 - 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grains 


gram 


grams 


June 10 


. 


940 


1017 


5.92 






11 




1060 


1019 


7.62 






12 




1000 


1017 


6.66 






13 




890 


1021 


7.26 






14 




1340 


1016 


6.91 




. 


15 


. 


1190 


1015 


6.86 




. 


16 




720 


1025 


7.99 






17 


65.2 


800 


1017 


7.25 


. 


. 


18 




820 


1018 


6.99 






19 




920 


1014 


6.18 






20 


. 


890 


1016 


6.03 






21 




900 


1016 


6.37 






22 




760 


1018 


6.79 




. . . 


23 




630 


1020 


6.06 






Daily average from 












Oct. 26, 1903 


833 


1.018 


7.43 


0.516 


1.28 



It will be seen by a study of the analytical data that Dr. 
Underhill had an average daily excretion of nitrogen through 
the kidneys from October 26, 1903, to June 23, 1904, of 7.43 
grams. From October 26 to April 13, a period of nearly six 
months, the average daily excretion was 7.81 grams of nitro- 
gen, while from the latter date to June 23 the average daily 
excretion amounted to 6.68 grams of nitrogen. Taking the 
body-weight at 65 kilos, the lower nitrogen figure would mean 
a metabolism of 0.102 gram of nitrogen per kilo of body- 
weight, closely akin to the figures obtained with the two 
preceding subjects. 

An excretion of 6.68 grams of nitrogen corresponds to the 
metabolism of 41.75 grams of proteid matter, while the excre- 
tion of 7.43 grams of nitrogen implies the metabolism of 46.4 
grams of proteid, being less than one-half the ordinarily ac- 
cepted requirement for the healthy adult. 



86 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

During this long period of eight months the body-weight 
was stationary, carrying with it the assumption that the body 
was in a condition of nitrogen equilibrium. It should be 
emphasized in connection with Dr. Underbill's case, that 
throughout the entire period of eight months, and more, 
there was perfect freedom in the choice of food. Further, 
it will be noticed by a study of the dietary made use of in 
the balance experiments that Dr. Underbill did not reduce 
his nitrogen intake by any exclusion of meat. He practically 
made use of his ordinary diet, such as he had always been ac- 
customed to, but with a decided diminution of the amount of 
proteid food, accompanied by a gradual reduction in the total 
amount of food consumed each day. His diet, therefore, was 
in no sense a vegetable diet. Meat was conspicuous in his 
daily food, but naturally in reduced quantities. 

On February 9 a nitrogen balance was attempted, in which 
a careful comparison of the nitrogen content of all intake 
and output was made for a period of six days. By a study 
of the results of this balance period, shown in the accom- 
panying tables, it will be noticed that not only was there 
no deficiency of nitrogen, but the body was laying on ni- 
trogen at the rate of 0.158 gram per day. Further, it will 
be observed that the fuel value of the food per day averaged 
only a little over 2000 calories. Yet this amount of food, 
with its comparatively low fuel value, carried with it only 
8.83 grams of nitrogen per day. Upon this quantity of food 
the body was able to maintain itself, with a little nitrogen 
to spare and with sufficient fuel value in the food to supply 
all the energy required for muscular contraction, mental 
effort, and the maintenance of body temperature. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 87 

UNDERHILL. 
Tuesday, February 9 1904. 

Breakfast. Bread 22 grams, tea 146 grams. 

Lunch. Macaroni 129 grams, fried sweet potato 85.5 grams, bread 59 grams, 

butter 15 grams, fig cake with wine sauce 115 grams, sugar 15 grams, 

coffee 210 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 27.9 grams, beef 48 grams, potato 207.5 grams, butter 19 grams, 

pie 272 grams, coffee 210 grams, sugar 10 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Bread . 22 + 59 + 27.9 = 108.9 

Tea 146.0 

Macaroni 129.0 

Sweet potato 86.6 

Butter .... 15 + 19 = 34.0 

Fig cake 115.0 

Sugar . . . . 15 + 10 = 25.0 

Coffee (lunch) 210.0 

Beef 48.0 

Potatoes 207.5 

Pie 272.0 

Coffee (dinner) 210.0 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



Fuel value of the food . . . 2232 calories. 



Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


1.61 


= 


1.753 grams. 


X 


0.018 


= 


0.026 


X 


0.87 


= 


1.122 


X 


0.28 





0.240 


X 


0.088 





0.030 


X 


0.69 


= 


0.793 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


X 


0.099 





0.207 


X 


2.64 





1.267 


X 


0.36 





0.747 


X 


0.49 





1.332 


X 


0.15 


= 


0315 








7.832 grams- 








7.490 



Wednesday, February 10, 1904. 

Breakfast. Bread 33 grams, tea 146 grams. 

Lunch. Bread 71 grams, butter 10.5 grams, apple fritters 119 grams, coffee 

210 grams, sugar 21 grams. 
Dinner. Roast pork 80 grams, bread 55.7 grams, butter 27.8 grams, cranberry 

sauce 150 grams, coffee 210 grams, sugar 21 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Bread . 33 + 71 + 55.7 = 159.7 

Tea 146.0 

Butter . . . 10.5 + 27.8 = 38.3 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 
X 1.65 = 2.635 grams. 
X 0.075 = 0.109 
X 0.088 = 0.033 



88 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
UNDERBILL. 



Apple fritters 119.0 X 0.45 = 0.535 

Coffee (lunch) 210.0 X 0.11 = 0.231 

Sugar . . . . 21 + 21 = 42.0 X 0.00 = 0.000 

Roast pork 80.0 X 4.80 - 3.840 

Cranberry sauce 150.0 X 0.04 == 0.060 

Coffee (dinner) 210.0 X 0.11 = 0.231 

Total nitrogen in food 7.674 grams. 

Total nitrogen in urine 6.140 



Fuel value of the food 



1694 calories. 



Thursday, February 11, 1904. 



Breakfast. Bread 38.7 grams, tea 146 grams. 

Lunch. Bread 97.5 grams, butter 31.5 grams, sweet potato 108.7 grams, 

spaghetti 82.5 grams, peaches 89.4 grams, coffee 210 grams, sugar 21 

grams. 
Dinner. Bread 75 grams, butter 21.5 grams, roast beef 116 grams, lemon pie 

188.5 grams, coffee 210 grams, sugar 21 grams. 



Food. 




Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Bread . 38.7 + 97.5 + 75 = 


211.2 


X 


1.75 = 


3.696 grams. 


Tea .... 




146.0 


X 


0.084 = 


0.122 


Butter . . . 


31.5 + 21.5 = 


53.0 


X 


0.088 . = 


0.046 


Sweet potato 




108.7 


x 


0.31 = 


0.336 


Spaghetti . . 




82.5 


X 


0.47 = 


0.387 


Peaches . . 




80.4 


X 


0.09 = 


0.080 


Coffee (lunch) 




210.0 


x 


0.096 = 


0.201 


Sugar . . . 


. 21 + 21 = 


42.0 


X 


0.00 = 


0.000 


Roast beef 




116.0 


x 


3.00 = 


3.480 


Lemon pie . 




188.5 


X 


0.61 = 


1.149 


Coffee (dinner) 





210.0 


X 


0.13 


0.273 


Total nitrogen in food 


9.770 grams. 




Total nitrogen 


in urine 






8.020 



Fuel value of the food .... 2334 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 89 
UNDERBILL. 

Friday, February 13, 1904. 



Breakfast. Bread 34 grams, tea 146 grams. 

Lunch. Bread 42 grams, butter 20 grams, codfish cake 72 grams, potato 100 

grams, custard 100 grams, coffee 210 grams, sugar 21 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 46 grams, butter 25.5 grams, veal 53 grams, potato 75 grams, 

lima beans 50 grams, apple dumpling 120 grams, coffee 210 grams, sugar 

21 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Bread. . 34 + 42 + 46 = 


122.0 


X 


1.71 - 


2.086 grams. 


Tea 


146.0 


X 


0.045 = 


0.065 


Butter . . . 20 + 25 5 = 


45.5 


X 


0.088 = 


0.040 


Codfish cake 


720 


X 


1.57 = 


1.130 


Potato 


100.0 


X 


0.41 = 


0.410 


Custard 


100.0 


X 


0.83 = 


0.830 


Coffee (lunch) 


210.0 


X 


0.078 = 


0.163 


Sugar . , . .21 + 21 = 


42.0 


X 


0.00 . - 


0.000 


Veal . 


53.0 


x 


5.51 = 


2.920 


Potato 


75.0 


X 


0.37 = 


0.277 


Lima beai^ 


50.0 


X 


0.90 = 


0.450 


Apple dumpling 


120.0 


X 


0.72 = 


0.860 


Coffee (dinner) 


210.0 


X 


0.12 = 


0.252 


Total nitrogen 


in food . 






9.483 grams. 


Total nitrogen 


in urine 






8.820 



Fuel value of the food .... 1735 calories. 



Saturday, February 13, 1904. 

Breakfast. Bread 35 grams, tea 146 grams. 

Lunch. Bread 57.5 grams, butter 28 grams, sweet potato 100 grams, coffee 210 

grams, sugar 21 grams, quince 105.5 grama, apple turnovers 153 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 35.5 grams, butter 11 grams, peas 70 grams, roast beef 50 

grams, pie 169 grams, coffee 210 grams, sugar 21 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Bread . 35 + 57.5 + 35.5 = 128.0 

Tea 146.0 

Butter .... 28+ 11 - 39.0 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 
X 1.64 = 2.099 grams. 
X 0.033 = 0.048 
X 0.088 = 0.034 



90 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



UNDERBILL. 



Sweet potato 100.0 

Coffee (lunch) 210.0 

Sugar . ... 21 + 21 = 42.0 

Quince 105.5 

Apple turnovers 153.0 

Peas 70.0 

Roast beef 50.0 

Pie 169.0 

Coffee (dinner) 210.0 

Total nitrogen in food . 

Total nitrogen in urine 



X 


0.37 


= 


0.370 


X 


0.15 





0.315 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


X 


0.047 





0.049 


X 


0.96 





1.468 


X 


0.96 





0.672 


X 


3.22 


= 


1.610 


X 


043 





0.726 


X 


0.11 


= 


0.231 








7.622 grains 








7.170 



Fuel value of the food .... 2186 calories. 



Sunday, February 1J, 



Breakfast. Bread 31 grams, tea 146 grams. 

Lunch. Bread 70.5 grams, butter 29 grams, potato 123 grams, apple sauce 

127.5 grams, coffee 210 grams, sugar 21 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 20.5 grains, butter 23 grams, chicken 101.5 grams, potato 80 

grams, succotash 80 grams, chocolate cake 103 grams, ice cream 125.8 

grams, coffee 210 grams, sugar 21 grams. 



Food. 




Grams. 


Per. 


sent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 


Bread . 31 + 


70.5 + 20.5 = 


122.0 


X" 


1.75 


= 


2.135 grams. 


Tea .... 




146.0 


X 


0.063 





0.091 


Butter . . . 


. 29 + 23 = 


52.0 


X 


0.088 





0.045 


Potato . . . 




123.0 


X 


0.41 


= 


0.504 


Apple siiuco 




127.5 


x 


0.029 





0.037 


Coffee (lunch) 




210.0 


X 


0.10 





0.210 


Sugar . 


. 21 + 21 = 


42.0 


X 


0.00 


s= 


0.000 


Chicken . . 




101.5 


X 


6.08 


= 


5.150 


Potato 




80.0 


x 


0.37 





0.296 


Succotash 




80.0 


X 


0.57 




0.456 


Chocolate cake 




103.0 


x 


0.75 


~ 


0.772 


Ice cream 




125.8 


x 


0.58 




0.729 


Coffee (dinner) 




210.0 


X 


0.11 


=: 


0231 




Total nitrncrpti 


i in fnnd 








10 656 grams. 


Total nitroeren in urine . 


. 7.730 



Fuel value of the food .... 2231 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 91 



NITROGEN BALANCE. - UnderhilL 



Nitrogen Output. 
Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 


Feb. 9 


7.832 grams. 


7.49 grams. 


9.5 grams. 


10 


7.674 


6.14 


. . 


11 


9.770 


8.02 


32.0 


12 


9.483 


8.82 


9.5 


13 


7.622 


7.17 


28.0 


14 


10.656 


7.73 


24.0 








103.0 grams contain 








6.52 %N. 




63.037 


45.37 + 


6.715 grams nitrogen 



63.037 grams nitrogen. 52.085 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for six days = +0.952 gram. 
Nitrogen balance per day = +0.158 gram. 

Average Intake. 

Calories per day 2068. 

Nitrogen per day 8.83 grams. 



92 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

On June 1, near the close of the experiment, a second nitro- 
gen balance was attempted, with a view to seeing if under 
the existing conditions of life and activity it was possible to 
reduce the fuel value of the food, and at the same time dimin- 
ish in still greater measure the quantity of proteid food taken. 
The results of this trial are seen in the accompanying tables, 
where for four days a careful comparison of output and intake 
is shown. It will be observed from these tables that the aver- 
age fuel value of the food per day was reduced to 1785 calories, 
and that the average intake of nitrogen was restricted to 
6.73 grams per day. The balance shown is a minus balance, 
although the deficiency per diem is not large. It is very 
obvious that both the nitrogen and fuel value of the food 
can be reduced considerably below the average maintained 
during the period of the first balance, but not to the degree 
attempted in the second balance, and secure nitrogen or body 
equilibrium. It will be noted in this last nitrogen balance, 
that the average daily output of nitrogen through the urine 
amounted to 6.46 grams, while the average nitrogen intake 
was 6.73 grams. The fuel value of the food, however, aver- 
aged only 1785 calories per day. It is quite evident, if the 
non-nitrogenous food had not been reduced quite so much, 
that a plus nitrogen balance would have been obtained. Still, 
it is obvious that under the conditions of life and activity, 
this subject needed to metabolize only about 40 grams of 
proteid per day, with the total fuel value of his food equal to 
about 2000 calories, in order to secure both body and nitrogen 
equilibrium. Here, again, we have an illustration of the pos- 
sibility of physiological economy which shows itself in a re- 
duction of the daily proteid food more than 50 per cent, with 
a reduction of the non-nitrogenous food fully 30 per cent, and 
with maintenance of health, strength and vigor equal, if not 
superior, to that which the subject has ever experienced. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 93 



UNDERBILL. 



Wednesday, June 1, 1904. 

Breakfast. Champagne wafer 21.5 grams, tea 146 grams, sugar 15 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 67.4 grams, butter 15.1 grams, beefsteak 65.5 grams, potato 

128 grams, asparagus 103.5 grams, tea 140 grams, sugar 15 grams, 

banana 83.5 grams. 
Supper. Bread 15.7 grams, butter 11.8 grams, banana and nuts 106 grams, 

crullers 90.2 grams, coffee 145 grams, sugar 15 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Champagne wafer 21.5 

Tea 146.0 

Sugar . . 15 + 15 + 15 = 45.0 
Bread . . . 67.4 + 15.7 = 83.1 
Butter . . . 15.1 + 11.8 = 26.9 

Banana 83.5 

Beefsteak 55.5 

Potato 128.0 

Asparagus 103.5 

Tea 146.0 

Crullers 90.2 

Banana and nuts 106.0 

Coffee 145.0 

Total nitrogen in food . 

Total nitrogen in urine . 



Per 


cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.64 


= 


0.138 gram. 


X 


0.015 





0.022 


x 


0.000 





0.000 


X 


1.46 





1.212 


X 


0.10 


= 


0.027 


X 


0.23 


= 


0.192 


X 


4.72 


= 


2.620 


X 


0.32 


= 


0.410 


X 


0.36 


= 


0.362 


X 


0.033 





0.048 


X 


1.04 


= 


0.938 


X 


0.69 


= 


0.731 


X 


0.060 


= 


0.087 




. . . . 


. . 


6.787 grams. 




. . 




5.960 



Fuel value of the food .... 1913 calories. 



Thursday, June 2, 1904. 

Breakfast. Bread 30 grams, tea 146 grams, sugar 15 grams. 

Dinner. Clam chowder 270.5 grams, bread 64 grams, butter 14.5 grams, lobster 

36.5 grams, Saratoga chips 15 grams, caramel custard 79 grams, tea 146 

grams, sugar 15 grams. 
Supper. Bread 35.2 grams, butter 13.8 grams, pineapple 148.7 grams, crullers 

84.8 grams, tea 140 grams, sugar 15 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Bread 30.0 

Tea 146.0 

Sugar . . 16 + 15 + 15 = 45.0 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 

X 1.46 = 0.438 gram. 

X 0.045 = 0.066 

X 0.00 = 0.000 



94 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



UNDERBILL. 



Bread . . . 64 + 35.2 = 99.2 
Butter . . . 14.5 + 13.8 = 28.3 

Clam chowder 270.5 

Lobster 36.5 

Saratoga chips 15.0 

Caramel custard 79.0 

Tea 146.0 

Tea 140.0 

Pineapple 148.7 

Crullers 84.8 

Total nitrogen in food . . . 

Total nitrogen in urine . . . 



1.44 
0.10 
0.34 
373 
0.97 
0.77 



0.036 
0.054 
1.04 



1.428 

0.028 

0.920 

1.361 

0.146 

0.608 

0.053 

0.050 

0.080 

0.882 

. 6.060 grams. 
. 5.810 



Fuel value of the food .... 1921 calories. 



Friday, June 3, 1904. 

Breakfast. Bread 31 grams, tea 146 grams. 

Dinner. Fried ham 61 grams, asparagus 124.2 grams, baked potato 85 grams, 
bread 29 grams, butter 23.5 grams, tea 140 grams, sugar 16 grams, pine- 
apple 74.8 grams. 

Supper. Bread 34 grams, butter 17.8 grams, pineapple 158.5 grams, tomato 
132.5 grams, cup cake 121 grams, tea 140 grams, sugar 15 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Bread . . 31 + 29 + 34 = 94.0 

Tea 146.0 

Fried ham 61.0 

Asparagus 124.2 

Baked potato 85.0 

Butter . . . 23.5 + 17.8 = 41.3 

Tea 140.0 

Sugar .... 15 + 15 = 30.0 

Pineapple . . 74.8 + 158.5 = 233.3 

Tea 140.0 

Tomato 132.5 

Cup cake 121.0 

Total nitrogen in food . 

Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 


X 


1.44 


= 


1.354 grams. 


X 


0.039 





0.057 


X 


4.90 


= 


2.989 


X 


0.60 





0.621 


X 


0.65 





0.468 


X 


0.10 





0.041 


X 


0.027 


= 


0.038 


X 


0.000 


= 


0.000 


X 


0.065 





0.152 


X 


0.054 





0.076 


X 


0.150 





0.199 


X 


0.85 


= 


1.029 








7.024 grams. 








7.300 



Fuel value of the food .... 2011 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 95 



UNDERBILL. 



Saturday, June 4) 1904.. 



Breakfast. Bread 32 grams, tea 140 grams. 

Dinner. Hash 133 grams, peas 151.5 grams, bread 61.4 grams, butter 16.1 

grams, custard 150 grams, sugar 15 grams, tea 140 grams. 
Supper. Bread 62.5 grams, butter 17 grams, tea 140 grams, sugar 15 grams. 



Food. 
Bread 
Tea . 
Hash 
Peas. 
Bread 



32.0 

140.0 

133.0 

151.5 

. 61.4 + 62.5 = 123.9 



Butter .... 16.1 + 17 = 33.1 

Custard 150.0 

Sugar . . . . 15 + 16 = 30.0 

Tea 140.0 

Tea 140.0 

Total nitrogen in food . 

Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 


X 


1.44 


= 


0.461 gram. 


X 


0.021 





0.029 


X 


1.50 





1.995 


X 


1.04 


= 


1.576 


X 


1.47 





1.821 


X 


0.10 


= 


0.033 


X 


0.78 





1.170 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


X 


0.033 





0.046 


X 


0.030 


= 


0.042 




. 


. 


7.173 grams. 








6.780 



Fuel value of the food .... 1297 calories. 



96 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Underbill. 





Nitrogen 
Taken in. 


Output. 
Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 


June 1 


6.787 grams. 


5.96 grams. 


10 grams. 


2 


6.060 


5.81 


10 


3 


7.024 


7.30 


25 


4 


7.173 


6.78 ' 


6 








51 grams contain 








5.81% N. 




27.044 


25.85 + 


2.963 grains nitrogen 



27.044 grams nitrogen. 28.813 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for four days = 1.76 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = -0.442 grams. 

Average Intake. 

Calories per day 1785. 

Nitrogen per day 6.73 grams. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 97 

Dr. Arthur L. Dean, Instructor in Plant Physiology in the 
Sheffield Scientific School, twenty-five years of age, and 
weighing 64 kilos, likewise became a subject of study in this 
investigation. He is a man of strong physique, and as an 
undergraduate student at Harvard University trained for vari- 
ous athletic events. He began on the experiment October IB, 
1903, and continued until April 3, 1904. From October 18th 
to October 27 he followed his usual dietary habits, simply 
reducing in some measure the amount of food consumed. 
During this period of fifteen days, the average excretion of 
nitrogen per day through the kidneys was about 12 grams. 
On the 28th of October he began to reduce in still greater 
measure the amount of proteid food eaten, and gradually 
diminished the extent of his proteid metabolism, although not 
to the same degree as the preceding subjects. He had full 
freedom of choice in the character and quantity of his diet, but 
his food was characterized by a predominance of vegetable 
matter, with an -almost complete exclusion of meat. 

For a period of nearly six months, or more exactly, from 
October 28 to April 3, the average daily output of nitrogen 
through the kidneys amounted to 8.99 grams, while the aver- 
age daily output of uric acid was 0.386 gram. This daily 
excretion of 8.99 grams of nitrogen implies a metabolism of 
56.18 grams of proteid. This, to be sure, means a reduction 
in proteid metabolism of about 50 per cent, as compared with 
the Voit and other standards, but does not show an economy 
equal to that practised by the preceding subjects. It is to be 
noted, however, in Dr. Dean's case, that the body-weight did 
not show at any time in the experiment a tendency to dimin- 
ish. In fact, all through the experiment his body-weight was 
a little higher than at the beginning. 



98 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
DEAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Oct. 13 


63.2 


1100 


1017 


10.63 


0.323 


2.38 


14 




1050 


1020 


9.83 






15 




1390 


1018 


14.93 


0.432 


1.98 


16 




1370 


1017 


11.26 






17 




1350 


1019 


11.18 


. 




18 




1670 


1017 


11.62 


0.490 


2.51 


19 


63.2 


1075 


1018 


10.19 






20 




1260 


1015 


9.98 


0.483 


1.88 


21 




1350 


1020 


13.04 






22 


. . . 


1405 


1015 


11.38 


0.431 


2.07 


23 




1240 


1020 


11.98 


. 


. 


24 


. . . 


1200 


1023 


11.16 






25 


. 


1365 


1018 


11.97 


0.395 


2.02 


26 




1195 


1020 


10.75 






27 


. . . 


1240 


1021 


11.90 


0.477 


1.97 


28 




1704 










29 




1105 




9.29 


0.398 


1.69 


30 


64.5 


1180 




daily 


daily 


daily 


31 




910 




average 


average 


average 


Nov. 1 




710 










2 




1540 


. 








3 




1250 










4 




1300 




8.54 


0.354 


1.65 


5 




975 










6 




1150 










8 


64.6 


1192 


1025 


10.86 


0.493 




9 




845 




1 






10 




1255 










11 




1245 


. . 








12 




1540 




8.84 


0.368 


1.85 


13 




940 


. . . 








14 


. 


1300 










15 




1065 


. 








16 


64.5 


1165 




1 






17 




910 




I 9.45 






18 




840 




10.59 


0.444 




19 




1720 


1012 


10.32 


0.331 


1.95 


20 




640 


1022 


8.60 


0.336 


1.75 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 99 
DEAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 B . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Nov. 21 




1310 


1016 


9.27 


0.378 


1 


22 




720 


1026 


8.42 


0.415 


j 1.75 


23 


64.7 


900 








daily av. 


24 




1520 










25 




1095 










26 


. 


710 




822 


0.322 


1.74 


27 




700 


. . . 


daily 


daily 




28 




1140 




average 


average 




'29 




1200 










30 




820 




1 






Dec. 1 




1335 


. . . 








2 


64.5 


940 










3 




970 




8.15 


0.362 


1.68 


4 


. . . 


1240 










5 




1190 










6 


. . . 


720 










7 




1160 










8 




960 










9 




850 










10 


. . . 


935 




9.12 


0.342 


2.11 


11 




945 


... 








12 




1425 










13 


64.3 


1065 


. 








14 




770 










15 




790 




9.08 


. . . 




30 




1230 


1017 








31 


66.1 


1525 


1020 








1904 














Jan. 1 




1010 


1021 


8.60 


0.375 


1.80 


2 




1270 


1020 








3 




1230 


1020 








4 


. 


820 




1 






5 




1425 


1018 








6 




1100 


1021 








7 




1025 


1021 


8.42 


0.338 


1.76 


8 




760 


. 








9 


. 


1450 


1019 








10 


65.8 


1410 


1016 








11 




1030 


1017 


8.51 


0.428 





100 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
DEAN. 



Date 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Jan. 12 


65.0 


830 


1023 








18 




790 


1025 








14 

15 
16 
17 




1070 
1300 
925 
1100 


1020 
1019 
1025 
1023 


8.51 
daily 
average 


0.428 
daily 
average 




18 




850 


1025 








19 




1120 


1019 








20 




1005 


1020 








21 




1270 


1020 


8.23 




. . . 


22 




980 


1020 








23 




650 










24 


. 


980 


1024 


j 






25 


65.5 


1000 


. 








26 




940 










27 




1350 


. 








28 




840 




8.85 


0.395 


1.67 


29 




675 


. 








30 




740 










31 




1160 


1017 


j 






Feb. 1 




700 










2 


. . 


860 


. . . 








8 




925 










4 




590 




8.22 


0.381 


1.19 


5 




835 


. . . 








6 




935 










7 




930 










8 




1035 


1017 


9.00 






9 


64.1 


800 


1027 


8.64 


0.432 




10 




940 


1020 


8.29 


0.314 




11 




720 


1030 


8.55 


0.364 




12 




860 


1023 


9.93 


0.348 




13 




980 


1022 


8.87 


0.379 




14 


63.9 


1285 


1022 


8.33 


0.385 




15 




910 




1 






16 
17 




1210 
1455 




I 9.30 


0.301 




18 




1000 


1022 


j 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 101 
DEAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 O 5 . 


1904. 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


gram 


Feb. 19 
20 
21 
22 


64.5 


1420 
1050 
1365 
765 




I 9.30 
j daily av. 


0.301 
daily av. 




23 




1070 










24 

25 




1080 
1495 




- 9.685 


0.423 




26 




970 










28 




750 










29 




725 










Mar. 1 




1100 










2 




990 


1024 








3 




1180 




10.31 


0.410 




4 




1100 










5 




1010 










6 




970 










7 




790 










8 


64.4 


670 










9 




840 










10 




1110 




8.99 


0.433 




11 




1090 










12 




755 










13 




1220 










15 




745 
1030 




1 






16 




1040 










17 




1080 




8.24 


0.368 




18 




1390 










19 




795 










20 


64.0 


840 










21 




720 








fc 


22 




970 










23 




1200 










24 




845 




- 9.26 


0.545 


. . . 


25 




1000 










26 




1180 










27 




1750 










28 




820 




9.59 


0.409 






102 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
DEAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Mar. 29 




710 










30 


. 


1100 










31 
Apr. 1 
2 
3 


65.0 


770 
1250 
885 
630 




9.59 
daily 
average 


0.409 
daily 
average 


;;; 


Daily average from 
Oct. 28, 1903 


1035 


1021 


8.99 


0.386 


1.73 



On February 9, a nitrogen balance was attempted, when 
for a period of six days a careful comparison of intake and 
output of nitrogen was made. The results show that while 
during this period of six days 52.999 grams of nitrogen were 
ingested, there was an output through the urine and faeces of 
61.13 grams of nitrogen, thus indicating a minus balance for this 
period of 1.355 grams of nitrogen per day. The average daily 
intake of nitrogen was 8.83 grams. The average daily output 
of nitrogen through the kidneys was 8.77 grams, being 0.22 
gram less than the average daily excretion through the kidneys 
for the six months' period. The fuel value of the food for this 
period averaged 2529 calories per day. The nitrogen balance, 
however, is so strikingly a minus balance that we are forced to 
conclude the above quantities of food were not quite sufficient 
to meet the needs of the body under the then existing condi- 
tions. Still, the fact that the body-weight during the entire 
period of six months showed no tendency downward implies 
that during this longer period the body must have been essen- 
tially in nitrogen equilibrium, under conditions whereby there 
was a metabolism of only 56 grams of proteid per day. As 
before stated, this means a physiological economy, as con- 
trasted with existing standards, of about 50 per cent in pro- 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 103 

teid food. So far as was to be seen, the bodily strength and 
vigor of the subject, like his body-weight, were fully main- 
tained under the restricted diet, but, for some reason, he did 
not apparently take as kindly to a reduction of proteid food, 
and did not accomplish so great a lowering in the rate of pro- 
teid metabolism. 

Following are the data of the balance experiment : 

DEAN. 
Tuesday, February 9, 1904. 



Breakfast. Coffee 210 grams, bread 38.5 grams, oatmeal 127 grams, cream 92 

grams, sugar 20 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 63.5 grams, butter 12.5 grams, potato 155 grams, consomme 

150 grams, stewed tomato 109 grams, coffee 210 grams, sugar 20 grams, 

pudding 85 grams. 
Dinner. Roast beef 17.5 grams, potato 177 grams, bread 39.1 grams, butter 

12 grams, string beans 110 grams, apple pie 237.6 grams. 



Food. 




Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Coffee . . . 





210.0 


X 


0.10 


= 


0.210 grams. 


Bread 38.5 + 63.5 + 39.1 = 


141.1 


X 


1.36 





1.918 


Oatmeal . . 





127.0 


X 


0.64 


S3 


0.812 


Cream . . . 




92.0 


X 


0.40 


=S 


0.368 


Butter . . . 


. 12.5 + 12 = 


24.5 


X 


0.088 





0.021 


Potato . . . 




155.0 


x 


0.28 





0.434 


Consomme . 





1500 


X 


0.38 


= 


0.570 


Tomato . . 




109.0 


X 


0.19 





0.207 


Sugar . . . 


. 20 + 20 = 


40.0 


X 


0.00 


5= 


0.000 


Puddincr . 




85.0 


x 


6.69 





0.586 


Roast beef . 





17.5 


x 


2.64 


_ 


0.462 


-p , . 




177.0 


., 


0.36 





0.637 


String beans 





110.0 


X 


0.26 





0.286 


Apple pie 




237.6 


x 


0.49 





1.164 


Coffee . . . 




210.0 


x 


0.099 


__ 


0.208 




Total nitrogen 


in food 








7.883 grams. 




Total nitroeen 


in urine 








8.610 



Fuel value of the food .... 2576 calories. 



104 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



DEAN. 



Wednesday, February 10, 1904. 

Breakfast. Coffee 210 grams, bread 31.8 grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 40 

grams, oatmeal 155 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 77 grams, butter 14.5 grams, apple fritters 193.5 grams, coffee 

210 grams, sugar 20 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 82 grams, butter 20 grams, cranberries 150 grams, baked 

beans, 150 grams, coffee 210 grams, sugar 32 grams. 



Food. 
Coffee . 
Bread . 
Cream . 
Sugar . 
Oatmeal . . 
Butter . . . 
Fritters . . 
Coffee . . . 
Cranberries . 
Baked beans 
Coffee . 



31.8 + 77 + 82 = 
40 + 20 + 32 = 



14.5 + 20 = 



Grams. 
210.0 
190.8 
50.0 
92.0 
155.0 
34.5 
193.5 
210.0 
150.0 
150.0 
210.0 



Per cent Nitrogen. 

0.12 = 

1.65 = 

0.47 = 
0.00 

0.60 = 

0.088 = 

0.45 = 

0.11 = 

0.04 = 

1.40 = 

0.11 = 



Total Nitrogen. 
0.252 grams. 
3.148 
0.235 
0.000 



Total nitrogen in food 

Total nitrogen in urine .... 



0.030 

0.870 

0.231 

0.060 

2.100 

0.231 

8.087 grams. 

8.290 



Fuel value of the food . . . 2145 calories. 



Thursday, February 11, 1904. 



Breakfast. Bread 49 grams, oatmeal 185.7 grams, cream 64 grams, coffee 210 

grams, sugar 35 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 111.8 grams, butter 40.5 grams, sweet potato 287 grams, 

peach preserve 109.3 grams. 
Dinner. Tomato puree 99 grams, bread 94 5 grams, butter 21.5 grams, beans 

138 grams, lemon pie 155 grams, coffee 210 grams, sugar 21 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Bread .49 + 111.8 + 94.5 = 2553 

Oatmeal 185.7 

Cream . 64.0 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 
X 1.75 = 4.467 grams. 
X 0.40 = 0.742 
X 0.49 = 0.313 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 105 



DEAN. 

Coffee 210.0 

Sugar . ... 35 + 21 = 56.0 

Butter . . . 40.5 + 215 = 62.0 

Sweet potato 287.0 

Peach preserve 109.3 

Tomato puree 99.0 

Beans 138.0 

Lemon pie 155.0 

Coffee 210.0 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



X 


0.096 


rr 


0.201 


X 


0.00 


r= 


0.000 


X 


0.088 


= 


0.054 


X 


0.31 





0.889 


X 


0.09 





0.098 


X 


0.33 


= 


0.326 


X 


1.30 





1.794 


X 


0.61 


=3 


0.945 


X 


0.13 


= 


0.273 








10.102 grams. 








8.550 



Fuel value of the food .... 2854 calories. 



Friday, February 12, 1904. 



Breakfast. Oatmeal 192.3 grams, cream 75.5 grams, bread 41.6 grams, coffee 

210 grams, sugar 20 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 64.1 grams, butter 14 grams, fish cakes 60 grams, potato 200 

grams, custard 107.3 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 60 grams, butter 15 grams, lima beans 100 grams, potato 150 

grams, apple dumpling 259 grams. 



Food. 
Oatmeal . 


Grama. 
192.3 
75.5 
165.7 
210.0 
20.0 
29.0 
60.0 
200.0 
107.3 
100.0 
150.0 
259.0 


Per cent Nitrogen. 
X 0.52 
X 0.50 = 
X 1.71 = 
X 0.11 = 
X 000 = 
X 0.088 = 
X 1.57 
X 0.41 
X 0.83 = 
X 0.90 = 
X 0.37 
X 0.72 = 


Total Nitrogen. 
0.999 grams. 
0.377 
2.833 
0.231 
0.000 
0.025 
0.942 
0.820 
0.890 
0.900 
0.555 
1.864 


Cream 
Bread . 41.6 + 64.1 + 60 = 
Coffee 


Sugar 
Butter . . . . 14+15 = 
Fish cakes 
Potato 
Custard 
Lima beans 
Potato 


Apple dumpling 


Total nitrogen in food . 
Total nitroeen in urine 


. 10.436 grams. 
. 9.930 



Fuel value of the food .... 2363 calories. 



106 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



DEAN. 



Saturday, February 13, 1904. 



Breakfast. Oatmeal 150 grains, cream 42 grams, sugar 31 grams, bread 31 

grams, coffee 210 grams. 
Lynch. Bread 86 grams, sweet potato 222 grams, butter 17 grams, quince 

preserve 81.5 grams, apple turnover 154.5 grams. 
Dinner. Potato 175 grams, bread 62 grams, butter 15 grams, peas 100 grams, 

apple pie 177 grams, coffee 210 grams, sugar 21 grams. 



Food. Grams. 
Oatmeal 150.0 
Cream 42 
Sugar .... 31 + 21 = 52.0 
Bread . . 31 + 36 + 62 = 129.0 
Coffee 210.0 


Per cent Nitrogen. 
X 0.43 = 
X 0.50 = 
X 0.00 
X 1.64 = 
X 0.11 
X 0.37 
X 0.088 = 
X 0.047 - 
X 0.96 - 
X 0.37 
X 0.96 = 
X 0.43 = 
X 0.11 


Total Nitrogen. 
0.645 grams. 
0.210 
0.000 
2.115 
0.231 
0.821 
0028 
0.038 
1.483 
0.647 
0.960 
0.761 
0.231 
8.170 grams. 
8.870 


Sweet potato 
Butter .... 
Quince preserve 
Apple turnover 
Potato 


2220 
17 + 15 = 32.0 
81.5 
154.5 
1750 


Peas . . . 


1000 


Apple pie 


177 


Coffee . 


2100 




Total nitrogen in food . 
Total nitrogen in urine 



Fuel value of the food . . . 2606 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 107 



DEAN. 



Sunday, February 14, 



Breakfast. Quaker oats 150 grams, bread 42.5 grams, coffee 210 grams, sugar 

31 grams, banana 88.2 grams, cream 87.6 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 87.3 grams, butter 28.7 grams, potato 210 grams, apple sauce 

116.5 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 51.5 grams, butter 12.2 grams, sugar 21 grams, potato 150 

grams, succotash 100 grams, chocolate cake 122.5 grams, vanilla ice 

110.7 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 


Quaker oats 




150.0 


x 


0.46 


_ 


0.690 grams. 


Bread 42.5 + 87.3 + 51.5 = 


181.3 


X 


1.75 





3.172 


Coffee . . . 




210.0 


X 


0.11 


= 


0.231 


Sugar . . . 


. 31 + 21 = 


52.0 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Banana . . 




88.2 


X 


0.20 


= 


0.176 


Cream . . . 





87.6 


X 


0.50 





0.438 


Butter . . . 


. 28.7 + 12.2 = 


40.9 


X 


0.088 





0.035 


Potato .... 




210.0 


X 


0.41 





0.861 


Apple sauce 




116.5 


x 


0.029 





0.033 


Potato . . 




150.0 


x 


0.37 


_ 


0.555 


Succotash 




100.0 


x 


0.57 


_ 


0.570 


Chocolate cake 





122.5 


X 


0.75 


_ 


0.918 


Vanilla ice 




1107 


x 


0.58 





0.642 




Total nitrojrpn in food 








8.321 grams. 


Total nitrogen in urine 


8.330 



Fuel value of the food .... 2635 calories. 



108 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITK< )GEN BALANCE. Dean. 

Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faces (dry) 



Feb. 9 


7.883 grams. 


8.64 grams. 




10 


8.087 


8.29 




11 


10.102 


8.55 


18 grams. 


12 


10.438 


9.93 


18 


13 


8.170 


8.87 


80 


14 


8.321 


8.33 


58 








174 grams contain 








4.90% N. 




52.999 


52.61 -f 


8 52 grams nitrogen 



52.999 grams nitrogen. 61.13 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for six clays = 8.131 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day 1.355 grams. 

Average Intake. 

Calories per day 2529. 

Nitrogen per day 8.83 grams. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 109 

Mr. George M. Beers, Clerk in the Treasurer's office of the 
Sheffield Scientific School, became a subject of study in Janu- 
ary, 1903. Mr. Beers was thirty-eight years of age, and had 
always enjoyed fairly good health, although of somewhat frail 
physique. His occupation has always been indoor work as 
accountant, etc. His body-weight was 61 kilos. 

Mr. Beers came to the writer for advice as to possible ways 
of improving his general health, and when it was learned that 
he was in the habit of eating large amounts of meat, the sug- 
gestion was made to him that it might be wise to ascertain the 
effect of a diminished quantity of proteid food, and as a result 
of this advice Mr. Beers began to cut down the amount of 
meat consumed daily. The effect of this abstention from 
meat was so noticeable that voluntarily all meat was with- 
drawn from his diet. With this change in dietary habits there 
came about a loss of body- weight, which, however, was soon 
regained. 

Commencing with May 14, 1903, the amount of nitrogen 
excreted from the kidneys was determined from time to time, 
but not each day, since it was very soon found that Mr. Beers 
showed great regularity in his dietary habits, and a corre- 
sponding regularity in the composition of the output. This 
regularity was due in lai'ge measure to the fact that the sub- 
ject became, for the time at least, practically a vegetarian. 
The beneficial effects noted in his own experience with absten- 
tion from meat led to his voluntarily excluding it from his 
daily diet, so that from January, 1903, to June, 1904, the sub- 
ject practically tasted meat, fish, or eggs on only four occasions, 
namely, the 26th day of November, 1903, May 19, 20, and 21, 
1904. AVith this limitation to a vegetable diet and with reg- 
ular methods of living, the nitrogenous waste material was 
found to be constant within very narrow limits. Emphasis, 
however, should be laid upon the fact that there was no pre- 
scription of diet, but perfect freedom of choice, although this 
choice was limited wholly to vegetable and cereal foods. 

The accompanying tables give the output of nitrogen, uric 
acid, etc., through the kidneys for various dates between May 



110 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

14, 1903, and June 15, 1904. Scrutiny of these tables shows 
that the average daily output of nitrogen, so far as the data 
show, amounted to 8.58 grams. This indicates an average 
daily metabolism of 53.62 grams of proteid material. 

Likewise noticeable is the perfectly steady body-weight 
throughout this whole period of time, while the low level of 
8.5 grams of metabolized nitrogen testifies to an economy in 
the use of proteid food, which indicates that in this subject at 
least the needs of the body for proteid food could easily be 
met by an amount equal to about one-half that called for by 
the Voit and similar standard dietaries. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 111 



BEERS. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


May 14 


61.1 


940 


1020 


8.23 


0.330 


1.82 


Oct. 8 




920 


1014 


6.40 


0.374 


1.47 


13 


61.1 


740 


1026 


8.74 


0.375 


1.61 


14 




780 


1024 


8.37 






15 


. . . 


970 


1018 


8.90 


0.374 


1.04 


16 


. 


1365 


1014 


9.09 






17 




1295 


1013 


8.86 






18 




1400 


1013 


7.56 


0.347 


1.57 


20 


61.1 


1304 


1014 


8.14 


0.328 


1.44 


21 




1510 


1012 


7.97 




. 


22 


. 


1450 


1012 


8.26 


0.338 


1.95 


23 


. . . 


1130 


1013 


7.86 






24 




1060 


1019 


8.46 






25 


. . 


1275 


1015 


8.25 


0.375 


1.74 


26 


. 


1390 


1014 


7.34 







27 


61.4 


1000 


1020 


7.50 


0.344 


1.38 


Nov. 21 


61.4 


670 


1025 


8.72 






22 


. . . 


925 


1017 


8.21 


0.335 


1.28 


23 




585 


1027 


8.36 


. 


. . 


24 
25 




885 
800 


1023 
1026 


8.02 
7.92 


0..354 




26 


. 


1095 


1020 


10.77* 


0.364 


1.53 


Jan. 5 


61.4 


1110 


1018 


8.99 


0.324 


. . . 


7 


. 


650 


1024 


8.15 


0.278 


1.29 


8 




710 


1020 


7.88 




. . 


9 


. . 


910 


1023 


8.73 






10 




890 


1020 


8.01 


0327 


1.21 


11 


. . 


875 


1017 


7.51 




. 


12 




480 


1029 


6.77 






13 


. . 


580 


1023 


8.00 


0.398 




14 


. 


765 


1022 


8.35 






15 




1360 


1017 


9.22 






16 


61.4 


990 


1020 


8.79 






17 




835 


1024 


8.47 


0.354 




18 




780 


1020 


8.05 


. 




19 




790 


1022 


8.10 


0.382 




Feb. 9 




860 


1023 


8.46 


0.355 





Turkey eaten on tin's day. 



112 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



BEERS. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


gram 


Feb. 10 


61.4 


850 


1024 


8.57 


0.226 


. . 


11 


61.4 


750 


1022 


8.65 


0.352 


. 


12 


61.4 


595 


1026 


8.46 


0.368 




13 


61.4 


640 


1027 


8.75 


0.425 


. . 


14 


60.8 


730 


1025 


8.28 


0.353 


. 


Apr. 18 


61.5 


610 


1025 


7.69 


i 




19 


61.5 


870 


1020 


9.87 






20 


61.5 


985 


1019 


8.87 






21 


61.5 


795 


1024 


8.25 


. 0.365 


. 


22 


615 


1090 


1019 


9.02 


daily 




23 


61.5 


970 


1022 


8.44 


average 




24 


61.5 


810 


1021 


7.30 






25 


61.5 


850 


1018 


6.94 


j 




26 


61.5 


620 


1024 


7.11 






28 




450 


1027 


8.58 






29 


. . . 


650 


1025 


9.52 


0.691 




30 




1260 


1018 


10.20 






May 1 




1060 


1017 


8.71 






2 




610 


1025 


8.16 






3 




650 


1022 


8.70 






4 


61.5 


870 


1019 


8.51 






5 


61.3 


610 


1025 


8.31 






6 


61.3 


655 


1026 


8.72 






7 




680 


1026 


8.53 






8 


60.8 


490 


1026 


7.00 






9 


61.3 


550 


1026 


7.59 


. 0.356 




10 




705 


1025 


7.78 






11 




730 


1025 


8.28 






12 


. . . 


800 


1025 


9.36 






16 


. . . 


715 


1022 


7.29 






17 




990 


1018 


6.95 






18 




715 


1026 


7.81 






19 




845 


1926 


10.45* 






20 


61.5 


1170 


1020 


11.02* 






21 


612 


795 


1025 


10.02* 






22 


. . . 


835 


1020 


8.42 






23 




695 


1025 


9.42 






24 




660 


1025 


9.82 







* On these three days, meat, fish, and eggs were eaten. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 113 
BEERS. 







Urine. 




Body- 




Date. 


weight. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grains 


gram 


grams 


May 25 




700 


1025 


9.91 


" 




26 




620 


1026 


8.59 






27 




665 


1026 


9.53 


0.434 




28 


61.2 


960 


1021 


10.31 


daily 




29 




790 


1023 


9.24 


average 




31 




930 


1025 


10.44 






June 1 




855 


1018 


8.76 




. 


2 




850 


1023 


8.01 






8 




860 


1020 


9.24 




. 


4 


61.4 


1145 


1021 


10.17 






5 




590 


1024 


7.47 






6 




510 


1029 


7.53 






7 




620 


1027 


8.26 






8 


. 


985 


1020 


8.45 




. . 


9 




1220 


1020 


8.49 






10 




1220 


1017 


8.28 




. . . 


11 




1710 


1013 


8.82 






12 


. . . 


925 


1017 


7.11 






13 




920 


1020 


8.01 




. 


14 




1090 


1015 


8.64 






15 


61.5 


915 


1022 


8.68 






Daily average 


880 


1021 


8.58 


0.365 


1.49 



On February 9, a nitrogen balance was attempted cover- 
ing a period of six days, in which there was an exact compari- 
son of the nitrogen income and output. In this balance 
period it will be observed that the total amount of nitrogen 
taken in for the six days was 53.108 grams, while the output 
of nitrogen through the kidneys amounted to 51.07 grams. 
The nitrogen excreted through the faeces, however, brought 
the total nitrogen output up to 58.83 grams, thus making a 
minus balance for the six days of 5.722 grams of nitrogen. 
During this period the average fuel value of the food per day 
was 2168 calories. The average daily output of metabolized 

8 



114 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

nitrogen during the period was 8.5 grams, practically identical 
with the average daily excretion of nitrogen through the kid- 
neys for the entire year, so far as determined. We have 
here a distinct minus balance, due either to an insufficient 
amount of proteid food, or an insufficient fuel value. 



BEERS. 
Tuesday, February 9, 1904. 

Breakfast. Oatmeal 237.5 grams, butter 10 grams, sugar 35 grams, milk 60 

grams, coffee 210 grams. 
Lunch. Macaroni 142 grams, cheese 10.5 grams, bread 71.5 grams, sweet 

potato 11!>.5 grams, milk 250 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 80.7 grams, butter 20 grams, mashed potato 176 grams, string 

beans 77.6 grams, apple pie 82 grams, milk '250 grams. 



Food. 




Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Oatmeal 




237.5 


X 


0.64 





1.520 grams. 


Butter . . . 


. 10 + 20 = 


30.0 


X 


0.088 





0.026 


Sugar . . . 




35.0 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


Milk . 60 + 250 + 260 = 


660.0 


X 


0.62 


_ 


2.912 


Coffee . . . 




210.0 


X 


0.10 


_ 


0.210 


Macaroni . 




142.0 


X 


0.87 


_ 


1.235 


Cheese. . . 




10.5 


X 


4.46 


_ 


0467 


Bread . . . 


71.6 + 80.7 = 


152.2 


X 


1.36 


_ 


2.069 


Sweet potato 





119.5 


X 


0.28 


_ 


0.334 


Mashed potato 




176.0 


X 


0.36 


_ 


0.633 


String beans 




77.6 


X 


0.26 


_ 


0.201 


Apple pie . . 




82.0 


X 


0.49 





0.401 


Total nitrogen in food 


. 10.008 grams. 


Total nitrogen in urine . . 


, 8.460 



Fuel value of the food 



2094 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 115 

BEERS. 
Wednesday, February 10, 1904. 



Breakfast. Oatmeal 299 grams, butter 19 grams, cream 71 grams, sugar 41 

grams, coffee 210 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 79 grams, butter 11 grams, boiled potato 155.2 grams, milk 

250 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 56 grams, butter 12 grams, baked beans 100 grams, cranberry 

sauce 150 grams, sugar 21 grams, coffee 210 grams. 

Pood. Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 

Oatmeal 299.0 X 0.60 = 1.794 grams. 

Butter . . 19 + 11 + 12 = 42 X 0.088 = 0.036 

Cream 71.0 X 0.47 = 0.333 

Sugar . ... 41 + 21 = 62.0 X 0.00 = 0.000 

Coffee (breakfast) 210.0 X 0.12 = 0.252 

Bread .... 79 + 66 = 135.0 X 1-66 = 2.227 

Boiled potato 155.2 X 0.39 = 0.605 

Milk 250.0 X 0.55 = 1.375 

Baked beans 100.0 X 1.40 = 1.400 

Cranberry sauce 150 X 0.04 = 0.060 

Coffee (dinner) 210 X 0.11 = 0.231 

Total nitrogen in food 8.313 grams. 

Total nitrogen in urine 8.570 

Fuel value of the food .... 1723 calories. 



Thursday, February 11, 1904. 

Breakfast. Oatmeal 300 grams, cream 71 grams, butter 10 grams, sugar 41 

grams, coffee 210 grams. 
Lunch. Butter 14 grams, bread 126 grams, boiled sweet potato 205 grams, 

milk 250 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 22 grams, butter 7.5 grams, mashed potato 100 grams, sugar 

14 grams, milk 250 grams. 

Food. Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 

Oatmeal 300.0 X 040 = 1.200 grams. 

Cream 71.0 X 0.49 = 0.347 

Butter . . 10 + 14+7.5 = 31.5 X 0.088 , = 0.027 



116 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



BEERS. 



Sugar .... 41 + 14 = 66.0 X 

Coffee 210.0 X 

Bread . . . .126 + 22 = 148.0 X 

Sweet potato 205.0 X 

Milk ... 260 + 260 = 500.0 X 

Mashed potato 100.0 X 



0.00 = 0.000 

0.096 = 0.201 grams. 

1.75 = 2.590 

0.31 = 0.635 

0.61 = 2.550 

0.36 = 0.360 



Total nitrogen in food 7.910 grams. 

Total nitrogen in urine 8.560 



Fuel value of the food 



1979 calories. 



Friday, February 12, 1904. 



Breakfast. Oatmeal 300 grams, butter 10 grams, cream 74 grams, sugar 41 

grams, coffee 210 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 86 grams, butter 9 grams, potato 200 grams, sugar 14 grams, 

milk 250 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 63 grams, butter 14 grams, mashed potato 150 grams, apple 

dumpling 136 grams, milk 250 grams. 



Food. 



Grams. 



Oatmeal 300 

Butter . . . 10 + 9 + 14 = 33 

Cream 74 

Sugar .... 41 + 14 = 66 

Coffee 210 

Bread . ... 86 + 63 = 149 

Potato 200 

Milk .... 250 + 250 = 500 

Mashed potato 150 

Apple dumpling 136 

Total nitrogen in food . . 

Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.52 


= 


1.560 grams. 


X 


0.088 


= 


0.029 


X 


0.60 


= 


0.370 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


X 


0.11 


= 


0.231 


X 


1.71 





2.547 


X 


0.41 





0.820 


X 


0.48 





2.400 


X 


0.37 





0.565 


X 


0.72 





0.979 








9.491 grams. 








8.460 



Fuel value of the food .... 2209 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 117 



BEERS. 



Saturday, February 13, 1904. 



Breakfast. Oatmeal 300 grams, butter 12 grams, cream 70 grams, sugar 41 

grams, coffee 210 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 80 grams, butter 11 grams, sweet potato 132 grams, sugar 20 

grams, milk 250 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 59.5 grams, mashed potato 175 grams, butter 11 grams, sugar 

20 grams, apple pie 141 grams, milk 250 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Oatmeal ........ 300.0 

Butter . . 12 + 11 + 11 = 34.0 

Cream 70.0 

Sugar . . 41 + 20 + 20 = 81.0 

Coffee 210.0 

Bread . . . 80 + 59.5 = 139.5 

Sweet potato 132.0 

Milk . . . 250 + 250 - 500.0 

Mashed potato 175.0 

Apple pie 141.0 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.43 





1.290 grams. 


X 


0.088 


3S 


0.029 


X 


050 


= 


0.350 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


X 


0.11 


as 


0.231 


X 


1.64 





2.287 


X 


0.37 


= 


0.488 


X 


0.54 


ss 


2.700 


X 


037 





0.647 


X 


0.43 





0.606 








8 628 grams. 








8.760 



Fuel value of the food .... 2395 calories. 



118 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



BEERS. 



Sunday, February 14, 1904. 



Breakfast. Oatmeal 300 grams, butter 16 grams, cream 70 grams, sugar 41 

grams, coffee 210 grams. 
Lunch. Baked potato 171 grams, bread 72 grams, butter 15 grams, sugar 21 

grams, apple sauce 38 grams, milk 250 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 35.5 grams, butter 13.5 grams, mashed potato 180 grams, 

sugar 20 grams, chocolate cake 111 grams, ice cream 115 grams, milk 

250 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Oatmeal 300.0 

Butter . . 16 + 15 + 13.5 = 44.5 

Cream 70.0 

Sugar . . 41 + 21 + 20 = 82.0 

Coffee 210.0 

Baked potato 171.0 

Bread . . . .72 + 35.5 = 107.5 

Apple sauce 38.0 

Milk ... 250 + 250 = 500.0 

Mashed potato 180.0 

Chocolate cake 111.0 

Ice cream 115.0 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.46 


= 


1.380 grams. 


X 


0.088 


= 


0.039 


X 


0.50 


= 


0.350 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


X 


0.11 


= 


0.231 


X 


0.41 





0.701 


X 


1.75 





1.881 


X 


0.029 





0.011 


X 


0.40 


= 


2.000 


X 


0.37 





0.666 


X 


0.75 


= 


0.832 


X 


0.58 


= 


0.667 








8.758 grams 








8.280 



Fuel value of the food 



2610 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 119 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Seers. 



Nitrogen Output. 
Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Fseces (dry). 


Feb. 9 


10.008 grams. 


8.46 grams. 




10 


8.313 


8.57 


44.7 grams. 


11 


7.910 


8.55 


19.0 


12 


9.491 


8.46 


30.0 


13 


8.628 


8.75 


28.0 


14 


8.758 


8.28 


5.0 






126.7 grams contain 








6.13% N. 




53.108 


51.07 + 


7.76 grams nitrogen. 



53.108 grams nitrogen. 58.83 grams nitrogen. 



Nitrogen balance for six days 
Nitrogen balance per day 



-5.722 grams. 
-0.953 gram 



Average Intake. 

Calories per day 2168. 

Nitrogen per day 8.85 grams. 



120 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

On May 6, a second nitrogen balance was attempted 
covering a period of seven days, in which, as before, there 
was an exact comparison of the income and output of 
nitrogen. In this period of seven days, as shown in the 
accompanying tables, the fuel value of the food was essen- 
tially the same as in the preceding period, but the amount of 
proteid food was increased to an average intake of 10.10 
grams per day. Under these conditions there was a distinct 
plus balance for the seven days amounting to 2.425 grams, 
thus showing that with this quantity of nitrogenous food the 
body was laying on nitrogen to the extent of 0.346 gram per 
day. The average daily amount of nitrogen metabolized 
during this period was only 8.18 grams., being quite notice- 
ably below the average daily amount for the year. In other 
words, the results of this balance period show that with a 
consumption of food sufficient to yield about 2200 calories 
per day, the body of this subject needed to metabolize only 
8.25 grams of nitrogen per day to more than maintain nitro- 
gen equilibrium. Following are the tables of results : 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 121 



BEERS. 
Friday, May 6, 1904. 

Breakfast. Oatmeal 345 grams, butter 7 grams, sugar 30 grams, milk 100 

grams, coffee 180 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 67 grams, potato 71 grams, corn 179 grams, pie 133 grams, 

milk 200 grams. 
Supper. Biscuit 75 grams, butter 11 grams, potato 106 grams, cake 52 grams, 

apricots 75 grams, milk 230 grams. 



Food. 


Gram.-. Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 


Oatmeal . . . 


345 X 


0.40 


= 1.380 grams. 


Butter . . . 


. .7 + 11 = 18 X 


0.11 


= 0.020 


Sugar .... 


30 X 


0.00 


0.000 


Milk . . 100 + 200 + 230 = 530 X 


0.54 


= 2.862 


Coffee 


180 X 


0.14 


- 0.252 




67 X 


139 


0.931 


Potato (dinner) 


.... 71 X 


0.52 


- 0.369 


Corn 


179 x 


0.44 


0.788 


Pie 


133 X 


0.64 


- 0.718 


Biscuit 


... 75 X 


1.21 


- 0.908 




106 X 


036 


0382 


Cake 


. . 52 X 


0.90 


- 0.468 




75 X 


0.21 


0.158 








. . . 9.236 grams. 




Total nitrogen in urine 




. 8.720 



Fuel value of the food .... 2080 calories. 



Saturday, May 7, 1904. 

Breakfast. Oatmeal 382 grams, milk 100 grams, coffee 185 grams, butter 10 

grams, sugar 30 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 93 grams, potato 67 grams, rice pudding 141 grams, milk 200 

grams. 
Supper. Bread 67 grams, butter 13 grams, potato salad 122 grams, milk 240 

grams, coffee 120 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Oatmeal 382 

Milk . . 100 + 200 + 240 = 540 
Coffee (breakfast) 185 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 

X 0.41 = 1.566 grams. 

X 0.54 = 2.916 

X 0.13 = 0.241 



122 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
BEER& 



Butter . . . 


. 10 + 13 = 23 X 
30 X 


0.11 
0.00 


= 


0.025 
0.000 


Bread 


. 93 + 67 160 X 


1.33 





2.128 




67 X 


0.56 





0.375 




. . 141 X 


076 


_ 


1.072 


1 H 


122 X 


035 


_ 


0427 




. . 120 X 


0.15 


_ 


0.180 




Total nitrogen in food . 
Total nitrogen in urine 






8.930 grams. 
8.530 



Fuel value of the food .... 1714 calories. 



Sunday, May 8, 1904. 



Breakfast. Oatmeal 386 grams, butter 10 grams, sugar 35 grams, milk 100 
grams, coffee 185 grams. 

Dinner. Rice and chicken gravy 178 grams, boiled onions 136 grams, choco- 
late pudding 141 grams, milk 150 grams. 

Supper. Potato salad 73 grams, bread 28 grams, chocolate cake 104 grams, 
milk 220 grams. 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 



Oatmeal 


386 


X 


036 


= 


1.351 


grams. 


Butter 


10 


X 


0.11 


= 


0.011 




Sugar 


35 


X 


0.00 





0.000 




Milk . . 100+150 + 220 = 


470 


X 


0.55 


= 


2.585 




Coffee 


185 


X 


0.11 





0.204 




Rice and chicken gravy . . . 


178 


X 


0.47 


= 


0.837 




Onions 


136 


X 


0.25 


5; 


0.340 




Chocolate pudding 


141 


X 


1.03 


= 


1.452 




Potato salad 


73 


X 


0.35 





0.256 




Bread 


28 


X 


1.33 


_ 


0.372 




Chocolate cake 


104 


X 


0.95 





0.988 




Total nitrogen in food 


8.396 grams. 


Total nitrogen 


in urine 








7.000 





Fuel value of the food 



19P5 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 123 



BEERS. 



Monday, May 9, 1904. 



Breakfast. Oatmeal 330 grams, butter 10 grams, sugar 35 grams, milk 100 

grams, coffee 185 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 73 grams, fried potato 125 grams, boiled onions 118 grams, 

macaroni and cheese 128 grains, apple pie 110 grams, milk 200 grams. 
Supper. Bread 82 grams, boiled potato 130 grams, butter 12 grams, chocolate 
cake 1 14 grams, milk 245 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Oatmeal 330 

Butter .... 12 + 10 = 22 

Sugar 35 

Milk . . 100 + 200 + 245 = 545 

Coffee 185 

Bread 73 + 82 = 155 

Fried potato 125 

Onions 118 

Macaroni: and cheese .... 128 

Apple pie 110 

Boiled potato 130 

Chocolote cake 114 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.44 


= 


1.452 grams. 


X 


0.11 


= 


0.024 


X 


0.00 


- = 


0.000 


X 


0.58 





3.161 


X 


0.099 





0.183 


X 


1.33 





2.062 


X 


0.48 


= 


0.600 


X 


0.25 


-- 


0.295 


X 


1.53 


-s 


1.958 


X 


0.55 





0.605 


X 


0.30 





0.390 


X 


0.95 


= 


1.083 








. 11.813 grams. 




. 




. 7.590 



Fuel value of the food 



2620 calories. 



Tuesday, May 10, 1904. 

Breakfast. Oatmeal 357 grams, butter 11 grams, sugar 35 grams, milk 100 

grams, coffee 185 grams. 
Dinner. Soda biscuit 68 grams, boiled potato 160 grams, butter 20 grams, 

stewed tomato 103 grams, custard pie 103 grams, milk 200 grams. 
Supper. Soda biscuit 81 grams, butter 14 grams, stewed potato 97 grams, 

chocolate cake 66 grams, milk 200 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Oatmeal 357 

Butter . . 11 + 20 + 14 = 45 
Sugar 35 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 

X 0.42 = 1.499 grams. 

X 0.11 = 0.050 

X 0.00 = 0.000 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



BEERS. 



Milk . . 100 + 200 + 200 = 
Coffee 


500 
185 
149 
160 
103 
103 
97 
66 
in food . 
in urine . 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


0.64 
0.13 
1.27 
0.30 
0.21 
0.91 
0.45 
0.95 


= 


2.700 
0.241 
1.892 
0.480 
0.216 
0.937 
0.437 
0.627 
9.079 grams. 
7.780 


Soda biscuit . 
Boiled potato 


. 68 + 81 = 


Stewed tomato 
Custard pie . . 
Stewed potato . 
Chocolate cake 





Total nitrogen 
Total nitroeen 



Fuel value of the food .... 2190 calories. 



Wednesday, May 11, lOOj.. 

Breakfast. Oatmeal 394 grams, butter 10 grams, sugar 35 grams, milk 100 

grams, coffee 185 grams. 
Dinner. Soup 141 grams, bread 78 grams, butter 14 grams, boiled potato 101 

grams, corn 128 grams, rice pudding 116 grams, milk 200 grams. 
Supper. Biscuit 103 grams, butter 11 grams, corn 113 grams, cake 60 grams, 

milk 205 grams. 



Food. Grams 

Oatmeal 394 

Butter . . 10 + 14 + 11 = 35 

Sugar 35 

Milk . . 100 + 200 + 205 = 505 

Coffee 185 

Soup 141 



Boiled potato 101 

Corn .... 113 + 128 = 241 

Rice pudding 116 

Biscuit 103 

Cake 60 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.46 


= 


1.812 grams. 


X 


0.11 


= 


0.039 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


X 


0.54 


= 


2.727 


X 


0.13 





0.241 


X 


0.48 


= 


0.677 


X 


1.25 





0.975 


X 


0.31 





0.313 


X 


0.46 


= 


1.109 


X 


0.63 


= 


0.731 


X 


1.42 





1.463 


X 


0.78 


= 


0.468 




. 




. 10.555 grams. 








8.280 



Fuel value of the food .... 2183 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 125 



BEERS. 



Thursday, May 12, 1904. 



Breakfast. Oatmeal 349 grams, butter 10 grams, sugar 35 grams, milk 100 

grams, coffee 185 grams. 
Dinner. Soup 137 grams, fried potato 43 grams, bread 100 grams, macaroni 

and cheese 122 grams, bread pudding 80 grams, milk 200 grams. 
Supper. Stewed potato 126 grams, bread 122 grams, cake 73 grams, apricots 

81 grams, milk 220 grams. 



Food. 




Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Oatmeal 




349 


X 


0.41 


= 


1.431 grams. 


Butter . . . 




10 


X 


0.11 


= 


0.011 


Sugar . . . 





35 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Milk . . 100 -1- 200 + 220 = 


520 


X 


0.57 


= 


2.964 


Coffee , . 




185 


X 


0.13 





0.241 


Soup .... 




137 


X 


0.48 





0.658 


Fried potato , 




43 


X 


0.76 


= 


0.327 


Bread . . . 


100 + 122 = 


222 


X 


1.25 





2.775 


Macaroni and cheese .... 


122 


X 


1.94 





2.370 


Bread pudding 





80 


X 


0.82 


= 


0.656 


Stewed potato 




126 


X 


0.43 





0.542 


Cake .... 




73 


X 


0.78 


= 


0.569 


Apricots . . 




81 


X 


0.23 


= 


0.186 




Total nitrogen 


in food . 








12.730 grams. 




Total nitrogen 


in urine 


. 


. . . . 




9.360 



Fuel value of the food .... 2283 calories. 



126 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Beers. 



Nitrogen 
Taken in. 



Output. 
Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 



May 6 


9.236 grams. 


8.72 grams. 


17.5 grains. 


7 


8.930 


8.53 


30.5 


8 


8.396 


7.00 


26.2 


9 


11.813 


7.59 


27.1 


10 


9.079 


7.78 


22.1 


11 


10.555 


8.28 


26.0 


12 


12.730 


9.36 


24.5 






. 


12.5 



70.739 



57.26 



186.4 grams contain 

5.93 % N. 
11.054 grams nitrogen. 



70.739 grams nitrogen. 68.314 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for seven days = +2.425 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = +0.346 gram. 



Average Intake. 

Calories per day 2152. 

Nitrogen per day 10.10 grams. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 127 

Here we have, as in the preceding cases, marked physio- 
logical economy of non-nitrogenous as well as of nitrogenous 
food material. Further, taking the body-weight of the sub- 
ject as 61.5 kilos, and with an average daity excretion of 
8.58 grams of metabolized nitrogen, it is evident that under 
the existing conditions of life and activity there was need for 
the metabolism of only 0.139 gram of nitrogen per kilo of 
body- weight. Doubtless, however, still greater economy was 
possible. 

Finally, while it hardly savors of scientific accuracy to 
quote simple sensations, yet it may be stated that the sub- 
ject asserts a betterment of his condition, with continuance 
of mental and physical vigor in such a degree that he has 
persisted now for more than a year and a half in the main- 
tenance of these dietetic habits which are characterized by 
this lowered rate of proteid metabolism. The quantity of 
nitrogen metabolized daily means the breaking down of ap- 
proximately 50 grams of proteid, and it is very evident that 
this amount of proteid food, one-half the amount called for 
by the ordinary diet, is quite sufficient to meet all of the 
subject's bodily needs, even with a total fuel value consider- 
ably below 2500 calories. 

SUMMARY 

Certain general conclusions seem to be justified by the 
results reported. A healthy man, whose occupation is such 
as not to involve excessive muscular work, but whose activity 
is mainly mental rather than physical, though by no means 
excluding the latter, can live on a much smaller amount of 
proteid or albuminous food than is usually considered essen- 
tial for life, without loss of mental or physical strength and 
vigor, and with maintenance of body and nitrogen equilib- 
rium. This means that the ordinary professional man who 
leads an active and even strenuous life, with its burden of 
care and responsibility, need not clog his system and inhibit 
his power for work by the ingestion of any such quantities 
of proteid food as the ordinary dietetic standards call for. 



128 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

There is no real physiological need that is apparent for 
the adoption of such dietetic habits as ordinarily prevail, or as 
are called for by the dietary standards set by most authori- 
ties in this branch of physiology. There is no justifiable 
ground for the dictum, or the assumption, that the adult man 
of average body-weight needs daily 118 grams of proteid food 
for the maintenance of health, strength and vigor, or that 
there is need for the metabolism of at least 16 grams of 
nitrogen daily. If such were the case, how could these five 
subjects, whose experiences have been detailed in the fore- 
going pages, have maintained their body-weight, established 
nitrogen equilibrium, pursued their ordinary vocations with- 
out loss of strength and vigor, and kept in a perpetual condi- 
tion of good health, with an average daily metabolism of from 
5.4 grams of nitrogen to 8.99 grams of nitrogen for periods 
ranging from six to eighteen months ? Surely, if 16 to 18 
grams of nitrogen are a daily requisite for the healthy adult, 
there should have been some sign of nitrogen starvation dur- 
ing these long periods of low proteid diet, but the sharpest 
scrutiny failed to find it. On the contrary, there were not 
wanting signs of improved conditions of the body which 
could not well be associated with anything but the changes 
in diet. 

Let us briefly consider the main facts. The writer, of 57 
kilos body- weight, showed for nearly nine consecutive months 
an average daily metabolism of 5.7 grams of nitrogen. Dur- 
ing the last two months the daily metabolism averaged 5.4 
grams of nitrogen. As body-weight and nitrogen equilibrium 
were both maintained under these conditions, it is certainly 
fair to assume that the physiological needs of the body were 
fully met. These figures imply a metabolism, in the first 
instance, of 0.1 gram of nitrogen per kilo of body-weight, 
while the lower figure shows a metabolism of 0.094 gram 
of nitrogen per kilo of body-weight. We may call this 
latter amount the minimal nitrogen requirement for this par- 
ticular individual, under which health, strength, and vigor 
can be fully maintained. This lower nitrogen figure shows 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 129 

that the needs of this particular individual for proteid 
material are met by the metabolism of 33.75 grams of pro- 
teid per day. Hence, one-third the usually accepted standard 
of proteid is quite sufficient for the wants of this particular 
person, and this too with a quantity of non-nitrogenous food 
far below the daily amount called for by ordinary physiologi- 
cal rules. A fuel value of 2000 calories per day was fully 
adequate to meet the ordinary wants of the body. 

Dr. Mendel, with a body-weight of 70 kilos, showed for 
seven consecutive months an average daily metabolism of 
6.53 grams of nitrogen, likewise with maintenance of health, 
strength, body equilibrium, and nitrogenous equilibrium. 
This figure implies a nitrogen metabolism of 0.093 gram 
per kilo of body-weight and shows that the wants of the 
body in his case can be fully met by a metabolism of 
40.8 grams of proteid matter daily, and this likewise without 
increasing the amount of non-nitrogenous food ingested. In- 
deed, a total fuel value of 2500 calories per day was quite 
sufficient for all the needs of his body under the existing 
conditions. 

Dr. Underbill, with a body-weight of 65 kilos, showed for 
six consecutive months a proteid metabolism equal to 7.81 
grams of nitrogen per day, while for the last two months the 
daily average excretion of nitrogen was only 6.68 grams. 
These figures mean respectively a nitrogen metabolism of 
0.120 and 0.102 gram of nitrogen per kilo of body-weight. 
Here, too, as in the preceding cases, this lowered rate of 
proteid metabolism was maintained without increasing the 
total fuel value of the food and with a continuance of health 
and strength. 

Messrs. Dean and Beers, with body-weights of 64 and 61.5 
kilos respectively, likewise kept up their health and strength 
for a long period of time with a nitrogen metabolism averag- 
ing 8.99 and 8.58 grams of nitrogen per day, i. e. , with a 
metabolism of 0.140 and 0.139 gram of nitrogen per kilo of 
body-weight respectively, and this with a total fuel value in 
their daily food averaging not more than 2500 calories. 



130 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

With this general concurrence of results, we are certainly 
warranted in the assertion that the professional man can safely 
practise a physiological economy in the use of proteid food 
equal to a saving of one-half to two-thirds the amount called 
for by existing dietary standards, and this without increasing 
the amount of non-nitrogenous food consumed. Indeed, the 
latter class of foods can likewise be diminished in amount 
without detriment to health or strength, where there is no 
call for great physical exertion. Lastly, the so-called minimal 
proteid requirement of the healthy man which for this 
group of individuals we may place at the low level of 0.093 to 
0.130 gram of nitrogen per kilo of body-weight represents 
the real physiological needs of the system for nitrogen, and in 
so far as our present data show, anything beyond this quantity 
may be considered as an excess over and above what is re- 
quired for the actual physiological necessities of the body. 
Naturally, however, there may be nothing detrimental in a 
slight excess of proteid beyond the daily needs. That is 
a subject, however, to be discussed later in connection with 
other results. 

In view of the close agreement in the amount of nitrogen 
metabolized by these different individuals per kilo' of body- 
weight, emphasis should be laid upon the fact that the results 
recorded were all obtained with perfect freedom of choice 
in the matter of diet, without prescription of any kind, so that 
the close concurrence in the final figures tends to strengthen 
the value of the data as pointing to a certain minimal require- 
ment easily attainable, and fully adequate for meeting the 
needs of the body. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 131 



II. EXPERIMENTS WITH VOLUNTEERS FROM THE 
HOSPITAL CORPS OF THE UNITED STATES 
ARMY. 

The original Detachment from the Hospital Corps of the 
United States Army detailed to serve in this series of experi- 
ments arrived in New Haven September 28, 1903, under the 
command of Dr. Wallace DeWitt, 1st Lieutenant and assist- 
ant Surgeon of the United States Army. The detail was 
composed of twenty men, of whom fourteen were privates, 
volunteers for the experiment, the remainder being made up 
of non-commissioned officers, cook, cook's helper, etc. The 
detachment was located in a convenient house on Vanderbilt 
Square belonging to the Sheffield Scientific School, and there 
they lived during their six months' stay in New Haven under 
military discipline, and subject to the constant surveillance of 
the commanding officer and the non-commissioned officers. 

In selecting the men for the experiment particular attention 
\vs paid to securing as great a variety of types as possi- 
ble, representing different nationalities, temperaments, etc. 
Naturally, among such a group of enlisted men brought to- 
gether for the purpose in view many were found unsuited for 
various reasons, and were quickly exchanged for others better 
adapted for the successful carrying out of the experiment. 
Several quickly deserted, apparently not relishing the re- 
strictions under which they were compelled to live. The 
restriction which constituted the greatest hardship in the eyes 
of several of the men was the regularity of life insisted upon, 
and the consequent restraint placed upon their movements in 
the city when relieved from duty. The following Statement 
from Dr. DeWitt will explain the causes of removal of the 
men who dropped out of the experiment during the natural 
sifting process of the first few weeks and later. 



132 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

HOSPITAL CORPS DETACHMENT U. S. ARMY, 
332 TEMPLE ST., NEW HAVEN, CONN. 
March 17, 1904. 

Professor RUSSELL H. CHITTENDEN, 

Director Sheffield Scientific School. 

NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

SIR, In compliance with your verbal request concerning men 
of this detachment lost by transfer and desertion and the reasons 
therefor, I have the honor to inform you that the following men 
were lost by transfer, at my request, for the reasons set after their 
respective names : 
Private EDWARD MODERMOTT (October 17, 1903). Mentally 

and morally unsuited. 

Private PAUL FORKEL (October 18, 1903). Physically un- 
suited. 

Private DAVID ACKER (October 24, 1903). Physically un- 
suited by reason of Acute Pulmonary Tuberculosis Bilateral. 
Private WILLIAM C. WITZIG (November 17, 1903). Physically 

unsuited by reason of Cardiac Irritability. 

Private PHILIP S. MYER (December 11, 1903). Physically un- 
suited by reason of very high grade of Myopia both eyes. 
Private first class CHARLES P. DAVIS (January 14, 1904). 

Physically unsuited by reason of Acute Melancholia. 
Private BARNARD BATES (February 12, 1904). Morally and 
mentally unsuited by reason of Drunkenness. 

In all these men, except Private DAVIS, the condition for which 
they were transferred was present when they reported for duty 
with the detachment. 

In the case of Private DAVIS, his condition of acute melancholia 
in my opinion was incident to the experiment, due to the neces- 
sary restrictions of liberty and food, assisted by a natural gloomy 
disposition. 

The following men were lost by desertion : 

Private first class SAMUEL R. CURTIS (November 3, 1903). 
Private first class WILLIAM SMITH (November 5, 1903). 
Private SIMON PRINS (January 23, 1904). 
Private EDWIN A. RINARD (February 3, 1904). 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 133 

Of these men Private first class Smith and Private Prins were 
on duty in the kitchen and were at no time subject to restriction 
of diet and liberty. Private first class Curtis deserted before the 
experiment was well under way and can not be attributed to any 
cause arising out of the investigation. Private Rinard's desertion 
was in my opinion due to the restrictions of diet and liberty in- 
cident to the experiment. I would say, however, that this man 
was a worthless character and was discharged "without honor" 
from the army during a previous enlistment. 
Very respectfully, 

(Signed) WALLACE DEWITT, 
1st Lieut, and Asst. Surgeon U. S. Army, 
Commdg. Detachment. 

As supplementing Dr. DeWitt's statement it may be men- 
tioned that Rinard reported for the experiment at New Haven 
on December 11, 1903, and remained here until February 
2, 1904. On December 11 he weighed 59.8 kilos, while on 
February 2, the last day he was here, his body- weight was 
60 kilos. Evidently, any restriction of diet he may have 
suffered had not made any great impression upon his bodily 
condition. 

There were thirteen men of the detachment who really 
took part in the experiment, and of these all but four were in 
the original detail. Of these four, two joined in October and 
two early in November. Of these thirteen, all but two con- 
tinued to the close of the experiment, April 4, 1904. 

The following statement gives the name, age, birthplace, 
occupation, length of service (U. S. Army), etc. of the 
thirteen men. 

It will be noted that the men range in age from twenty-one 
years six months to forty-three years, and that representatives 
of many countries are on the list. 

Regarding the duties of the men, i. e., their daily work, the 
following statement from Dr. DeWitt will give all needed in- 
formation on this point. The character of the Gymnasium 
work will be referred to later. 



134 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 





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PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 135 

HOSPITAL CORPS DETACHMENT U. S. ARMY, 

332 TEMPLE STREET, NEW HAVEN, CONN., 

March 17, 1904. 

Professor R. H. CHITTENDEN, 

Director Sheffield Scientific School, 
NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

SIR, In compliance with your verbal request I have the honor 
to inform you that the duties of this detachment during the tour 
of duty at this station have been as follows : 

At 6.45 A. M. the men arise and their body-weights are taken 
immediately, after which they dress and assemble for reveille roll- 
call. 

7.15. Breakfast. After this meal they are all engaged in various 
duties about the quarters, such as inside and outside police, kitchen 
police, assisting in measurement of urine and faeces and transpor- 
tation of the same to the laboratory; cleansing of faeces cans 
and urine bottles, etc. They are occupied with these various 
duties until about 9 A. M. 

9 A. M. Detachment proceeds to Gymnasium under charge of a 
non-commissioned officer, and by him reported to the gymnastic 
instructor. 

11 A. M. Detachment returns from Gymnasium. 

12 M. Dinner. 

1 P. M. Drill, weather permitting, otherwise a walk in charge 
of a non-commissioned officer, or indoor instruction relative to the 
duties of a soldier. 

2 r. M. Relief from drill ; walk, or instruction. 

2.30 P. M. Instruction by a non-commissioned officer in their 
duties as nurses, etc. 

3.30 P. M. Relief from instruction. 

5 P. M. Supper. 

5.30 P. M. Retreat roll-call. 

10 P. M. All men in bed. 

This routine is the same for every day in the week except Saturday 
and Sunday. On Saturday drill and instruction in the afternoon 
are omitted, and on Sundays the men are also free from gymnasium 
work. 

In addition to the duties mentioned above, a special detail of 
two men is made every morning to assist in the weighing and serv- 



136 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

ing of the food, and from time to time details are sent to the lab- 
oratory and reported to Dr. Mendel for such work connected with 
the investigation as he might assign them. 
Very respectfully, 

(Signed) WALLACE DsWiTT, 

1st Lieut, and Asst. Surgeon U. S. Army, 
Commdg. Del. H. C. 

Here we have a group of men, thirteen in number, quite 
different in type from the preceding group : men accus- 
tomed to living a vigorous life under varying conditions, and 
who naturally had great liking for the pleasures of eating. 
Further, they were men who had no personal interest what- 
ever in the experiment or in the principles involved. To be 
sure, they had volunteered for the work, and the objects of 
the experiment had been fully explained to them. Like good 
soldiers they no doubt desired to obey orders, and they doubt- 
less preferred to see the experiment a success rather than a 
failure, but they had not that interest that would lead them 
to undergo any great personal discomfort. This point should 
be kept in mind, since it has a distinct bearing upon the pos- 
sibility of establishing physiological economy of diet in per- 
sons who would not willingly incommode themselves or suffer 
personal inconvenience. 

The experiment commenced on October 4, 1903, and for 
a period of six months every detail bearing upon the nutrition 
and condition of the men under the gradually changed condi- 
tions was carefully observed. Every precaution to preserve 
the health and good spirits of the men was taken. Pure dis- 
tilled water was sent to the quarters each morning, magazines 
and other periodicals were supplied through the courtesy of 
friends, occasional visits to the theatre were indulged in ; in 
fact all that could be done to counterbalance any possible 
depressing influence from the partial restraints of the ex- 
periment was arranged for. 

Regarding the details of the work ; the twenty-four hours' 
urine was collected by each man, also the faeces for each day, 
and these were subjected to chemical analysis with a view to 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 137 

following out the various changes in the amount and char- 
acter of the proteid metabolism going on in the body as 
measured by the output of total nitrogen, uric acid, and phos- 
phoric acid in the urine, and by the amount of nitrogen in 
the fseces with reference to the degree of digestion and utili- 
zation of the proteid foods ingested. 

During the first two weeks the ordinary army rations were 
given to the men ; later a gradual change was made, accom- 
panied by a reduction in the amount of proteid food, with 
some reduction likewise in the total fuel value of the food. 
All the food placed before each man was carefully weighed, 
and at the close of every meal any uneaten food was weighed 
and the amount subtracted from the initial weights. During 
the balance periods, when the income and output of nitrogen 
were carefully compared, the food materials were weighed 
with greater care and large samples of each article were 
taken for analysis, to determine the exact content of nitro- 
gen. Every figure for nitrogen shown in the tables was 
verified by at least a duplicate chemical analysis so as to 
avoid any possibility of error. 

It is not necessary to give here any detailed description of 
the changes made in the character of the diet, since on pages 
288 to 326 may be found the daily dietary from October 2, 
1903, to April 4, 1904, each meal of the day, showing 
the amount and character of the food given the men during 
the six months period. It should be stated, however, that at 
no time were the men placed on a cereal diet or on a truly 
vegetable diet. The object in view was simply to study the 
possibilities of a general physiological economy in diet, with 
special reference to the minimal proteid requirement of the 
healthy man. To be sure, in doing this meats, owing to their 
high content of proteid, were very much reduced in amount 
and on many days no meat at all was given, but as the dietary 
is looked through it will be seen that the main change was 
from a heavy meat diet (rich in proteid) to a lighter diet, 
comparatively poor in proteid, with an increasing predomi- 
nance of vegetable and cereal foods. Condiments are also 



138 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

noticeable in the diet, together with the ordinary accessories, 
coffee and tea. Variety was also considered as a necessary 
factor, not to be overlooked, as contributing largely to the 
maintenance of a proper physiological condition. 

From a study of the tables which follow, showing the 
chemical composition of the daily urine, it will be seen that 
during the first sixteen days, viz., from October 4 until Octo- 
ber 20 or 21, when the men were on the ordinary army ration 
with opportunity to eat an abundance of meat, the daily 
urine frequently contained 16 to 17 grams of nitrogen, show- 
ing a metabolism of over 100 grams of proteid on such 
days. Sliney, indeed, averaged for four days an "output of 
18.19 grams of nitrogen, while Coffman, Henderson, and 
Zooman showed an average daily excretion of about 15 grams 
of nitrogen each for the sixteen days from October 4. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 139 
O ARM AN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grama 


Oct. 4 


66.7 


1160 


1019 


16.37 


0.549 


2.76 


5 


66.7 


1030 


1025 


12.36 






6 


66.0 


740 


1029 


11.85 


0.703 


1.15 


7 


66.0 


480 


1031 


10.31 






8 


65.4 


660 


1030 


14.30 


0.674 


1.32 


9 


65.4 


830 


1029 


15.94 






10 


65.4 


1440 


1018 


17.02 






11 


66.1 


2220 


1012 


16.12 


0.591 


2.64 


12 


66.7 


1300 


1020 


13.33 






13 


66.8 


2140 


1013 


15.67 


0.610 


2.56 


14 


66.4 


1290 


1017 


12.38 






15 


66.7 


1730 


1017 


14.95 


0.653 


1.93 


16 


66.7 


1520 


1017 


13.68 




. . . 


17 


66.2 


1490 


1018 


15.20 






18 


66.2 


2030 


1014 


16.44 


0.646 


2.66 


19 


65.8 


1580 


1017 


16.78 






20 


65.3 


1900 


1014 


16.19 


0.626 


1.95 


21 


65.4 


1100 


1024 


12.07 






22 


66.0 


1200 


1018 


11.30 


0.502 


1.11 


23 


66.4 


2060 


1015 


11.37 


. 




24 


67.2 


1970 


1015 


11.88 






25 


67.1 


1480 


1014 


8.64 


0.411 


2.07 


26 


67.2 


1510 


1018 


11.78 






27 


67.2 


1890 


1015 


12.13 


0.406 


1.99 


28 


67.4 


1620 


1014 


9.82 






29 


67.6 


980 


1018 


6.82 


0.493 


1.62 


30 


67.5 


820 


1022 


10.91 






31 


67.0 


930 










Nov. 1 


67.4 


1480 


1015 


10.20 


0.460 


1.49 


2 


67.6 


1160 


1018 


10.37 






3 


67.4 


1160 


1020 


10.44 


0.489 


1.53 


4 


67.1 


720 


1024 


6.61 




. . . 


5 


66.6 


640 


1029 


8.02 


0.495 


1.17 


6 


665 


1200 


1016 


9.57 


. 


. . 


7 


66.0 


840 


1023 


8.57 


. . . 




8 


66.0 


1100 


1017 


8.32 


0.452 


1.67 


9 


66.0 


720 


1030 


8.53 


. . . 




10 


C6.4 


880 


1022 


10.19 


0.515 


1.30 


11 


66.6 


1080 


1018 


9.72 




. 


12 


66.9 


920 


1023 


8.38 


0.616 


1.54 



140 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
OAKMAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Nov. 13 


67.2 


800 


1025 


6.43 




. . 


14 


66.5 


600 


1026 


7.38 






15 


66.3 


1360 


1014 


8.98 


0.403 


1.44 


16 


66.4 


1160 


1025 


9.88 






17 


66.4 


900 


1020 


6.69 


0.343 


0.94 


18 


66.0 


1820 


1010 


7.92 


| 




19 
20 
21 


65.4 
66.0 
66.4 


1160 
1120 
1020 


1017 
1020 
1020 


5.57 
8.73 
7.89 


[ 0.436 
J daily av. 


1.09 
daily av. 


22 


66.1 


1360 


1016 


8.16 


0.413 


1.83 


23 


67.0 


2600 


1008 


8.11 






24 


65.9 


1140 


1015 


6.43 


0.380 


1.90 


25 


65.9 


1800 


1011 


7.56 


. . . 


. 


26 


65.6 


1200 


1020 


7.63 


0.377 


1.71 


27 


66.2 


1300 


1015 


7.41 






28 


66.9 


1200 


1012 


6.70 






29 


66.9 


1480 


1019 


8.79 


0.531 


1.73 


30 


65.4 


1540 


1011 


8.41 






Dec. 1 


65.0 


1080 


1015 


7.13 


0.484 


1.45 


2 


66.6 


1440 


1012 


8.38 




. 


3 


64.5 


940 


1021 


8.58 


0.438 


1.66 


4 


65.0 


780 


1022 


7.22 






5 


65.4 


1280 


1016 


8.06 






6 


65.4 


1880 


1012 


7.67 


0.320 


1.86 


7 


65.0 


1600 


1013 


6.24 






8 


64.9 


1680 


1011 


7.86 


0.304 


1.77 


9 


65.0 


1180 


1013 


7.74 






10 


64.7 


1120 


1016 


7.59 


0.308 


1.37 


11 


64.7 


860 


1021 


7.58 






12 


64.8 


700 


1026 


6.34 






13 


64.6 


880 


1022 


7.87 


0.404 


1.47 


14 


64.7 


1540 


1017 


9.33 






15 


64.2 


1140 


1015 


6.98 


0.436 


1.71 


16 


64.3 


1040 


1018 


6.74 






17 


64.4 


980 


1018 


6.94 


0.368 


1.05 


18 


64.7 


1605 


1015 


8.57 






19 


64.2 


1250 


1013 


8.77 






20 


63.4 


1000 


1016 


7.56 


0.462 


1.25 


21 


63.6 


1190 


1016 


8.35 






22 


63.0 


1470 


1011 


8.47 


0.245 


1.26 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 141 
A KM AN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Dec. 23 


63.6 


672 


1028 


6.88 






24 


63.8 


980 


1017 


6.55 


0.294 


0.8'J 


25 


63.5 


2310 


1008 


6.37 






26 


63.9 


1860 


1016 


6.92 






27 


63.5 


1590 


1015 


7.54 


0.380 


1.11 


28 


63.0 


1840 


1018 


8.39 






29 


62.9 


1145 


1018 


6.11 


0.546 


0.72 


30 


63.2 


1300 


1020 


6.78 






31 


63.5 


1080 


1020 


5.9G 


0.421 


1.18 


1904 














Jan. 1 


64.0 


2360 


1013 


8.64 


1 




2 


63.6 


1270 


1018 


5.33 






3 

4 
5 


64.0 
63.6 
63.0 


2475 
1820 
1520 


1012 
1012 
1013 


7.42 
5.63 
6.66 


0.329 
daily 


1.43 
daily 


6 


63.5 


1270 


1016 


6.71 


average 


average 


7 


63.0 


1135 


1016 


6.74 


0.344 


1.06 


8 


63.5 


870 


1022 


6.06 






9 


63.6 


1640 


1010 


689 






10 


63.6 


1240 


1015 


5.95 


0.409 


1.42 


11 


63.5 


1740 


1012 


7.31 






12 


63.0 


840 


1020 


6.00 


0.439 




13 


62.9 


885 


1021 


7 33 


0.490 




14 


63.0 


1425 


1015 


8.29 


0.441 




15 


62.8 


1000 


1023 


7.14 


0.3UO 




16 


62.9 


1525 


1015 


8.23 


0.372 




17 


62.7 


1740 


1017 


8.14 


0.400 




18 


62.3 


1200 


1020 


842 


| 




19 


62.7 


990 


1023 


7.60 






20 


62.7 


985 


1020 


7.51 






2V 


62.7 


1080 


1021 


8.23 


0.423 


1.32 


22 


62.7 


1670 


1010 


7.01 






23 


62.2 


970 


1017 


6.58 






24 


62.2 


1800 


1013 


7.99 


j 




25 


62.2 


1630 


1013 


7.43 


1 




26 


62.0 


880 


1026 


6.86 






27 
28 


62.5 
62.4 


1250 
1560 


1017 
1016 


9.07 
8.61 


0.412 


1.45 


29 


62.7 


1325 


1018 


6.28 






30 


62.9 


2015 


1013 


7.25 







142 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
OAKMAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Jan. 31 


62.4 


1730 


1018 


6.64 


0.412 


1.45 


Feb. 1 


62.8 


910 


1027 


5.51 






2 


63.0 


1610 


1016 


7.15 






3 


62.5 


1330 


1020 


7.18 






4 


62.7 


1480 


1023 


7.46 


0.395 


1.42 


5 


63.0 


1600 


1020 


6.62 


daily 


daily 


6 


63.2 


1980 


1012 


6.53 


average 


average 


7 


63.0 


1775 


1015 


6.39 






8 


62.3 


I860 


1013 


8.26 






9 


62.9 


2010 


1013 


7.36 






10 


62.0 


1195 


1025 


7.60 






11 


62.9 


1580 


1016 


8.82 


0.233 




12 


62.5 


1900 


1013 


8.09 






13 


62.4 


1560 


1016 


7.30 






14 


62.5 


1480 


1017 


7.90 






15 


62.5 


1610 


1023 


8.93 






16 


63.0 


1570 


1019 


7.86 






17 


62.8 


2375 


1014 


9.69 






18 


62.2 


1060 


1022 


7.80 


0.430 




19 


62.0 


910 


1029 


8.13 






20 


62.3 


1710 


1012 


8.10 






21 


62.6 


1940 


1010 


7.33 






22 


62.4 


1250 


1021 


7.73 






23 


62.7 


1700 


1012 


6.53 






24 


62.4 


1525 


1017 


8.65 






25 


62.2 


1980 


1013 


8.55 


0.489 


. . . 


26 


62.0 


1145 


1017 


677 






27 


61.8 


1150 


1019 


6.87 






28 


62.0 


1445 


1020 


7.46 






29 


62.2 


1015 


1024 


6.88 


. . 




Mar. 1 


62.6 


1225 


1019 


7.42 


. 




2 


62.5 


1620 


1017 


7.58 




. 


8 


62.3 


1585 


1016 


6.85 


. 


. 


4 


62.3 


1815 


1015 


7.95 


. 


. 


5 


C2.0 


1665 


1014 


6.10 






6 


62.0 


1700 


1020 


7.96 


. 




7 


62.0 


1240 


1016 


7.44 


1 




8 


62.6 


1710 


1015 


8.72 






9 


62.0 


1670 


1016 


7.71 


1- 0.411 


. . . 


10 


62.6 


1590 


1016 


7.63 


J 





PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 148 

OAKMAN. 







Urine. 


Date. 


Body- 
weight. 




Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric acid. 


P 2 B - 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 


f 


grams 


gram 


grams 


Mar. 11 


62.0 


. 1410 


1021 


8.71 


1 




12 


62.1 


1530 


1018 


7.44 


i 0.411 




18 


62.1 


1780 


1016 


8.65 


j daily av. 




14 


62.0 


1300 


1019 


8.11 






15 


62.0 


1820 


1012 


7.29 






16 


62.2 


1670 


1017 


9.12 






17 


62.4 


1380 


1020 


8.20 


0.468 




18 


62.7 


1785 


1015 


7.82 






19 


62.5 


1910 


1017 


7.68 






20 


62.7 


1965 


1013 


6.72 






21 


62.1 


930 


1026 


5.72 






22 


62.4 


1770 


1012 


7.86 






23 


62.0 


1560 


1017 


7.21 






24 


62.0 


1860 


1015 


8.15 


0.429 




25 


61.6 


1130 


1023 


7.19 






26 


62.0 


2000 


1013 


8.88 






27 


61.9 


1320 


1019 


7.13 






28 


62.0 


1025 


1025 


6.64 






29 


62.4 


18,30 


1018 


8.34 






30 


62.3 


1500 


1020 


6.30 


- 1.379 


. 


31 


62.0 


1600 


1021 


7.10 






Apr. 1 


62.0 


2070 


1014 


6.83 


j 




2 


62.0 


1250 


1025 


5.55 






3 


62.0 


2115 


1009 


4.57 






4 


62.1 


2110 


1013 


5.95 






Daily average from 












Oct. 21 


1437 


1017 


7.42 


0.405 


1.39 



144 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
MORRIS. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA- 


190! 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Oct. 4 


59.2 


970 


1023 


13.74 


0563 


1.46 


5 


59.2 


1340 


1018 


13.43 






G 


58.4 


720 


1026 


9.16 


0.546 


1.42 


7 


58.9 


685 


1028 


12.70 


. 




8 


58.4 


400 


1019 


5.27 


0.179 


0.54 


9 


58.4 


820 


1027 




. 




10 


58.4 


1260 


1023 


1368 






11 


58.5 


1400 


1020 


18.48 


0.782 


2.32 


12 


58.5 


1220 


1021 


13.40 




. 


13 


586 


1580 


1016 


13.84 


0.614 


2.21 


14 


58.3 


1070 


1027 


16.05 






15 


58.9 


850 


1029 


13.82 


0.626 


1.50 


16 


58.9 


940 


1020 


16.40 


. 




17 


59.2 


1500 


1015 


11.70 


. 


. 


18 


59.0 


1150 


1026 


16.73 


0.796 


2.19 


19 


58.6 


1160 


1028 


18.86 


. 




20 


58.4 


1160 


1026 








21 


58.4 


1050 


1030 








22 
23 


58.6 
58.6 


910 
1100 


1027 
1024 


- 14.62 


0.602 


1.77 


24 


58.8 


1030 


1029 


daily 


daily 


daily 


25 


59.0 


1080 


1023 


average 


average 


average 


26 


59.1 


1060 


1028 


1 






27 


58.1 


1240 


1021 








28 


69.1 


860 


1025 








29 


60.0 


800 


1026 


L 10.30 


0.638 


1.37 


30 


597 


880 


1022 








31 


59.6 


640 










Nov. 1 


60.0 


990 


1020 








2 


59.6 


750 


1028 








3 


59.9 


900 


1027 








4 


00.0 


980 


1018 








5 


59.0 


1180 


1018 


^ 7.60 


0.437 


1.26 


6 


59.5 


320 


1026 








7 


58.7 


620 


1029 








8 


68.8 


1220 


1013 








9 


68.6 


8GO 


1023 








10 
11 


59.4 
590 


800 
860 


1024 
1020 


7.03 


0.413 


1.02 


12 


591 


760 


1025 









PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 145 
MORRIS. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Nov. 13 


59.2 


740 


1027 


1 






14 


59.1 


1160 


1014 


f 7.03 


0.413 


1.02 


15 


59.0 


660 


1027 


J daily av. 


daily av. 


daily av. 


16 


68.6 


860 


1026 








17 


58.7 


680 


1020 








18 


58.6 


580 


1022 








19 


58.4 


920 


1016 


5.88 


0.345 


0.84 


20 


59.0 


880 


1027 








21 


59.5 


840 


1019 








22 


59.0 


680 


1029 








23 


59.3 


1040 


1015 








24 


69.5 


1260 


1020 








25 


59.3 


820 


1020 








26 


59.3 


740 


1032 


7.34 


0.477 


1.12 


27 


60.0 


1020 


1016 








28 


59.4 


860 


1023 








29 


59.4 


700 


1028 








30 


59.5 


880 


1020 








Dec. 1 


59.1 


1020 


1019 








2 


59.8 


1420 


1021 








3 


59.2 


1240 


1027 


9.55 


0.607 


1.6.> 


4 


59.5 


720 


1031 








6 


59.6 


800 


1022 








6 


59.6 


820 


1028 








7 


59.4 


840 


1029 








8 


59.6 


540 


1020 








9 


59.4 


880 


1026 








10 


59.7 


900 


1018 


7.73 


0.410 


1.48 


11 


59.2 


780 


1025 








12 


59.1 


740 


1028 








13 


59.1 


820 


1022 








14 


59.0 


840 


1028 








15 


58.9 


1020 


1018 








16 


58.9 


810 


1025 








17 


59.0 


1020 


1019 


6.68 


0.332 


1.24 


18 


58.6 


720 


1026 








19 


58.5 


785 


1023 








20 


58.2 


670 


1020 


J 






21 
22 


58.2 
58.5 


810 
680 


1031 
1026 


]- 6.97 


0.375 





10 



146 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

MORRIS. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA- 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Dec. 23 


58.6 


785 


1024 


1 






24 


68.6 


930 


1020 








25 


58.8 


1040 


1017 


697 


0.375 




26 


67.6 


945 


1020 


daily 


daily 




27 


58.6 


840 


1023 


average 


average 




28 


68.8 


1070 


1020 








29 


58.4 


1205 


1018 








30 


69.0 


1000 


1026 








31 


69.0 


935 


1027 


)> 6.70 


0.296 


1.20 


1904 














Jan. 1 


68.5 


1475 


1016 






daily 


2 


58.6 


1350 


1018 






average 


3 


58.6 


645 


1028 








4 


68.7 


840 


1022 


1 






5 


68.6 


1040 


1020 








6 


68.8 


680 


1024 








7 


59.0 


1040 


1020 


- 6.41 


0.332 


1.11 


8 


68.4 












9 


68.4 


1110 


1019 








10 


68.6 


1120 


1016 


J 






11 


58.9 


1010 


1017 


5.58 


. 




12 


58.8 


685 


1019 


4.19 


0.405 


. 


18 


58.5 


800 


1029 


7.92 


0.785 




14 


68.0 


785 


1027 


7.91 


0.494 




15 


68.0 


800 


1030 


7.44 


0.488 




16 


58.0 


1195 


1018 


7.38 


0.421 


. 


17 


68.0 


880 


1020 


5.28 


0.304 




18 


68.0 


1080 


1026 








19 


68.0 


1076 


1019 








20 


68.0 


920 


1019 








21 


67.9 


715 


1031 


- 731 


0.449 


1.40 


22 


68.0 


820 


1022 








23 


68.0 


1065 


1024 








24 


68.2 


1370 


1014 








25 


58.1 


1490 


1015 








26 


68.2 


1300 


1025 








27 
28 


68.2 
68.3 


1335 
1110 


1019 
1014 


- 7.18 


0.369 


1.33 


29 


68.4 


916 


1028 








30 


68.4 


1200 


1020 









PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 147 

MORRIS. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 6 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Jan. 31 


58.4 


1490 


1020 


7.18 


0.369 


1.33 


Feb. 1 


58.4 


870 


1030 








2 


58.9 


680 


1024 








3 


58.9 


1150 


1029 








4 


58.9 


1900 


1025 


' 7.04 


0.418 


1.36 


5 


59.0 


930 


1030 


daily 


daily 


daily 


6 


59.1 


1030 


1021 


average 


average 


average 


7 


59.0 


975 


1024 








8 


59.5 


880 


1030 








9 


59.4 


970 


1027 








10 


59.0 


1020 


1025 








11 


69.0 


1015 


1021 


7.69 


0.484 




12 


58.9 


930 


1028 








18 


59.3 


880 


1029 








14 


69.2 


1150 


1018 








15 


59.2 


1050 


1028 








16 


59.0 


1310 


1027 








17 


69.4 


1300 


1017 








18 


59.1 


1400 


1020 


7.49 


0.423 




19 


58.9 


930 


1030 








20 


58.7 


715 


1030 








21 


58.7 


1240 


1023 








22 


59.3 


915 


1025 








23 


59.4 


1520 


1017 








24 


68.8 


940 


1027 








25 


59.0 


1405 


1022 


6.30 


0.471 


. 


26 


59.4 


940 


1022 








27 


59.1 


1375 


1021 








28 


59.1 


810 


1025 








29 


59.0 


1100 


1026 


6.40 






Mar. 1 


59.1 


1035 


1026 


6.64 






2 


58.8 


990 


1025 


5.40 






3 


59.0 


1235 


1022 


6.55 


0.394 




4 


58.9 


1075 


1025 


4.99 






5 


59.0 


1280 


1016 


5.38 






6 


58.8 


1230 


1026 


7.01 


j 




7 


58.3 


1100 


1029 








8 
9 


588 
59.0 


1200 
1310 


1021 
1021 


7.05 


0.723 




10 


59.0 


1280 


1020 


J 







148 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
MORRIS. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Mar. 11 


68.8 


1310 


1026 


1 






12 
13 


69.0 
59.1 


1350 
1110 


1022 
1025 


I- 7.05 
J daily av. 


0.723 
daily av. 




14 


68.8 


855 


1027 








15 


68.9 


965 


1026 








16 


68.8 


1210 


1026 








17 


68.8 


1410 


1022 


7.37 


0.493 


. . . 


18 


59.0 


1500 


1020 








19 


69.0 


1290 


1026 








20 


69.0 


1040 


1024 








21 


59.0 


1040 


1024 


"1 






22 


58.9 


980 


1028 








23 


58.8 


880 


1030 








24 


69.0 


950 


1027 


6.67 


0.552 




25 


59.3 


1210 


1028 








26 


59.2 


1210 


1024 








27 


59.2 


1210 


. 1022 


I 






28 
29 
30 


59.1 
69.0 
59.0 


1280 
1065 
1030 


1026 
1027 
1028 


6.68 
5.69 
6.06 


"I 
I 0.446 




31 


59.0 


1400 


1025 


6.96 


1 




Apr. 1 


588 


1940 


1019 


7.10 


J 




2 


69.0 


1480 


1025 


6.13 




. 


3 


59.0 


1470 


1017 


4.67 






Daily average from 












Oct. 20 


1017 


1023 


7.03 


0.450 


1.25 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 149 

BROYLES. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Nov. 15 


59.4 


2500 


1008 


7.35 






16 


59.0 


2600 


1006 








17 


59.3 


2600 


1009 








18 


58.7 


2400 










19 


58.0 


1280 


1014 








20 
21 


58.7 
58.5 


1800 
2240 


1013 

1008 


7.95 
daily 


0.381 
daily 


1.93 
daily 


22 


59.0 


2100 


1011 


average 


average 


average 


23 


58.0 


1500 


1009 








24 


57.7 


1700 


1011 








25 


58.0 


1080 


1014 








26 


57.8 


1620 


1016 


- 6.98 


0.326 


1.36 


27 


58.0 


700 


1026 








28 


58.0 


2100 


1007 








29 


58.0 


1240 


1015 








30 


58.0 


1880 


1010 








Dec. 1 


57.5 


1760 


1010 








2 


57.4 


1700 


1009 








3 


57.4 


1680 


1011 


7.40 


0.333 


1.68 


4 


57.0 


1280 


1013 








5 


57.0 


1420 


1017 








6 


57.6 


2600 


1009 








7 


57.6 


600 


1021 


7.39 


i 




8 


57.5 


1960 


1012 


10.09 






9 


57.5 


2060 


1010 


8.53 






10 


57.2 


2280 


1010 


8.89 


0.265 


1.68 


11 


56.4 


800 


1021 


6.67 






12 


56.8 


660 


1030 


6.77 






13 


56.5 


920 


1021 


8.00 


J 




14 


56.6 


1620 


1013 








15 


56.4 


1100 


1015 








16 


56.4 


1090 


1017 








17 


56.2 


990 


1019 


. 7.48 


0.319 


1.28 


18 


56.2 


590 


1026 








19 


56.0 


750 


1027 








20 


56.1 


630 


1022 








21 


56.1 


1560 


1012 


\ 






22 
23 


56.0 

56.5 


1050 
680 


1014 
1023 


I 6.41 


0.289 


0.91 


24 


56.4 


960 


1020 


J 







150 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
BROYLES. 











Urine. 








Body- 












Date. 


weight. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P,0 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


grain 


grams 


Dec. 25 


66.6 


1235 


1017 


1 






26 


56.5 


950 


1020 


I 6.41 


0.289 


0.91 


27 


66.9 


1520 


1012 


J daily av. 


daily av. 


daily av. 


28 


66.0 


1265 


1019 








29 


55.8 


1560 


1018 








30 


56.6 


1710 


1009 








31 


56.3 


1135 


1016 


6.70 


0.297 


1.17 


1904 














Jan. 1 


56.0 


1110 


1016 








2 


56.7 


1470 


1014 








3 


56.9 












4 


57.2 


1790 


1010 








5 


68.0 


1100 


1013 








6 


57.1 


640 


1028 








7 


66.6 


1180 


1004 


6.99 


0.371 


1.27 


8 


67.0 


1190 


1016 








9 


57.6 


810 


1025 








10 


66.8 


1590 


1010 








11 


57.0 


1820 


1011 


6.99 






12 


65.7 


525 


1027 


5.38 


0.621 




13 


55.9 


530 


1031 


6.99 


0.595 




14 


55.5 


630 


1032 


7.47 


0.514 




16 


65.0 


1300 


1077 


9.67 


0.428 




16 


66.0 


1355 


1016 


7.66 


0.386 




17 


55.6 


800 


1020 


5.28 


0.291 




18 


65.4 


1770 


1016 








19 


55.0 


2080 


1010 








20 


66.6 


1285 


1017 








21 


65.6 


1570 


1013 


7.80 


0.364 


1.29 


22 


66.0 


2630 


1007 








23 


55.7 


1330 


1015 








24 


66.9 


1470 


1016 








25 


67.0 


2140 


1009 








26 


67.2 


1670 


1013 








27 


68.4 


2140 


1015 








28 


68.0 


1030 


1018 


- 6.81 


0.369 


1.43 


29 


68.0 


1080 


1010 








30 


68.6 


1080 


1021 








31 


68.8 


1670 


1015 








Feb. 1 


58.4 


770 


1029 


7.06 


0.409 


1.54 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 151 
BROYLES. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 0, 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Feb. 2 


58.5 


1020 


1020 








3 


59.0 


1800 


1020 








4 
5 
6 


58.6 
59.0 
59.6 


1390 
1240 
1280 


1025 
1025 
1019 


7.06 

daily 


0.409 
daily 


1.54 
daily 


7 


59.0 


990 


1025 


average 


average 


average 


8 


58.3 


1485 


1017 








9 


59.4 


1900 


1013 








10 


59.0 


1530 


1025 








11 


59.0 


1000 


1023 


7.91 


0.438 




12 


58.6 


790 


1031 








13 


58.7 


1030 


1025 








14 


58.9 


1260 


1015 








15 


59.0 


1000 


1028 








16 


59.2 


2110 


1012 








17 


59.3 


1805 


1017 








18 


59.1 


735 


1026 


7.55 


0.376 




19 


59.0 


1260 


1020 








20 


59.0 


1040 


1020 








21 


59.0 


1775 


1012 


j 






22 


59.3 


1290 


1019 








23 


59.5 


2010 


1011 








24 


59.7 


650 


1027 








25 


59.4 


2300 


1011 


. 6.18 


0.423 




26 


60.5 


1145 


1019 








27 


60.0 


855 


1025 








28 


60.3 


670 


1031 








29 


60.5 


1310 


1017 


5.74 


1 




Mar. 1 


60.3 


1235 


1022 


9.26 






2 


60.1 


1550 


1014 


6.97 






3 


60.2 


1470 


1014 


6.18 


j. 0.306 


. . . 


4 


60.0 


1580 


1015 


7.68 






5 


60.5 


2060 


1008 


5.56 






6 


60.0 


1755 


1013 


7.69 


J 




7 


60.0 


1230 


1016 


1 






8 


60.2 


950 


1030 








9 
10 


60.5 
61.0 


1330 
1620 


1017 
1016 


, 9.99 


0.428 




11 


60.5 


1160 


1029 








12 


61.0 


1350 


1025 









152 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
BROYLES. 







Urine. 


Date. 


Body- 
weight. 




Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid.. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Mar. 13 


61.6 


1670 


1015 


9.99 


0.428 


. 


14 


6'2.0 


1540 


1017 


1 






15 


61.4 


1160 


1021 








16 


61.4 


1445 


1016 








17 


61.4 


1610 


1019 


1- 8.19 


0.484 




18 


61.5 


1220 


1018 


daily 


daily 




19 


61.0 


1145 


1025 


average 


average 




20 


61.3 


1155 


1017 


J 






21 


61.2 


1230 


1021 








22 


61.3 


1350 


1018 








23 


61.2 


1180 


1019 








24 


61.4 


1490 


1016 


7.07 


0.580 




25 


61.3 


1620 


1018 








26 


61.4 


1040 


1023 








27 


61.0 


1160 


1021 








28 


61.0 


1640 


1015 


6.79 






29 


61.0 


1400 


1020 


7.06 






30 


61.0 


2055 


1014 


7.27 


0.359 




31 


61.0 


1190 


1023 


6.21 






Apr. 1 


61.2 


1320 


1018 


5.86 






2 


61.0 


1005 


1028 


5.61 






3 


61.0 


2025 


1013 


7.17 






Daily average from 












Nov. 15 


1396 


1017 


7.26 


0.398 


1.41 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 153 

COFFMAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P,0 6 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Oct. 4 


59.1 


2140 


1012 


17.33 


0.373 


2.03 


5 


59.1 


1780 


1015 


15.27 


. 


. . . 


6 


58.7 


1070 


1024 


12.62 


0.641 


2.05 


7 


58.6 


1800 


1016 


16.96 






8 


58.6 


1120 


1024 


14.49 


0.480 


1.89 


9 


58.4 


1150 


1024 


10.14 


. 




10 


58.3 


2180 


1012 


16.06 






11 


59.1 


1580 


1014 


13.55 


0.474 


1.75 


12 


59.1 


980 


1025 


12.99 






13 


59.0 


1820 


1014 


14.85 


0.613 


2.50 


14 


59.2 


1150 


1025 


13.94 






15 


58.9 


2120 


1013 


16.03 


0.337 


2.23 


16 


59.0 


1220 


1019 


14.41 


. 


. 


17 


59.0 


1680 


1019 


12.60 






18 


59.6 


2720 


1011 


13.87 


0.453 


1.86 


19 


59.4 


2360 


1017 


23.64 


. 


3.01 


20 


58.3 


1320 


1019 


I 






21 


59.1 


1030 


1024 








22 


59.2 


650 


1029 








23 


59.6 


1640 


1017 


13.21 


0.475 


1.76 


24 


59.8 


1320 


1022 


daily 


daily 


daily 


25 


60.0 


2300 


1013 


average 


average 


average 


26 


59.8 


1440 


1022 








27 


59.8 


1280 


1020 








- 28 
29 


60.2 
60.2 


1200 
1000 


1017 
1017 


11.40 


0.524 


1.91 


30 


59.6 


820 


1030 








Nov. 1 


59.7 


1020 


1020 


j 






2 


59.4 


700 


1031 








3 


60.0 


880 


1025 








4 


59.6 


560 


1031 








5 


59.3 


540 


1032 


8.71 


0.430 


1.61 


6 


59.1 


440 


1036 








7 


58.6 


460 


1035 








8 


58.4 


420 


1035 








9 


58.6 


700 


1030 


1 






10 


59.0 


620 


1030 


1 






11 


58.5 


600 


1029 


! 8.61 


0.431 


1.12 


12 


58.7 


840 


1028 








13 


58.7 


600 


1032 


J 







154 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

COFFMAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 6 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Nov. 14 
15 


58.7 
58.9 


600 
920 


1033 
1021 


1 8.61 


0.431 


1.12 


16 


58.7 


720 


1030 








17 


58.4 


720 


1031 








18 


59.3 


720 


1027 








19 


58.7 


980 


1026 


8.41 


0.395 


1.30 


20 


59.0 


1400 


10-22 


daily 


daily 


daily 


21 


59.2 


COO 


1029 


average 


average 


average 


22 


58.7 


800 


1031 


J 






23 


59.0 


640 


1026 








24 


59.5 


1120 


1022 








25 


69.6 


1280 


1017 








26 


59.0 


820 


1028 


8.72 


0.439 


1.49 


27 


59.0 


740 


1030 








28 


59.0 


360 


1031 








29 


592 


1060 


1029 








30 


59.2 


760 


1032 








Dec. 1 


58.9 


1140 


1027 








2 


59.5 


780 


10-26 








3 


58.5 


800 


1030 


11.14 


0.586 


1.52 


4 


59.5 


860 


1030 








5 


59.5 


920 


1030 








6 


595 


760 


1032 


J 






7 


59.4 


860 


1030 


1 






8 


59.4 


540 


1030 








9 


59.0 


660 


1034 








10 


59.0 


640 


1033 


- 9.95 


0.400 


1.62 


11 


58.3 


580 


1034 








12 


59.1 


800 


1032 








13 


58.5 


680 


1030 








14 


57.3 


560 


1032 


\ 






15 


58.3 


680 


1025 




, 




16 


58.5 


910 


1021 








17 


68.4 


700 


1024 


- 7.79 


0.372 


1.25 


18 


68.4 


1110 


1018 








19 


57.8 


600 


1030 








20 


57.3 


550 


1032 








21 


68.0 


600 


1031 








22 


57.7 


470 


1037 


7.31 


0.288 




23 


58.0 


645 


1031 









PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 155 
COFFMAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Dec. 24 


58.3 


900 


1014 


.. 






25 
26 

27 


67.8 
58.0 
58.0 


730 
1085 
1000 


1028 
1014 
1021 


!- 7.31 
j daily av. 


0.288 
daily av. 




28 


57.6 


1035 


1016 








29 


67.2 


1145 


1015 


7.14 


. . . 


. . . 


30 


57.4 


1002 


1023 








31 

1904 
Jan. 1 
2 


57.4 

57.6 
66.4 


1300 

1240 

950 


1016 

1020 
1018 


7.60 


0546 


1.20 
daily 
average 


3 


57.0 


1038 


1021 








4 


57.6 


1325 


1008 








5 


58.2 


1640 


1014 








6 


68.6 


1090 


1017 








7 


58.0 


1090 


1015 


7.16 


0.271 


1.28 


8 


57.4 


785 


1026 








9 


67.7 


710 


1028 








10 


57.4 


1080 


1014 








11 


57.0 


600 


1027 


8.14 






12 


57.0 


930 


1020 


8.82 


0.508 




, 13 


56.9 


580 


1031 


8.28 


0.508 




14 


56.7 


1040 


1018 


8.30 


0.312 




15 


665 


650 


1033 


7.91 


0.352 




16 


56.5 


1130 


1017 


7.32 


0.305 




17 


56.5 


800 


1025 


7.44 


0.315 




18 


66.4 


1540 


1012 


^ 6.19 






19 


56.4 


1610 


1016 








20 


66.5 


1220 


1016 








21 


66.2 


605 


1033 


6.95 


0.301 


1.11 


22 


66.3 


900 


1019 








23 


56.4 


1325 


1013 








24 


56.2 


510 


1030 








25 


66.6 


1460 


1012 








26 


56.7 


1400 


1015 








27 


66.7 


1520 


1018 








28 


57.0 


1720 


1013 


7.55 


0.340 


1.09 


29 


56.5 


520 


1035 








30 


66.5 


870 


1028 








31 


56.7 


980 


1024 









156 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

COFFMAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 r , 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Feb. 1 


56.2 


700 


1032 








2 


56.9 


1310 


1020 








3 


57.2 


1120 


1024 








4 


57.3 


1260 


1028 


7.56 


0.362 


1.24 


5 


68.0 


1970 


1018 


daily 


daily 


daily 


6 


57.0 


810 


1022 


average 


average 


average 


7 


56.8 


780 


1030 


J 






8 


56.6 


1130 


1021 


1 






9 


57.0 


1300 


1020 








10. 


568 


1140 


1025 








11 


57.4 


1340 


1020 


8.65 


0.420 




12 


57.2 


1360 


1023 








13 


57.0 


1020 


1025 








14 


57.0 


1720 


1014 








15 


56.5 


890 


1032 








16 


57.2 


1190 


1025 








17 


57.4 


1250 


1019 








18 


67.0 


1630 


1015 


8.18 


0.318 




19 


56.7 


1225 


1025 








20 


57.0 


900 


1025 








21 


57.0 


1590 


1016 








22 


57.0 


985 


1028 


"1 






23 


57.0 


1465 


1013 








24 


56.7 


1160 


1020 








25 


56.5 


1340 


1016 


I 7.62 


0.395 




26 


56.3 


1015 


1017 








27 


56.0 


630 


1032 








28 


66.7 


1205 


1027 








29 


57.0 


1630 


1017 


8.63 






Mar. 1 


57.0 


1030 


1022 


7.48 






2 


56.8 


1295 


1020 


8.62 






3 


66.7 


1040 


1022 


7.18 


0.365 




4 


56.0 


1130 


1023 


7.93 






5 


56.5 


' 1540 


1014. 


7.67 






6 


66.6 


1105 


1024 


7.95 






7 


56.3 


1190 


1018 


1 






8 


66.5 


1350 


1017 








9 


56.2 


880 


1031 


8.27 


0.338 




10 


66.8 


1500 


1016 








11 


56.9 


1120 


1024 









PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 151 
COFFMAN. 







Urine. 


Date. 


Body- 
weight. 




Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


Idles 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Mar. 12 


56.6 


1600 


1018 


1 8.27 


0.338 




13 


57.2 


1230 


1022 


j daily av. 


daily av. 




14 


57.0 


1150 


1022 








15 


57.3 


1580 


1014 








16 


57.3 


1290 


1023 








17 


57.5 


1355 


1018 


8.07 


0.288 


. 


18 


58.0 


1635 


1016 








19 


56.8 


1320 


1020 








20 


57.0 


1085 


1021 








21 


57.4 


1030 


1023 








22 


57.7 


1970 


1013 








23 


57.4 


1670 


1013 








24 


57.0 


870 


1031 


8.50 


0.478 




25 


57.0 


1000 


1024 








26 


57.3 


1320 


1023 








27 


58.0 


1500 


1018 








28 


58.1 


1485 


1019 


8.37 






29 


58.0 


1580 


1021 


8.06 






80 


57.8 


1415 


1019 


6.88 


0.371 


. 


31 


57.8 


1285 


1026 


7.78 






Apr. -1 


57.8 


1135 


1023 


7.32 






2 


57.0 


1415 


1022 


6.45 


. . . 




3 


58.0 


2000 


1018 


4.12 






Daily average from 












NOT. 2 


1034 


1024 


8.17 


0.379 


1.23 



158 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

SLINEY. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 - 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grama 


gram 


grams 


Oct. 21 


61.3 


1990 


1021 


22.68 


. . . 


. 


23 


61.2 


1200 


1025 


16.77 






24 


61.2 


1290 


1027 


17.58 




. 


25 


61.4 


1700 


1016 


15.72 


0.686 


2.59 


27 


62.4 


1240 


1024 








28 


62.0 


840 


1025 








29 


62.2 


630 


1030 








30 


62.2 


820 


1029 


\ 11.10 


0.664 


1.26 


31 


62.0 


960 




daily 


daily 


daily 


Nov. 1 


62.1 


780 


1030 


J average 


average 


average 


2 


61.7 


940 


1027 


1 






3 


62.4 


1020 


1026 








4 


61.5 


820 


1028 








5 


61.7 


650 


1028 


10.39 


0.579 


1.49 


6 


62.0 


860 


1022 








7 


61.5 


780 


1029 








8 


61.5 


720 


1026 








9 


61.7 


1180 


1020 








10 


62.0 


620 


1028 








11 


61.8 


880 


1027 








12 


61.8 


1000 


1027 


> 9.71 


0.625 


1.39 


13 


61.6 


920 


1028 








14 


61.4 


640 


1031 








15 


61.0 


920 


1026 








16 


60.6 


1000 


1026 








17 


60.4 


1080 


1026 








18 


61.1 


880 


1029 








19 


60.9 


940 


1020 


- 9.27 


0.538 


1.12 


20 


61.3 


1020 


1015 








21 


60.9 


640 


1032 








22 


60.4 


800 


1029 








23 


61.1 


820 


1021 








24 


60.6 


700 


1027 








25 


60.6 


780 


1023 








26 


60.8 


780 


1031 


8.66 


0.650 


1.07 


27 


61.7 


1240 


1020 








28 


61.3 


1080 


1021 








29 


61.2 


1000 


1029 








30 


60.5 


820 


1029 








Dec. 1 


60.8 


820 


1026 


10.12 


0.677 


1.88 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 159 
SLINEY. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PiO,. 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Dec. 2 


60.0 


600 


1030 








3 


60.9 


940 


1015 








4 


60.9 


1000 


1024 


10.12 


0.677 


1.88 


6 


59.9 


1580 


1016 


daily 


daily 


daily 


6 


61.0 


840 


1029 


.. average 


average 


average 


7 


60.4 


760 


1028 


8.40 


I 




8 


60.4 


920 


1022 


9.71 






9 


61.0 


1000 


1020 


8.94 






10 


60.6 


740 


1025 


8.66 , 


0.671 


1.66 


11 


59.9 


760 


1031 


11.43 






12 


60.0 


660 


1033 


9.78 






13 


59.9 


880 


1030 


11.98 






14 


60.3 


1120 


1024 


' 






15 


59.5 


1060 


1021 








16 


59.9 


710 


1030 








17 


69.9 


880 


1027 


10.20 


6.52 


1.23 


18 


60.2 


1200 


1021 








19 


60.0 


1125 


1015 








20 


60.0 


1210 


1021 








21 


60.0 


715 


1026 








22 


59.5 


940 


1021 








23 


60.0 


895 


1023 








24 


59.9 


1010 


1018 


8.97 


0.606 


. 


25 


59.8 


1084 


1026 








26 


61.0 


940 


1028 








27 


60.0 


735 


1023 








28 


69.8 


1250 


1019 








29 


59.7 


1020 


1020 








30 


60.0 


1760 


1016 








31 

1904 


60.0 


980 


1022 


7.20 


0.515 


1.29 


Jan. 1 


60.0 


1370 


1014 








2 


60.0 


1152 


1017 








3 


60.4 


1035 


1025 








4 


61.0 


1210 


1014 








5 


610 


1090 


1017 








6 

7 


61.0 
60.8 

f*f\ r\ 


1400 
1140 


1020 
10^0 


1- 6.67 


0.535 


1.35 


9 


OU.U 

60.0 


620 


1028 









160 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
SLINEY. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


19M 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Jan. 10 


60.6 


1200 


1020 


6.67 


0.535 


1.35 


11 


61.8 


1230 


1015 


7.23 






12 


61.3 


660 


1027 


5.94 


0.953 




13 


60.7 


625 


1029 


8.44 


0.988 




14 


60.7 


600 


1030 


7.42 


0.674 




15 


60.4 


675 


1032 


7.89 


0.693 




16 


60.5 


500 


1030 


7.23 


0.584 




17 


60.5 


700 


1030 


8.15 


0.691 




18 


60.3 


600 


1032 








19 


60.5 


730 


1026 








20 


60.6 


920 


1021 








21 


60.4 




. 


8.13 


0.303 


1.22 


22 


60.4 


660 


1017 


daily 


daily 


daily 


23 


60.0 


920 


1030 


average 


average 


average 


24 


60.0 


1320 


1018 








25 


60.2 


, 1220 


1017 








26 


60.0 


1260 


1018 








27 


60.2 


845 


1024 








28 


60.3 


560 


1031 


7.14 


0.686 


0.98 


29 


60.0 


1030 


1024 








30 


60.4 


1330 


1020 








31 


60.6 


1125 


1019 








Feb. 1 


60.7 


830 


1027 








2 


60.8 


1695 


1016 








3 


61.0 


1760 


1015 








4 


61.3 


1060 


1025 


7.13 


0.645 


1.17 


5 


61.2 


1300 


1021 








6 


61.8 


1880 


1014 








7 


61.8 


1260 


1027 


1 






8 


62.4 


920 


1021 








9 


62.5 


1500 


1022 








10 


62.6 


1145 


1026 








11 


62.3 


710 


1019 


h 7.66 


0.647 




12 


61.0 


1350 


1015 








13 


61.0 


1030 


1027 








14 


61.5 


780 


1029 








15 


61.6 


1010 


1030 








16 


61.7 


1176 


1025 








17 


62.1 


1680 


1017 


> 8.07 


0.600 




18 


62.0 


1010 


1024 









PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 161 



SLINEY. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid 


P.,O 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


grams 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Feb. 19 


61.6 


770 


1028 


1 






20 


61.0 


710 


1030 


> 8.07 


0.600 




21 


61.0 


1240 


1021 


J daily av. 


daily av. 




22 


61.2 


1450 


1017 


1 






23 


61.6 


1425 


1017 








24 


62.0 






8.86 


0.746 




26 


62.4 












27 


61.4 


1080 


1019 








28 


61.4 


835 


1029 








29 


61.0 


800 


1030 


9.50 


1 




Mar. 1 


61.4 


775 


1028 


8.09 






2 


61.0 


760 


1030 


7.97 






3 


60.8 


920 


1023 


7.78 


0.697 




4 


61.0 


960 


1027 


7.49 






5 


61.0 


790 


1029 


7.54 






6 


61.0 


980 


1028 


8.23 






7 


61.0 












8 


61.0 


1480 


1017 


] 






9 


61.2 


1960 


1012 








10 
11 


61.0 
60.8 


740 
950 


1028 
1029 


7.65 


0.672 




12 


61.0 


1370 


1020 








13 


60.8 


1310 


1021 








14 


61.0 


1460 


1014 








15 


61.2 


1155 


1019 








16 


61.3 


1100 


1025 








17 


61.0 


1405 


1013 


- 7.72 


0.572 




18 


60.9 


1300 


1020 








19 


61.3 


2270 


1012 








20 


61.6 


1040 


1025 


J 






21 


61.2 


1020 


1027 








22 


61.4 


1210 


1019 








23 


61.0 


760 


1029 








24 


60.5 


900 


1024 


- 8.64 


0.765 




25 


60.6 


840 


1029 








26 


60.8 


890 


1030 








27 


61.0 


1000 


1024 


J 






28 


610 


870 


1026 


7.09 


1 0.502 




29 


61.0 


825 


1030 


7.37 







162 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
SLINEY. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 <V 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grama 


Mar. 30 


60.8 


1080 


1027 


8.10 






31 


60.6 


1030 


1026 


7.47 


0.502 


. 


Apr. 1 
2 


60.6 
60.0 


1130 
1590 


1021 
1016 


6.78 
6.20 


daily av. 




3 


60.6 


1860 


1013 


6.59 






Daily average from 
Nov. 1 


1021 


1024 


839 


0.647 


1.32 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 163 

STELTZ. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


grain 


grams 


Oct. 4 


52.3 


1860 


1010 


11.16 


0.325 


1.54 


5 


52.4 


1020 


1014 


7.89 






6 


52.0 


1120 


1013 


8.27 


0.648 


1.47 


7 


53.1 


760 


1014 








8 


52.0 


1280 


1012 


9.93 


0.549 


1.70 


9 


52.0 


1600 


1014 


8.83 






10 


52.6 


1900 


1012 


14.59 




. 


11 


52.6 


1460 


1010 


7.97 


0.368 


1.55 


12 


5-2.6 


1740 


1013 


10.07 




. . . 


13 


52.9 


2050 


1013 


12.79 


0.758 


2.00 


14 


52.9 


1260 


1013 


8.77 




. 


15 


526 


1540 


1013 


12.20 


0.512 


1.60 


16 


52.8 


1880 


1014 


14.41 




. 


17 


52.5 


1870 


1013 


14.36 


. 


. . . 


18 


52.4 


2230 


1013 


1512 


0.561 


2.53 


19 


52.5 


1560 


1010 


8.89 


. . . 


. . . 


20 


52.4 


1880 


1013 








21 


52.6 


1060 


1013 








22 
23 
24 
25 


53.2 
534 
52.9 
53.4 


2100 
2320 
1460 
1660 


1011 
1012 
1017 
1016 


11.61 
daily 
average 


0.465 
daily 
average 


2.01 
daily 
average 


26 


53.2 


1150 






. 


. . . 


27 


53.4 


1500 


1016 


1 






28 


53.2 


1240 


1011 








29 
30 


53.6 
53.3 


1220 
1220 


1015 
1015 


8.65 


0.493 


1.44 


31 


52.9 


1120 










Nov. 1 


53.0 


1620 


1016 








2 


53.8 


1640 


1014 








3 


53.5. 


1020 


1011 








4 


52.6 


1080 


1014 








5 


53.2 


1060 


1015 


6.81 


0.364 


1.32 


6 


53.0 


1280 


1014 








7 


53.1 


1300 


1014 








8 


52.9 


760 


1014 








9 


53.3 


1060 


1013 


| 






10 
11 


53.2 
53.0 


1340 
1140 


1016 
1019 


!- 7.31 


0.380 


1.40 


12 


53.4 


1360 


1016 


] 







164 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
STELTZ. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 3 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grains 


gram 


grams 


Nov. 13 


53.4 


1300 


1016 


1 7.31 


0.380 


1.40 


14 


53.2 


960 


1017 


/daily av. 


daily av. 


daily av. 


15 


53.3 






. . . 






16 


53.2 


1640 


1016 








17 


53.4 


1620 


1015 








18 


53.4 


1160 


1017 








19 


62.9 


1940 


1015 


8.07 


0.409 


1.45 


20 


53.4 


1800 


1014 








21 


53.4 


1240 


1015 








22 


53.0 


1180 


1020 








23 


53.4 


1320 


1013 


1 






24 


53.4 


2000 


1013 








25 


53.5 


1400 


1016 








26 


53.7 


780 


1026 


6.71 


0.390 


1.35 


27 


53.5 


1000 


1015 








28 


53.3 


1600 


1014 








29 


63.5 


1340 


1018 








30 


53.6 


860 


1020 








Dec. 1 


53.9 


1960 


1013 








2 


63.4 


1060 


1015 








3 


52.9 


940 


1018 


7.49 


0.394 


1.60 


4 


53.6 


1580 


1019 








5 


63.6 


980 


1014 








6 


54.2 


1280 


1022 








7 


53.7 


960 


1021 


7.01 






8 


63.4 


620 


1020 


4.98 






9 


53.4 


1000 


1016 


5.88 






10 


53.5 


1420 


1015 


7.67 


. 0.420 


1.46 


11 


53.5 


1360 


1018 


8.20 






12 


53.4 


1040 


1024 


7.92 






13 


52.7 


920 


1022 


5.57 






14 


53.0 


1340 


1024 


10.21 






16 


52.9 


1000 


1019 


7.98 






16 


52.9 


940 


1016 


4.79 


0.226 


0.75 


17 


53.4 


820 


1015 








18 
19 


634 
53.4 


1330 
1395 


1016 
1014 


- 9.04 


0.452 


1.48 


20 


53.1 


1300 


1017 








21 
22 


63.2 
63.1 


1220 
1200 


1016 
1018 


> 7.42 


0.387 


0.80 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 165 
STELTZ. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Dec. 23 


53.2 


1465 


1017 








24 


53.1 


1100 


1021 








25 


53.2 


970 


1016 


7.42 


0.387 


0.80 


26 


54.0 


1350 


1020 


daily 


daily 


daily 


27 


53.2 


1105 


1023 


average 


average 


average 


28 


53.0 


1240 


1020 


| 






29 


53.0 


1180 


1023 








30 


53.4 


910 


1018 








31 


53.4 


810 


1018 


- 6.44 


0.356 


0.92 


1904 














Jan. 1 


53.8 


1220 


1019 








2 


53.0 


925 


1024 








3 


53.6 


870 


1021 








4 


54.0 


1055 


1022 








5 


54.0 


1050 


1020 








6 


53.9 


1195 


1017 








7 


53.6 


980 


1021 


6.78 


0.392 


1.15 


8 


53.4 


1020 


1021 








9 


53.3 


1080 


1022 








10 


53.6 


1010 


1021 








11 


53.9 


960 


1020 


6.05 


. 


. 


12 


53.0 


620 


1021 


4.61 


0.487 


. 


13 


53.6 


1165 


1019 


7.90 


0.609 


. . 


14 


52.9 


645 


1022 


4.99 


0.298 




15 


53.0 


1450 


1020 


9.05 


0.478 




16 


53.4 


1300 


1018 


7.56 


0.405 




17 


53.0 


1440 


1021 


8.55 


0.476 




18 


53.0 


1440 


1023 








19 


53.0 


1115 


1021 








20 


53.0 


1180 


1020 








21 


52.6 


790 


1024 


- 6.40 


0.386 


1.21 


22 


52.7 


660 


1026 








23 


52.8 


1750 


1018 








24 


52.8 


1440 


1018 








25 


52.6 


1200 


1020 


) 






26 


52.8 


715 


1023 








27 

28 


52.7 
52.8 


1625 
1080 


1015 
1016 


J- 6.39 


0.414 


1.21 


29 


52.8 


1400 


1020 








30 


53.0 


1300 


1021 


1 


, 





l(>r, PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
STELTZ. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 




1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Jan. 31 


53.4 


1670 


1019 


6.39 


0.414 


1.2U 


Feb. 1 


'63.0 


1800 


1022 








2 


53.2 


770 


1018 








3 


63.3 


1230 


1022 








4 


63.4 


1530 


1018 


6.06 


0.351 


1.31 


5 


63.2 


1400 


1023 


daily 


daily 


daily 


6 


63.0 


1440 


1021 


average 


average 


average 


7 


53.4 


1330 


1018 








8 


53.0 


1500 


1022 


1 






9 


63.0 


940 


1021 








10 


63.2 


1400 


1022 








11 


53.4 


1620 


1023 


7.71 


0.623 




12 


53.6 


1645 


1018 








13 


53.4 


1370 


1018 








14 


63.0 


1200 


1024 








15 


63.2 


1560 


1026 








16 


63.0 


1540 


1021 








17 


63.5 


1610 


1020 








18 


63.2 


1280 


1024 


7.85 


0.423 




19 


63.0 


1560 


1017 








20 


63.2 


1635 


1016 








21 


53.0 


1110 


1020 








22 


53.0 


1860 


1016 








23 


63.2 


1470 


1018 








24 


53.5 


1205 


1019 








25 


63.6 


2140 


1014 


7.40 


0.487 




26 


63.8 


1080 


1016 








27 


63.0 


1165 


1020 








28 


53.7 


1360 


1020 








29 


64.0 


1400 


1022 


7.90 






Mar. 1 


63.9 


1096 


1021 


5.98 






2 


53.4 


1355 


1020 


6.68 






3 
4 


53.2 
63.0 


2125 
1160 


1015 
1016 


8.09 
4.66 


0.389 




5 


53.2 


1610 


1022 


8.69 






6 


63.0 


1220 


1022 


8.20 






7 


63.0 


720 


1023 








8 
9 


63.2 
63.0 


1160 
1280 


1021 
1020 


7.21 


0.466 




10 


62.6 


1210 


1017 









PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 167 

STELTZ. 





Body- 


Urine. 


Date. 


weight. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P2<> 6 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Mar. 11 


52.6 


1770 


1016 


1 






12 


52.6 


1510 


1018 


f 7.21 


0.466 


. . . 


13 


52.3 


1110 


1020 


j daily av. 


daily av. 




14 


526 


700 


1023 








15 


52.7 


1215 


1018 








16 


53.0 


1840 


1013 








17 


52.6 


1685 


1014 


7.22 


0.414 




18 


52.4 


1770 


1015 








19 


53.2 


1350 


1012 








20 


52.6 


910 


1018 








21 


52.8 


1210 


1020 








22 


52.7 


1680 


1013 








23 


63.0 


1630 


1021 








24 


62.8 


900 


1020 


7.70 


0.550 




25 


52.6 


1600 


1018 








26 


53.0 


1330 


1019 








27 


52.8 


1750 


1020 








28 


53.0 


845 


1019 


3.60 






29 


52.8 


1490 


1021 


6.79 






30 


52.6 


1790 


1018 


7.20 


0.334 




31 


52.6 


1560 


1019 


7.11 






Apr. 1 


62.4 


1670 


1021 


7.82 






2 


62.6 


1166 


1013 


3.28 






3 


53.0 


1570 


1018 


6.50 






Daily average from 












Nov. 2 


1271 


1018 


7.13 


0.416 


1.24 



168 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
HENDERSON. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA- 


1903 


kilos. 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Oct. 4 


71.3 


1320 


1020 


17.50 


0.635 


1.97 


5 


71.3 


1110 


1019 


9.79 




. . . 


6. 


71.8 


1020 


1028 


12.67 


0.515 


1.93 


7 


71.6 


1000 


1017 


12.00 






8 


71.2 


840 


1023 


11.29 


0.379 


1.85 


9 


71.2 


910 


1030 


14.20 


. 




10 


71.5 


2220 


1013 


16.78 






11 


71.7 


1280 


1022 


16.28 


0.587 


2.04 


12 


72.2 


1360 


1021 


15.59 






13 


72.4 


910 


1025 


12.34 


0.532 


1.95 


14 


72.4 


1400 


1020 


16.04 






15 


72,3 


1700 


1019 


18.46 


0.672 


2.57 


16 


72.8 


1740 


1015 


16.70 






17 


72.5 


1620 


1021 


17.59 






18 


72.7 


2260 


1015 


19.26 


0.602 


2.27 


19 


72.8 


1150 


1027 


17.73 






20 


72.5 


950 


1030 


1 






21 


72.5 


1060 


1029 








22 


72.6 


940 


1017 








23 


724 


1880 


1017 


14.31 


0.612 


1.60 


24 


72.8 


1100 


1029 


daily 


daily 


daily 


25 


72.6 


920 


1027 


average 


average 


average 


26 


72.4 


1120 


1023 








27 


73.0 


1930 


1017 








28 


73.1 


1340 


1020 








29 


73.6 


820 


1026 


- 12.10 


0.557 


1.91 


30 


73.4 


960 


1028 








31 


74.0 


1040 










Nov. 1 


74.3 


1540 


1017 








2 


74.0 


860 


1031 








3 


74.0 


1240 


1024 








4 


74.0 


840 


1029 








5 


73.0 


1280 


1012 


9.90 


0.518 


1.71 


6 


73.6 


1340 


1017 








7 


72.9 


500 


1032 








8 


72.5 


920 


1023 








9 


72.4 


800 


1029 








10 


72.4 


600 


1030 








11 


72.7 


900 


1022 


9.98 


0.563 


1.60 


12 


72.8 


780 


1032 









PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 169 
HENDERSON. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA. 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Nov. 13 


72.6 


760 


1032 








14 


72.0 


960 


1021 


9.98 


0.563 


1.60 


15 


72.4 


1460 


1017 


daily av. 


daily av. 


daily av. 


16 


72.0 


640 


1031 








17 


72.0 


820 


1029 








18 


72.0 


720 


1030 








19 


72.0 


880 


1027 


9.33 


0.478 


1.31 


20 


72.3 


1200 


1028 








21 


73.5 


1200 


1020 








22 


71.5 


1180 


1021 








23 


71.6 


1040 


1018 








24 


71.3 


1040 


1023 








25 


72.0 


1020 


1026 








26 


72.0 


1200 


1021 


11.63 


0.610 


1.61 


27 


71.6 


840 


1030 








28 


72.0 


720 


1028 








29 


72.5 


1400 


1022 








30 


72.4 


820 


1023 








Dec. 1 


72.0 


900 


1027 








2 


72.1 


1360 


1017 








3 


71.4 


980 


1029 


10.69 


0.536 


1.58 


4 


71.8 


1160 


1025 








5 


71.8 


1740 


1018 








6 


71.6 


840 


1028 








7 


71.0 


880 


1029 


10.41 


. 




8 


712 


1100 


1020 


12.54 






9 


71.3 


960 


1021 


11.92 


. 


. . . 


10 


71.4 


1220 


1019 


12.21 


0.428 


1.74 


11 


71.2 


680 


1035 


11.02 






12 


70.6 


640 


1036 


9.60 






13 


70.6 


940 


1018 


6.26 






14 


70.0 


1280 


1022 








15 


70.0 


1260 


1016 








16 


70.0 


790 


1028 








17 


70.2 


980 


1020 


9.80 


0.411 


1.57 


18 


70.1 


1060 


1020 








19 


70.0 


1510 


1018 








20 


69.8 


790 


1023 








21 

22 


69.5 
70.0 


650 
720 


1031 
1023 


I 7.47 


0.438 





170 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
HENDERSON. 



Date. 


Body- 

weight. 


Urine. 


Volume 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 5 2 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Dec. 23 


70.0 


450 


1026 


] 






24 


69.6 


880 


1024 








25 


69.5 


1300 


1019 


S 7.47 


0.438 




26 


69.0 


930 


1024 


1 daily 


daily 




27 


69.0 


840 


1024 


J average 


average 




28 


69.0 


920 


1023 








29 


68.8 


1180 


1020 








30 


69.4 


865 


1024 








1904 31 


70.0 


1330 


1026 


> 7.77 


0.407 


1.24 


Jan. 1 


68.9 


890 


1021 








2 


69.0 


947 


1027 








3 


69.1 


1025 


1030 








4 


69.2 


890 


1028 








5 


69.3 


925 


1027 








6 


69.3 


550 


1034 








7 


69.0 


600 


1029 


C 7.78 


0.439 


1.25 


8 


68.8 


880 


1028 








9 


69.0 


850 


1027 








10 


69.0 


1360 


1015 








11 


68.9 


610 


1025 


5.89 






12 


68.5 


715 


1024 


7.68 


0.498 




13 


68.6 


835 


1023 


8.22 


0.551 




14 


68.2 


1040 


1020 


8.24 


0.461 




15 


68.2 


880 


1025 


7.76 


0.440 




16 


68.2 


970 


1023 


7.56 


0.575 




17 


68.0 


810 


1023 


7.87 


0.441 




18 


68.0 


1130 


1020 








19 


68.0 


1200 


1018 








20 


68.2 


670 


1027 








21 


67.8 


720 


1030 


7.82 


0.445 


1.18 


22 


67.5 


520 


1029 








2o 


67.6 


710 


1030 








24 


67.6 


775 


1031 


J 






25 


68.0 


1220 


1018 


1 






26 


68.0 


815 


1016 








27 


68.3 


920 


1029 








28 


68.1 


950 


1023 


- 7.50 


0.422 


1.06 


29 


68.2 


C70 


1028 








30 


68.4 


720 


1030 








31 


68.4 


1285 


1020 









PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 171 
HENDERSON. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P.A. 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Feb. 1 


68.0 


790 


1030 


1 






2 


68.1 


830 


1031 








3 


68.5 


1335 


1024 








4 


68.5 


1250 


1026 


- 8.27 


0.360 


1.17 


5 


69.0 


1160 


1031 


daily 


daily 


daily 





69.0 


1160 


1022 


average 


average 


average 


7 


685 


1210 


1024 


J 






8 


68.0 


935 


1030 








9 


68.0 


975 


1030 








10 


68.2 


990 


1032 








11 


68.6 


870 


1032 


- 10.40 


0.582 




12 


69.0 


1130 


1027 








13 


69.4 


1440 


1019 








14 


69.0 


715 


1029 








15 


690 


940 


1029 








16 


68.0 


1070 


1027 








17 


68.1 


1080 


1027 








18 


68.0 


945 


1029 


11.80 


0.510 




19 


68.2 


1010 


1029 








20 


68.3 


925 


1029 








21 


60.0 


1200 


1020 








22 


68.6 


1165 


1024 








23 


68.2 


1170 


1022 








24 


68.6 


1035 


1027 








25 


68.4 


1735 


1016 


- 7.53 


0.640 


. 


26 


69.0 


775 


1029 








27 


68.6 


1090 


1027 








28 


69.0 


1020 


1030 








29 


69.0 


1936 


1016 


8.36 






Mar. 1 


68.7 


840 


1029 


6.80 






2 


68.4 


1160 


1023 


8.28 






3 


68.2 


920 


1026 


7.37 


- 0.521 


. 


4 


68.0 


1000 


1029 


8.22 






5 


68.0 


1646 


1018 


8.09 






6 


' 68.0 


1020 


1030 


8.20 






7 


68.0 


740 


1030 








8 


68.2 


1470 


1020 








9 


68.0 


1660 


1019 


8.21 


0.455 




10 


68.0 


2040 


1014 








11 


68.0 


1030 


1029 


J 







172 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

HENDERSON. 







Urine. 


Date. 


Body- 
weight. 




Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P S 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grama 


gram 


grams 


Mar. 12 


68.2 


2450 


1014 


1 8.21 


0.455 




13 


68.6 


2300 


1014 


j daily av. 


daily av. 




14 


68.4 


925 


1026 


1 






15 


68.4 


1610 


1016 








16 


68.5 


1360 


1019 








17 


68.0 




. 


8.82 


0.483 




18 


68.6 


1975 


1016 








19 


69.0 


2410 


1015 








20 


69.3 


2480 


1011 








21 


68.6 


850 


1028 








22 


68.7 


1800 


1012 








23 


68.7 


980 


1023 








24 


69.0 


1040 


1030 


8.64 


0.632 


. . 


25 


69.2 


1360 


1022 








26 


69.2 


2470 


1013 








27 


69.3 


2110 


1015 








28 


69.4 


1415 


1020 


8.40 






29 


69.4 


1815 


1019 


9.04 






30 


69.4 


1600 


1017 


5.95 


C.337 




31 


69.0 


1390 


1018 


5.42 


1 




Apr. 1 


69.0 


1930 


1015 


6.60 


J 




2 


69.5 


1405 


1012 


3.20 




. . . 


8 


71.0 


1330 


1018 


7.42 






Daily average from 












Nov. 1 


1102 


1024 


8.91 


0.488 


1.42 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 173 
FRITZ. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA. 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Nov. 1 


76.0 


1000 


1024 


11.34 


1.14 




2 


76.4 


950 


1022 








8 


77.8 


2200 


1017 








4 


76.0 


960 


1020 








5 


76.5 


1420 


1015 


. 8.97 


0.418 


1.45 


6 


76.4 


720 


1018 


daily 


daily 


daily 


7 


75.8 


940 


1020 


average 


average 


average 


8 


75.3 


1580 


1012 


J 






9 


75.3 


2240 


1012 








10 


75.6 


480 


1021 









11 


76.0 


1600 


1015 








12 


76.2 


1640 


1013 


8.27 


0.491 


1.31 


13 


76.2 


880 


1020 








14 


75.8 


1320 


1010 








15 


75.3 


2000 


1013 


j 






16 


75.6 


760 


1017 








17 


75.6 


1520 


1013 








18 


76.0 


1740 


1013 








19 


75.1 


1580 


1015 


8.13 


0.528 


1.54 


20 


76.0 


1800 


1015 








21 


75.7 


1140 


1017 








22 


75.7 


1440 


1013 








23 


76.0 


2060 


1011 








24 


76.2 


2360 


1011 








25 


756 


2380 


1011 








26 


75.8 


2200 


1013 


8.68 


0.555 


1.63 


27 


77.2 


1200 


1014 








28 


755 


920 


1021 








29 


75.9 


1240 


1022 








30 


75.4 


700 


1026 








Dec. 1 


75.7 


1480 


1017 








2 


75.9 


1160 


1013 








3 


75.5 


1480 


1009 


8.16 


0.656 


1.74 


4 


75.6 


1860 


1015 








5 


76.2 


1480 


1012 








6 


76.6 


1460 


1018 








7 


75.7 


800 


1024 


5.81 


1 




8 


75.6 


880 


1023 


10.61 


0.746 


1.97 


9 


76.0 












10 


76.0 


1840 


1016 


12.91 







17-4 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
FEITZ. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume . 
24 houru. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 G . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grama 


Dec. 11 


75.6 


1240 


1017 


10.04 


1 




12 


75.4 


1740 


1013 


8.31 


[ 0746 


1.97 


13 


75.4 


1400 


1018 


7.72 


J daily av. 


daily av. 


14 


74.5 


1260 


1020 








15 


74.9 


1040 


1013 








16 


75.0 


1390 


1019 








17 


75.2 


1220 


1015 


8.13 


0.624 


1.65 


18 


75.0 


1520 


1016 


daily 






19 


752 


1380 


1017 


average 






20 


75.0 


890 


1020 








21 


74.8 


1315 


1018 








22 


74.8 


880 


1016 


6.07 






23 


74.6 


1135 


1022 








24 


74.6 


1596 


1006 


7.42 


0.684 




25 


74.6 


1300 


1012 








26 


75.0 


1090 


1025 








27 


75.0 


1520 


1022 








28 


74.0 


1150 


1018 








29 


74.0 


1250 


1017 








30 


74.4 


1610 


1020 








31 
1904. 


74.5 


1025 


1024 


7.27 


0.692 


1.41 


Jan. 1 


74.2 


1620 


1010 








2 


736 


1990 


1017 








3 


73.7^ 


1036 


1029 








4 


74.0* 


2070 


1011 








5 


74.1 


1320 


1021 








6 


73.9 


1690 


1015 








7 


74.0 






8.06 


0.650 


1.73 


8 


73.4 


1940 


1020 








9 


73.6 


1560 


1012 








10 


74.0 


2200 


1016 








11 


74.0 


1300 


1019 


10.29 




. 


12 


73.7 


810 


1023 


8.99 


1.100 




13 


74.0 


680 


1024 


6.49 


0.691 


. 


14 


73.3 


1230 


1019 


10.26 


0.998 


. 


16 


73.6 


1030 


1024 


7.97 


0.730 




16 


78.9 


1045 


1016 


5.20 


0.466 




17 


73.9 


1910 


1014 


9.40 


0.673 




18 


73.0 


1060 


1017 


7.01 


0.631 


1.23 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 175 
FRITZ. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grains 


gram 


grams 


Jan. 19 


73.0 


1510 


1020 








20 


73.4 


8G5 


1023 








21 

22 
23 


73.4 
73.0 
73.0 


1410 
610 
1630 


1020 
1025 
1020 


7.01 
daily 


0631 
daily 


1.28 

daily 


24 


72.4 


1125 


1018 


average 


average 


average 


25 


72.6 


2400 


1011 








26 


72.8 


2100 


1010 








27 


72.6 


795 


1018 








28 


73.0 


1425 


1019 


8.13 


0.722 


1.64 


29 


73.0 


1770 


1013 








30 


73.2 


1910 


1015 








31 


730 


2180 


1016 








Feb. 1 


73.2 


2075 


1015 


1 






2 


73.1 


2280 


1012 








3 


73.0 


2360 


1023 








4 


73.4 


2200 


1012 


7.24 


0.532 


1.74 


5 


73.0 


1600 


1019 








6 


73.3 


1745 


1019 








7 


73.0 


745 


1023 








8 


73.5 


2280 


1012 








9 


73.2 


2150 


1015 








10 


73.1 


1985 


1018 








11 


73.4 


2240 


1010 


9.02 


0.699 




12 


73.0 


2020 


1016 








13 


73.6 


1800 


1016 








14 


73.0 


1355 


1021 








15 


73.0 


1280 


1024 


J 






16 


73.5 


2440 


1014 








17 


73.4 


1380 


1022 








18 


73.6 


1840 


1020 


8.43 


0.632 




19 


73.6 


2340 


1016 








20 


73.6 


2480 


1010 








21 


73.4 


850 


1024 


J 






22 


73.3 


1985 


1019 


J 






23 


73.4 


1635 


1011 








24 
25 


73.5 
73.5 


1940 
1520 


1015 
1017 


. 7.68 


0.799 




26 


73.3 


1030 


1017 








27 


73.0 


2270 


1015 









176 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
FRITZ. 







Urine. 


Date. 


Body- 
Weight. 




Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grama 


gram 


grams 


Feb. 28 


73.0 


1660 


1017 


7.68 


0.799 




29 


72.8 


1165 


1020 


6.22 


- ' 




Mar. 1 


73.2 


1240 


1020 


7.44 






2 


73.2 


915 


1022 


3.96 






3 


73.2 


1740 


1015 


7.05 


- 0.500 




4 


72.8 








daily 




5 


72.4 


1670 


1019 


8.71 


average 




6 


72.6 


1245 


1020 


4.78 






7 


72.2 


1900 


1013 








8 


72.6 


1250 


1018 








9 


72.0 


1660 


1018 








10 


72.6 


1900 


1017 


7.96 


0.657 




11 


72.5 


2000 


1015 


daily 






12 


72.6 


2130 


1015 


average 






13 


72.4 


2430 


1016 


J 






14 


72.8 


1100 


1020 


1 






15 


73.0 


1950 


1012 








16 


73.2 


2010 


1011 








17 


72.8 


1790 


1013 


" 6.94 


0.511 




18 


72.6 


1920 


1014 








19 


73.2 


2150 


1008 








20 


73.0 


1355 


1020 


J 






21 


73.0 


1670 


1018 








22 


73.2 


1640 


1014 








23 


73.0 


2490 


1012 








24 


73.0 


1840 


1010 


69.6 


0.685 


. . . 


25 


73.0 


1340 


1016 








26 


72.8 


2040 


1013 








27 


72.6 


2320 


1011 








28 


73.0 












29 


72.8 


1600 


1014 


5.09 


) 




30 


72.9 


1480 


1018 


7.10 






31 


72.8 


1960 


1016 


5.18 


0.473 




Apr. 1 


72.6 


2080 


1013 


5.74 






2 


72.5 


2070 


1010 


3.35 


J 




3 


72.6 


1920 


1018 


6.68 






Daily average from 












Nov. 2 


1566 


1016 


7.84 


0.642 


1.58 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 177 

COHN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Nov. 15 


65.0 


1140 


1019 


11.22 






16 


65.1 


840 


1024 


1 






17 


65.6 


1280 


1024 








18 


65.5 


1420 


1022 








19 


65.1 


1500 


1020 


10.86 


0.605 


1.60 


20 


65.9 


1540 


1021 


daily 


daily 


daily 


21 


66.2 


1340 


1012 


average 


average 


average 


22 


65.6 


840 


1026 


J 






23 


65.5 


1040 


1018 


1 






24 


65.9 


1260 


1021 








25 


66.1 


1500 


1016 








26 


65.8 


800 


1027 


8.85 


0.542 


1.26 


27 


65.3 


840 


1022 








28 


65.4 


940 


1016 








29 


65.7 


1200 


1023 








30 


65.6 


1480 


1016 


1 






Dec. 1 


64.8 


740 


1024 








2 


65.3 


600 


1026 








3 


64.8 


920 


1023 


9.89 


0.621 


1.51 


4 


65.0 


940 


1020 








5 


64.8 


680 


1029 








6 


64.8 


1460 


1016 








7 


64.9 


940 


1027 








8 


65.0 


900 


1023 








9 


65.0 


1040 


1018 








10 


64.9 


960 


1021 


8.60 


0.392 


1.32 


11 


64.0 


580 


1033 








12 


64.8 


860 


1026 








13 


64.0 


660 


1028 








14 


64.0 


1060 


1021 








15 


63.9 


880 


1019 








16 


63.9 


470 


1031 








17 


63.9 


760 


1026 


7.29 


0.424 


1.29 


18 


64.3 


1180 


1020 








19 


64.4 


1760 


1011 








20 


64.0 


1100 


1017 








21 


64.4 


615 


1025 








22 
23 


64.0 
64.0 


1050 
860 


1018 
1019 


7.50 


0.424 




24 


64.2 


1420 


1019 









178 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

COHN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA- 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Dec. 25 


64.2 


1690 


1017 


] 






26 


64.0 


740 


1026 


1- 7.50 


0.424 




27 


63.9 


1370 


1017 


J daily av. 


daily av. 




28 


63.7 


690 


1025 








29 


63.6 


1065 


1024 








30 


64.0 


960 


1024 








31 


64.0 


700 


1026 


7.70 


0.358 


0.90 


1904 
Jan. 1 


63.4 


1630 


1017 






daily 


2 


63.5 


460 


1030 






average 


3 


63.0 


970 


1031 








4 


63.4 


1365 


1012 








5 


63.5 


980 


1021 








6 


64.0 


1175 


1022 








7 


64.1 


1250 


1017 


8.03 


0.498 


1.12 


8 


64.0 


1500 


1018 








9 


63.3 


920 


1027 








10 


63.3 


1250 


1019 








11 


63.3 


880 


1022 


8.08 






12 


62.8 


510 


1026 


6.49 


0.510 




13 


63.0 


900 


1024 


9.10 


0.679 




14 


62.8 


630 


1026 


7.33 


0.523 




15 


62.4 


950- 


1025 


8.04 


0.497 




16 


62.6 


1300 


1018 


8.58 


0.473 




17 


62.4 


905 


1026 


7.44 


0.431 




18 


62.0 


835 


1026 








19 


62.7 


1510 


1020 








20 


63.0 


980 


1023 








21 


62.4 


935 


1026 


8.97 


0.552 


1.43 


22 


62.6 


1610 


1019 








23 


62.7 


970 


1024 








24 


62.2 


1275 


1020 








25 


63.0 


1600 


1017 








26 


62.3 


770 


1025 








27 


62.2 


940 


1023 








28 


62.4 


980 


1021 


7.34 


0.539 


1.30 


29 


62.0 


705 


1026 








30 


62.9 


890 


1024 








31 


63.4 


1560 


1020 








Feb. 1 


63.5 


1040 


1028 


8.15 


0.532 


1.87 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 179 
COHN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA. 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Feb. 2 


63.4 


960 


1026 


V 






3 


63.0 


1500 


1022 








4 
5 
6 


68.2 
63.6 
63.0 


1430 
1890 
730 


1023 
1018 
1025 


[ 8.15 
daily 


0.532 
daily 


1.37 
daily 


7 


63.0 


920 


1026 


average 


average 


average 


8 


63.3 


935 


1027 








9 


64.0 


1625 


1016 








10 


63.6 


1615 


1017 








11 


64.0 


1325 


1020 


8.00 


0.522 




12 


64.0 


1275 


1021 








13 


64.0 


770 


1024 








14 


63.4 


940 


1023 








15 


63.5 


1300 


1027 








16 


63.1 


1430 


1020 








17 


63.6 


1280 


1024 








18 


63.3 


870 


1025 


8.59 


0.510 




19 


63.2 


1250 


1026 








20 


63.1 


1250 


1017 








21 


63.5 


900 


1016 








22 


63.3 


1345 


1026 








23 


63.5 


1185 


1019 








24 


63.3 


1560 


1020 








25 


63.4 


1200 


1015 


8.45 


0.633 


. . . 


26 


63.0 


750 


1029 








27 


63.5 


1140 


1019 








28 


63.4 


1220 


1020 








29 


63.6 


1160 


1023 


9.74 






Mar. 1 


63.5 


900 


1025 


6.86 






2 


63.5 


1030 


1020 


7.29 






3 


62.7 


920 


1021 


6.40 


0.480 




4 


62.7 


1225 


1014 


6.59 


. 


. . 


5 


62.5 


1170 


1026 


9.55 






6 


62.6 


940 


1025 


6.77 


. 


. . . 


7 


62.5 


900 


1026 


I 






8 


63.0 


1230 


1020 








9 


62.7 


1260 


1020 




fi AAQ 




10 


62.6 


980 


1019 


841 

J- 8.41 


U.oUo 





11 


62.4 


1160 


1024 








12 


62.4 


830 


1027 


j 







180 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

COHN. 







Urine. 




Body- 




Date. 


weight. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 S . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Mar. 13 


62.4 


1500 


1020 


8.41 


0.608 




14 


62.0 


825 


1025 








15 


62.5 


1200 


1017 








16 


62.5 


1490 


1018 








17 


62.5 


1145 


1021 


- 7.59 


0.488 




18 


63.7 


975 


1021 


daily 


daily 




19 


63.0 


825 


1023 


average 


average 




20 


63.5 


1450 


1020 








21 


63.6 


1480 


1018 








22 


63.0 


1100 


1025 








23 


62.6 


1050 


1023 








24 


62.7 


1050 


1025 


> 7.74 


0.654 




25 


62.0 


900 


1027 








26 


62.4 


750 


1025 








27 


62.6 


1530 


1016 








28- 


62.0 


1060 


1023 


6.61 






29 


62.4 


1460 


1020 


6.48 






30 


62.4 


1020 


1023 


6.36 


0.399 




31 


62.6 


1730 


1022 


7.47 






Apr. 1 


62.4 


895 


1022 


4.35 






2 


62.4 


1465 


1014 


6.11 






3 


62.6 


1165 


1023 


9.37 






Daily average from 












Nov. 22 


1092 


1022 


8.05 


0.512 


1.28 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 181 

LOEWENTHAL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grama 


Oct. 4 


60.1 


960 


1025 


15.78 


0.606 


1.78 


5 


60.1 


780 


1025 


10.90 


. 




6 


603 


820 


1024 


11.23 


0.576 


0.96 


7 


60.0 


980 


1022 


14.99 






8 


60.0 


1080 


1019 


11.34 


0.351 


1.55 


9 


60.0 


990 


1025 


13.07 


. . . 


. . . 


10 


60.0 


1120 


1021 


12.37 






11 


69.8 


930 


1019 


10.83 


0.389 


1.05 


12 


60.4 


1580 


1022 


17.06 






13 


60.2 


1380 


1017 


13.00 


0.516 


213 


14 


61.0 


640 


1026 


7.41 




. 


15 


61.2 


1220 


1026 


15.66 


0.674 


1.68 


16 


60.8 


1060 


1024 


15.01 




. 


17 


60.5 


1130 


1021 


1363 






18 


60.4 


1580 


1016 


12.70 


0.520 


1.59 


19 


60.0 


1350 


1022 


17.82 


. 


. 


20 


59.8 


1250 


1019 








21 


60.0 


1120 


1024 








22 
23 


60.4 
61.0 


1060 
1800 


1025 
1020 


13.72 


0.489 


1.95 


24 


61.2 


1320 


1021 


daily av. 


daily av. 


daily av. 


25 


61.4 


1620 


1015 








26 


62.4 


1160 


1024 








27 


62.6 


1520 


1021 








28 


62.6 


860 


1022 








29 


63.4 


660 


1C24 


- 9.80 


0.430 


1.40 


30 


62.5 


1200 


1023 








31 


62.2 


920 


. . . 








Nov. 1 


62.4 


ioeo 


1019 








2 


62.6 


1330 


1023 








3 


62.0 


1020 


1022 ' 








4 


61.8 


920 


1020 








5 


62.4 


580 


1029 


8.23 


0.401 


1.60 


6 


62.4 


1400 


1016 








7 


62.0 


780 


1022 








8 


61.9 


760 


1021 








9 


61.8 


840 


1031 








10 
11 


60.5 
61.0 


440 
1060 


1028 
1028 


8.28 


0.390 


1.34 


12 


61.2 


880 


1027 









182 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

LOE WENT HAL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 3 6 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Nov. 13 


61.4 


320 


1023 


(" 






14 


61.4 


660 


1023 


8.28 


0390 


1.34 


15 


61.2 


1020 


1023 


, daily av. 


daily av. 


daily av. 


16 


61.4 


960 


1025 








17 


61.0 


680 


1028 








18 


61.0 


940 


1023 








19 


60.9 


880 


1024 


8.62 


0.349 


1.30 


20 


61.5 


1540 


1018 








21 


61.7 


1220 


1022 








22 


61.2 


1120 


1022 








23 


61.1 


1440 


1014 








24 


60.2 


840 


1024 








25 


60.3 


680 


1026 








26 


60.8 


900 


1022 


- 8.36 


0.392 


1.43 


27 


60.5 


860 


1025 








28 


60.3 


800 


1023 








29 


60.3 


1040 


1025 


J 






30 


60.8 


1040 


1021 


\ 






Dec. 1 


60.4 


1120 


1017 








2 


60.0 


660 


1027 








3 


59.9 


900 


1022 


7.69 


0.408 


1.26 


4 


59.5 


1120 


1025 








5 


59.0 


400 


1028 








6 


58.6 


480 


1033 








7 


58.2 


960 


1027 


9.03 






8 


58.0 


800 


1020 


8.78 






9 


58.6 


700 


1028 


10.04 






10 


60.0 


1000 


1019 


9.06 


0.379 


1.49 


11 


60.0 


800 


1025 


8.71 






12 


60.0 


680 


1032 


7.51 






13 


59.5 


620 


1030 


7.74 






14 


59.5 


940 


1022 








15 


59.0 


920 


1019 








16 


59.6 


690 


1027 








17 


59.3 


800 


1020 


- 6.90 


0.408 


1.14 


18 


59.7 


1145 


1020 








19 


69.7 


1110 


1016 








20 


59.0 


840 


1020 








21 
22 


59.0 
58.4 


775 
510 


1025 
1027 


- 6.29 


0.275 





PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 183 

LOEWENTHAL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight, 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Dec. 23 


59.2 


700 


1026 


1 






24 


59.0 


890 


1015 








25 


58.3 


900 


1027 


1- 6.29 


0.275 




26 


59.0 


930 


1015 


daily 


daily 




27 


58.4 


990 


1018 


j average 


average 




28 


58.5 


672 


1028 








29 


58.4 


795 


1023 








30 


59.0 


870 


1025 








31 


58.8 


920 


1027 


6.92 


0.515 


1.17 


1904 












daily 


Jan. 1 


58.7 


1340 


1022 






average 


2 


58.2 


1232 


1019 








3 


58.6 


842 


1025 


j 






4 


58.8 


1030 


1017 








5 


58.6 


1020 


1026 








6 


58.8 


890 


1024 








7 


59.0 


1350 


1016 


- 7.27 


0.344 


0.97 


8 


57.7 


900 


1026 








9 


58.0 


735 


1033 








10 


57.9 


760 


1024 








11 


580 


795 


1021 


6.68 






12 


58.2 


1110 


1017 


7.33 


0.383 


. 


13 


58.1 


1190 


1015 


7.64 


0.379 




14 


57.0 


620 


1027 


6.21 


0.415 




15 


57.2 


825 


1028 


8.18 


0.409 




16 


57.8 


1100 


1019 


7.92 


0.305 




17 


57.5 


1185 


1021 


7.26 


0.338 




18 


57.3 


630 


1019 




. . . 




19 


57.5 


525 


1030 








20 


58.0 


1050 


1026 








21 

22 


57.7 
57.7 


790 
850 


1027 
1030 


- 6.84 


0.321 


0.99 


23 


57.4 


605 


1024 








24 


57.4 


800 


1030 








25 


57.9 


1050 


1020 








26 


58.0 


850 


1026 








27 


58.2 


1270 


1018 


6.83 


0.312 


1.14 


28 


59.0 


1255 


1013 








29 


58.0 


615 


1028 








30 


58.0 


1025 


1029 









184 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
LOEWENTHAL. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


19M 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Jan 31 


58.6 


1120 


1026 


1 






Feb. 1 


68.4 


1026 


1029 








2 


58.7 


1300 


1023 








3 


58.4 


1170 


1024 








4 


58.4 


1350 


1029 


7.27 


0.411 


1.57 


5 


59.0 


1250 


1026 


daily 


daily 


daily 


6 


58.8 


1160 


1019 


average 


average 


average 


7 


58.4 


825 


1029 








8 


58.5 


830 


1028 








9 


68.5 


1095 


1025 








10 


69.0 


1140 


1027 








11 


59.2 


1330 


1020 


7.61 


0.416 




12 


58.5 


1020 


1029 








13 


59.0 


1075 


1026 








14 


59.0 


1030 


1024 


1 






15 


58.3 


1150 


1027 








16 


58.4 


1270 


1024 








17 


58.6 


1490 


1020 








18 


59.0 


1060 


1027 


8.00 


0.336 




19 


58.8 


620 


1026 








20 


58.9 


930 


1029 








21 


59.1 


885 


1029 








22 


59.3 


1320 


1023 








23 


59.4 


1490 


1016 








24 


59.4 


1195 


1019 








25 


59.4 


2100 


1011 


6.84 


0.449 


. . . 


26 


58.4 


860 


1023 








27 


68.4 


955 


1027 








28 


58.4 


1045 


1027 








29 


58.2 


1000 


1027 


7.38 






Mar. 1 


58.6 


1040 


1024 


7.05 






2 


68.5 


880 


1028 


7.07 






3 


58.7 


890 


1026 


7.85 


- 0.348 


. 


4 


58.5 


965 


1026 


7.35 






5 


58.6 


730 


1022 


4.29 






6 


58.7 


1170 


1027 


8.07 






7 


58.3 


920 


1026 


} 






8 


68.9 


970 


1026 


[ 






9 


68.8 


940 


1026 


f 6.97 


0333 




10 


58.9 


1600 


1017 


J 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 185 

LOEWENTHAL. 







Urine. 


Date. 


Body- 
weight. 




Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 S . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grains 


grams 


grams 


Mar. 11 


69.0 


1290 


1020 


1 






12 


59.0 


820 


1029 


[ 697 


0.333 


. . 


13 


58.9 


990 


1026 


j daily av. 


daily av. 




14 


59.5 


1620 


1019 


j 






15 


59.0 


1250 


1023 








16 


59.0 


1360 


1018 








17 


59.1 


1160 


1021 


I 7.34 


0.265 




18 


59.0 


1450 


1019 








19 


59.1 


1650 


1018 








20 


59.0 


1350 


1021 


j 






21 


69.0 


1110 


1024 








22 


58.8 


1250 


1021 








23 


68.6 


1150 


1021 








24 


68.6 


760 


1025 


6.37 


0.427 




25 


69.0 


1100 


1025 








26 


68.6 


990 


1028 








27 


68.5 


1150 


1026 








28 


58.6 


1175 


1024 


627 






29 


59.0 


1295 


1025 


7.64 






30 


69.0 


1570 


1018 


7.07 


0.341 


. . . 


31 


69.2 


1120 


1024 


6.24 






Apr. 1 


59.0 


1260 


1022 


6.43 






2 


69.0 


1550 


1020 


6.33 






3 


69.0 


1710 


1022 


9.85 






Daily average from 












Nov. 2 


1007 


1024 


783. 


0.372 


1.28 



186 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
ZOOMAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 6 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Oct. 4 


64.0 


540 


1026 


8.88 


0.434 


0.66 


5 


54.0 


940 


1027 


15.28 


. 




6 


53.6 


1140 


1024 


16.42 


0.730 


2.21 


7 


54.5 


1640 


1016 


17.52 


. 




8 


54.4 


930 


1017 


10.10 


0275 


1.21 


9 


54.4 


1160 


1022 


15.80 






10 


54.3 


1080 


1019 


15.24 




. 


11 


54.5 


1340 


1014 


13.65 


0.450 


1.73 


12 


54.8 


1080 


1022 


11.73 




. 


13 


65.4 


1140 


1022 


13.48 


0.839 


1.70 


14 


557 


1020 


1018 


9.85 






15 


55.2 


1560 


1021 


20.40 


0.779 


2.92 


16 


56.0 


1240 


1024 


17.33 


. 




17 


55.6 


1070 


1025 


16.11 






18 


55.6 


1730 


1017 


20.86 


0.736 


2.26 


19 


55.4 


1370 


1020 


18.57 






20 


55.6 


1290 


1024 








21 


55.6 


1120 


1025 








22 
23 
24 


55.8 
559 
56.2 


1140 
1120 
1600 


1023 
1025 
1020 


15.38 
daily 


0.683 
daily 


1.87 
daily 


25 


56.5 


1620 


1016 


average 


average 


average 


26 


56.6 


1140 


1024 








27 


56.6 


1770 


1015 








28 


66.6 


960 


1021 








29 


57.3 


1120 


1019 


11.70 


0.583 


1.56 


30 


56.8 


1160 


1019 








31 


57.0 


8-JO 










Nov. 1 


66.9 


1730 


1016 








2 


56.5 


750 


1026 








3 


67.1 


1380 


1018 








4 


67.1 


1040 


1019 








5 


56.6 


900 


1018 


- 10.01 


0.564 


1.39 


6 


5(5.6 


1220 


1016 








7 


56.2 


640 


1026 








8 


55.8 


900 


1020 








9 


56.1 


1100 


1021 


1 






10 
11 


56.2 
564 


680 
660 


1024 
1016 


t 8.76 


0.612 


1.33 


12 


56.7 


1320 


1024 


j 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 187 

ZOOMAN. 



Date. 


Body- 

weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 B . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Nov. 13 


56.7 


420 


1024 


1 






14 


56.0 


920 


1029 


I 8.76 


0.612 


1.33 


15 


660 


1540 


1016 


J daily av. 


daily av. 


daily av. 


16 


55.7 


1080 


1022 








17 


54.4 


700 


1027 








18 


54.6 


700 


1025 








19 


64.8 


700 


1025 


7.79 


0.398 


1.02 


20 


56.4 


940 


1021 








21 


65.2 


740 


1025 








22 


64.7 


720 


1023 








23 


64.5 


740 


1014 


\ 






24 


540 


860 


1025 








25 


54.3 


620 


1025 








26 


64.4 


980 


1023 


7.44 


0.420 


1.06 


27 


64.6 


940 


1024 








28 


64.3 


460 


1026 








29 


64.4 


1000 


1018 








30 


64.0 


980 


1022 








Dec. 1 


64.2 


1120 


1020 








2 


64.2 


940 


1017 








3 


54.0 


1200 


1018 


10.26 


0.494 


1.45 


4 


54.0 


1080 


1024 








5 


63.9 


640 


1031 








6 


64.0 


960 


1026 








7 


54.1 


880 


1028 








8 


54.6 


680 


1029 


9.79 




. . . 


9 


54.6 


680 


1030 








10 


650 


1220 


1019 


10.15 


0.423 


1.39 


11 


54.7 


920 


1028 








12 


55.1 


780 


1028 


8.33 


. . 


. . . 


13 


64.7 


1140 


1020 


8.89 


. . . 


. . . 


14 


54.4 


840 


1021 


7.46 


. . . 


. . . 


15 


54.0 


1200 


1016 


8.71 


. . . 




16 


64.0 


860 


1021 








17 


54.5 


1140 


1018 


7.66 


0.389 


1.20 


18 


54.0 


820 


1022 








19 


54.1 


980 


1018 








20 


54.0 


885 


1023 








21 

22 


54.0 
63.5 


660 

570 


1027 
1025 


\ 8.26 
J 


0.401 


0.78 



188 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
ZOOMAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 B . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grama 


Deo. 23 


54.0 


770 


1028 








24 


54.0 


920 


1025 








25 


64.3 


1320 


1018 


8.26 


0.401 


0.78 


26 


54.7 


1075 


1020 


daily 


daily 


daily 


27 


54.5 


1240 


1018 


average 


average 


average 


28 


64.1 


880 


1022 


} 






29 


54.0 


1080 


1019 








30 


64.3 


776 


1029 








31 


54.4 


1010 


1023 


8.00 


0.440 


0.88 


1904 














Jan. 1 


54.0 


900 


1022 








2 


63.6 


625 


1026 








3 


53.9 


730 


1026 








4 


53.0 


1030 


1019 








5 


63.4 


1100 


1022 * 








6 


54.0 


980 


1020 




0.379 


1.15 


7 


64.0 


860 


1022 


7.24 






8 


64.0 


960 


1026 








9 


53.6 


695 


1025 








10 


64.0 


980 


1016 








11 


53.5 


930 


1020 


8.98 


0.632 




12 


53.8 


1030 


1023 


11.31 


0.657 




13 


63.6 


980 


1024 


11.63 


0.445 




14 


63.5 


1160 


1017 


9.38 


0.443 




15 


63.0 


700 


1030 


8.44 


0.442 




16 


53.4 


920 


1020 


8.89 


0.381 




17 


63.6 


1270 


1019 


8.99 






18 


63.5 


1180 


1020 








19 


53.6 


755 


1026 








20 


63.6 


1190 


1015 




0.428 


1.27 


21 


53.0 


800 


1030 


7.78 






22 


63.2 


660 


1030 








23 


53.4 


770 


1025 








24 


63.4 


1035 


1017 








25 


53.6 


1250 


1013 








26 


64.0 


1140 


1024 








27 
28 


64.2 
64.6 


1170 
1120 


1018 
1018 


6.87 


0.302 


1.18 


29 


54.6 


690 


1026 








30 


64.5 


1020 


1025 


- 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 189 
ZOOMAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


190i 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams. 


Jan. 31 


54.8 


1320 


1019 


6.87 


0.302 


1.18 


Feb. 1 


54.3 


1060 


1026 








2 


54.5 


1170 


1019 








3 


54.5 


1350 


1022 








4 


64.3 


1280 


1022 


8.15 


0.405 


1.31 


5 


54.0 


1015 


1025 


daily 


daily 


daily 


6 


54.6 


1610 


1014 


average 


average 


average 


7 


54.3 


1010 


1028 


J 






8 


54.6 


1065 


1026 








9 


55.0 


925 


1027 








10 


55.0 


1195 


1023 








11 


65.0 


880 


1024 


8.37 


0.497 




12 


550 


960 


1016 








13 


65.2 


1565 


1020 








14 


65.0 


1415 


1023 








15 


65.0 


1060 


1029 








16 


64.8 


1130 


1025 








17 


65.0 


1910 


1019 








18 


55.2 


1260 


1020 


- 9.34 


0.408 




19 


65.0 


970 


1027 








20 


54.4 


670 


1031 








21 


64.7 


1070 


1022 








22 


64.4 


760 


1025 








23 


54.6 


1225 


1020 








24 


55.2 


1050 


1026 








25 


55.2 


730 


1027 


7.38 


0.659 




26 


55.4 


1145 


1019 








. 27 


55.0 


990 


1021 








28 


64.9 


985 


1026 








29 


65.0 


766 


1027 


7.02 






Mar. 1 


65.3 


810 


1024 


6.66 






2 


55.0 


880 


1027 


7.26 






3 


64.8 


1020 


1020 


7.59 


0.401 




4 


64.5 


955 


1025 


7.51 






5 


64.0 . 


1035 


1020 


7.08 






6 


64.0 


880 


1027 


6.81 






7 


64.7 


885 


1023 








8 


66.0 


970 


1017 


1 






9 


64.6 


940 


1025 


\ 8.24 


0.428 


. . . 


10 


54.7 


1460 


1022 


1 







190 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
ZOOMAN. 





Body- 


Urine. 


Date. 


weight. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


r,o 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Mar. 11 


550 


1340 


1017 








12 


54.7 


1180 


1023 


8.24 


0.428 




13 


55.0 


1040 


1021 


daily av. 


daily av. 




14 


55.0 


1270 


1016 








15 


54.8 


900 


1023 








16 


55.0 


1145 


1019 








17 


55.0 


1155 


1018 


7.90 


0.455 




18 


53.0 


1480 


1016 








19 


55.2 


1355 


1023 








20 


54.6 


1000 


1023 








21 


54.7 


750 


1026 








22 


55.0 


1270 


1018 








23 


55.0 


1090 


1016 








24 


55.0 


1080 


1025 


7.57 


0.586 


. 


25 


54.8 


1080 


1028 








26 


55.0 


980 


1021 








27 


55.2 


1110 


1020 








28 


55.2 


1270 


1019 


7.47 


. . . 




29 


552 


1160 


1024 


7.80 






30 


55.0 


1140 


1018 


5.40 


. 




31 


55.3 


1340 


1024 


8.04 






Apr. 1 


55.0 


1480 


1019 


8.44 


. . . 




2 


55.1 


1300 


1023 


7.10 






3 


55.0 


1445 


1018 


8.15 






Daily average from 












Nov. 2 


1008 


1022 


8.25 


0.457 


1.19 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 191 
BATES. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903. 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Oct. 4 


72.7 


870 


1033 


14.66 


0.651 


2.18 


5 


72.7 


1120 


1022 


13.13 






6 


72.4 


760 


. 1027 


9.44 


0.489 


1.38 


7 


72.3 


920 


1022 


12.86 






8 


72.0 


630 


1029 


11.11 


0.415 


1.29 


9 


72.0 


1030 


1025 








10 


72.0 


1230 


1022 


14.46 


. 




11 


72.3 


740 


1024 


10.79 


0.397 


1.44 


12 


72.3 


860 


1024 


10.54 






13 


72.1 


1040 


1025 


14.23 


0.769 


2.46 


14 


72.3 


1010 


1027 


13.70 


. 




15 


72.4 


1300 


1021 


14.43 


0.510 


1.88 


16 


72.4 


1040 


1025 


15.35 


. . . 


. 


17 


72.4 


1440 


1020 


16.33 


. . 




18 


72.2 


1420 


1021 


18.66 


0.657 


2.51 


19 


71.8 


780 


1026 


13.14 


. . . 




20 


71.3 


1060 


1027 








21 


72.0 


1020 


1025 








22 
23 
24 
25 


72.5 
72.4 
72.4 
72.4 


1080 
1200 
1100 
1030 


1024 
1024 
1025 
1024 


14.21 
daily 
average 


0.517 
daily 
average 


1.26 
daily 
average 


26 


72.4 


1060 






. . . 


. 


27 


72.6 


1020 


1022 








28 


72.4 


720 


1027 








29 
30 


72.4 
72.3 


400 
720 


1032 
1027 


9.20 


0.409 


1.27 


31 


72.3 


720 


. . . 








Nov. 1 


72.3 


820 


1027 








2 


72.0 


960 


1026 








3 


72.4 


920 


1025 








4 


71.9 


700 


1025 








5 


71.6 


900 


1012 


9.01 


0.487 


1.53 


6 


71.5 


700 


1029 








7 


70.5 


600 


1023 








8 


70.0 


680 


1031 








9 


70.3 


660 


1026 








10 
11 


70.6 
70.6 


660 
560 


1028 
1030 


7.97 


0460 


1.20 


12 


71.0 


740 


1027 


J 







192 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
BATES. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P,0 5 . 


1903. 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Nov. 13 


71.0 


660 


1027 


} 






14 


70.6 


480 


1032 


\ 7.97 


0.460 


1.20 


15 


70.4 


800 


1026 


J daily av. 


daily av. 


daily av. 


16 


70.8 


860 


1025 








17 


70.0 


860 


1023 








18 


69.8 


540 


1025 








19 


69.4 


700 


1026 


6.94 


0.374 


1.04 


20 


70.3 


1080 


1023 








21 


70.2 


640 


1025 








22 


69.3 


720 


1027 


j 






23 


69.1 


720 


1025 








24 


68.7 


600 


1028 








25 


68.7 


620 


1028 








26 


69.0 


840 


1031 


8.04 


0.394 


1.56 


27 


68.6 


820 


1026 








28 


67.9 


800 


1022 








29 


69.4 


700 


1027 








30 


69.0 


780 


1025 


I 






Dec. 1 


68.5 


760 


1026 








2 


k 68.7 


640 


1027 








3 


68.1 


940 


1027 


8.24 


0.393 


1.37 


4 


690 


640 


1023 








5 


68.0 


1360 


1011 








6 


69.0 


880 


1027 








7 


67.9 


960 


1026 


10.14 






8 


68.2 


700 


1026 


7.85 






9 


68.0 


800 


1025 


10.45 






10 


68.7 


700 


1027 


8.74 


0.392 


1.57 


11 


67.9 


780 


1028 


9.27 






12 


68.0 


820 


1029 


8.85 






13 


67.6 


860 


1028 


9.44 






14 


67.8 


700 


1029 


7.36 






15 


67.4 


640 


1028 


6.51 






16 


674 


640 


1032 


, 






17 


67.6 


680 


1027 








18 


68.8 


1000 


1023 


[ 7.61 


0.367 


1.36 


19 


68.3 


800 


1023 








20 


67.0 


660 


1027 








21 


67.0 


595 


1027 


1 






22 


66.2 


560 


1028 


} 6.77 


0.345 





PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 193 
BATES. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA- 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grama 


Dec. 23 


66.5 


660 


1027 








24 


66.4 


610 


1021 








25 


65.6 


1057 


1021 


6.77 


0.345 




26 


66.0 


700 


1029 


daily av. 


daily ar. 




27 


66.2 


755 


1026 








28 


65.8 


740 


1024 








29 


65.5 


710 


1026 








30 


66.0 


900 


1025 








31 


65.7 


710 


1028 


6.53 


0.269 


0.80 


1904 
Jan. 1 


65.7 


690 


1027 






daily av. 


2 


65.3 


1015 


1010 








3 


65.0 


850 


1027 








4 


65.0 


730 


1024 








5 


65.1 


835 


1022 








6 


65.6 


1045 


1027 








7 


66.2 


900 


1024 


8.54 


0.405 


1.13 


8 


65.4 


1030 


1025 








9 


66.0 


840 


1028 








10 


66.0 


965 


1025 








11 


65.8 


700 


1026 


6.80 






12 


65.5 


740 


1025 


7.46 


0.365 




13 


65.2 


630 


1027 


7.03 


0.399 




14 


64.5 


550 


1028 


7.13 


0.357 




15 


64.6 


680 


1022 


8.04 


0.434 


. . . 


16 


65.0 


620 


1029 


7.66 


0.470 


. 


17 


65.0 


925 


1024 


7.38 


0.347 




18 


65.0 


590 


1032 


1 






19 


65.0 


650 


1028 








20 


64.8 


575 


1029 








21 


64.4 


735 


1028 


6.69 


0.356 


0.80 


22 


64.8 


640 


1029 








23 


64.6 


760 


1026 








24 


64.3 


870 


1023 








25 


64.0 


740 


1027 








26 


64.5 


976 


1024 








27 


63.8 


910 


1024 








28 


64.0 


600 


1030 


8.54 


0.359 


1.27 


29 


63.8 


1300 


1017 








30 


64.0 


1135 


1024 


J 







13 



194 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
BATES. 





Body- 


Urine. 


Date. 


weight. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1901 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Jan. 31 


64.0 


1460 


1018 


8.54 


0.359 


1.27 


Feb. 1 


64.0 


910 


1027 








2 


63.9 


1250 


1021 








3 


63.5 


1080 


1026 








4 


63.5 


970 


1024 


\- 9.19 


0.862 


1.07 


5 


63.6 


1250 


1024 


daily 


daily 


daily 


6 


64.0 


1260 


1018 


average 


average 


average 


7 


64.0 


785 


1026 


j 






8 
9 


64.6 
64.3 


1235 
1460 


1022 
1018 


1 9.94 






10 


642 












11 


64.3 












12 


643 


























Daily average from 












Oct. 27 


805 


1025 


808 


0.387 


1.23 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 195 
DAVIS. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA. 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Oct. 4 


59.3 


2030 


1014 


15.15 


0.672 


1.99 


5 


59.3 


1160 


1020 


10.99 






6 


59.0 


850 


1024 


9.38 


0.503 


1.26 


7 


59.1 


1860 


1012 


13.95 






8 


59.3 


960 


1021 


9.33 


0.398 


1.47 


9 


68.3 


900 


1027 


11.56 






10 


58.3 


1660 


1017 


17.23 






11 


58.7 


1460 


1019 


16.02 


0.724 


2.27 


12 


58.5 


1060 


1022 


11.82 






13 


59.4 


1920 


1014 


10.59 


0.689 


2.53 


14 


59.4 


1460 


1022 


13.14 






15 


58.9 


1320 


1021 


13.38 


0.493 


1.53 


16 


58.9 


1900 


1015 


17.10 






17 


69.0 


1410 


1019 


14.55 






18 


59.5 


1650 


1017 


15.25 


0.647 


1.92 


19 


69.1 


1120 


1022 


13.37 






20 


58.2 


1150 


1020 








21 


58.2 


980 


1021 








22 
23 
24 
25 


59.1 
59.4 
58.6 
59.2 


1320 
1320 
1160 
1300 


1022 
1016 
1022 
1013 


11.56 
daily 
average 


0.480 
daily 
average 


1.50 
daily 
average 


26 


59.0 


860 


1024 








27 


59.2 


1240 


1024 








28 


59.4 


1440 


1014 








29 


59.5 


820 


1022 


9.20 


0.474 


1.35 


30 


59.4 


1000 


1017 








31 


59.2 


920 










Nov. 1 


59.4 


1120 


1015 


] 






2 


58.7 


840 


1026 








3 


59.1 


1290 


1018 








4 


59.0 


680 


1025 








5 


58.5 


305 


1027 


9.07 


0.474 


1.48 


6 


58.4 


700 


1023 








7 


58.7 


780 


1022 








8 


68.5 


1720 


1011 








9 
10 
11 
12 


58.2 
58.9 
59.3 
68.9 


1320 
920 
1640 

780 


1015 
1020 
1014 
1024 


L 8.33 
J 


0.422 


1.38 



196 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
DAVIS. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 boura. 


8p. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


Pj0 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grama 


gram 


grams 


Nov. 13 


69.0 


940 


1025 


1 






14 


59.0 


1180 


1016 


f 8.33 


0.422 


1.38 


15 


59.0 


1900 


1013 


J daily av. 


daily av. 


daily av. 


16 


58.8 


1080 


1022 








17 


59.0 


1080 


1018 








18 


58.4 


1500 


1017 








19 


58.2 


1260 


1018 


9.60 


0.398 


1.50 


20 


58.1 


1220 


1025 








21 


58.7 


1120 


1022 








22 


58.7 


1100 


1021 








23 


58.6 


1140 


1017 








24 


58.4 


1360 


1017 








25 


58.3 


1700 


1010 








26 


58.2 


1120 


1023 


9.00 


0.447 


1.52 


27 


59.4 


1620 


1017 








28 


58.0 


700 


1027 








29 


58.7 


1660 


1026 


J 






30 


58.5 


800 


1025 








Dec. 1 


58.0 


700 


1020 








2 


57.4 


680 


1028 








3 


57.0 


640 


1028 


11.41 


0.417 


2.12 


4 


57.0 


940 


1032 








5 


56.2 


660 


1032 








6 


56.0 


800 


1029 








7 


56.0 


800 


1026 








8 


66.1 


780 


1030 








9 


57.0 


820 


1022 








10 


58.0 


600 


1025 


8.91 


0.412 


1.43 


11 


57.1 


580 


1029 








12 


57.3 


820 


1031 








13 


57.8 


680 


1027 








14 


57.5 


740 


1027 


1 






15 


57.5 


1680 


1016 








16 


57.9 


900 


1021 








17 


57.4 


780 


1013 


7.96 


0.413 


1.50 


18 


56.9 


800 


1026 








19 


67.4 


730 


1025 








20 


67.4. 


800 


1023 








21 
22 


57.4 
67.0 


1310 
1370 


1017 
1014 


1 7.36 


0.819 





PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 197 
DAVIS. 







Urine. 




Body- 






weight. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1903 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Dec. 23 


57.0 


980 


1020 








24 


57.0 


865 


1016 








25 


57.4 


1300 


1017 


> 7.35 


0.319 




26 


" 68.0 


1390 


1017 


daily 


daily 




27 


57.3 


1340 


1018 


average 


average 




28 


57.6 


875 


1019 


1 






29 


57.0 


680 


1020 








30 


56.8 


685 


1029 








31 


56.7 


815 


1026 








1904 








6.83 


0.413 


0.99 


Jan. 1 


57.4 


1150 


1015 






daily 


2 


57.9 


1610 


1023 






average 


3 


58.6 


1120 


1023 








4 


58.3 


1350 


1011 


1 






5 


57.8 


1255 


1017 








6 


68.0 


925 


1022 








7 


68.6 


1120 


1016 


7.04 


0.372 


0.95 


8 


58.4 


1350 


1020 








9 


57.7 


890 


1026 








10 


58.6 


1510 


1012 


] 






H 


57.9 












12 


57.2 


835 


1017 


8.32 


0.408 




Daily average from 












Oct. 26 


1045 


1021 


8.61 


0.414 


1.42 



198 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

Any elaborate discussion of the individual results, tabulated 
m the foregoing tables, seems hardly necessary. *To any one 
interested in the details of the work, a study of the tables 
themselves will give the necessary information. It may be 
well, however, to emphasize at once a few of the fundamental 
points most striking in character which bear upon the main 
problem. Take, for instance, the case of Oakman, where the 
data are recorded for every day from October 4, 1903, to 
April 4, 1904. The degree of proteid metabolism, as indi- 
cated by the excretion of nitrogen through the kidneys, is 
here shown for each day of the six months. Up to Novem- 
ber 3, practically for a month, there was not observable any 
very noticeable change in the rate of proteid metabolism, 
but commencing with November 4, the nitrogen excretion 
dropped very rapidly, and as one glances through the daily 
records for month after month, it is seen that the daily nitro- 
gen output through the kidneys fell to 6 to 8 grams per day, 
with a daily average excretion of 7.42 grams of nitrogen, as 
figured from October 21 to April 4. 

Further, it will be noted that while the body- weight grad- 
ually declined during the first three months, falling from 66.7 
kilos down to 62.3 kilos on January 18, from that date on 
to the close of the experiment the body-weight was practically 
constant. Here, then, we see, under the use of a prescribed 
diet quite sufficient in amount to satisfy the cravings of the 
appetite, a lowering of proteid metabolism equal to that ob- 
tained by the individuals of the preceding group. Again, if 
the body-weight of Oakman is placed at 64 kilos, as repre- 
senting the average between the initial body-weight and the 
weight during the last three months, it will be found that 
the output of metabolized nitrogen per kilo of body-weight 
amounted to 0.116 gram; not widely different from similar 
data obtained with men of the preceding group. 

Moreover, these results obtained with Oakman are practi- 
cally duplicated by every other member of this group of sol- 
diers detailed from the United States Army. No exception 
whatever is to be seen, but every man shows the same lowered 




FRITZ 

Photograph taken at the close of the experiment. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 199 

proteid metabolism, with practical maintenance of body- 
weight, with complete satisfying of the appetite, and without 
loss of health, strength, or vigor, as will be enlarged upon 
later. 

While in the case of Oakman, the nitrogen excreted was 
determined by an analysis made each day, in the case of the 
other men of this group the data are given mainly for weekly 
periods ; the results being expressed, however, in the average 
daily amount for each seven days' period. By comparing the 
figures for the daily excretion of nitrogen with the daily 
dietary, it is easy to trace out the influence of the changes 
in diet on the extent of nitrogen metabolism. 

In considering the changes in the rate of proteid metabo- 
lism shown by all the members of this group, it will suffice 
for present purposes to deal mainly with the average results. 

Compare now the average daily output of nitrogen through 
the urine from November 1 until April 4 a period of five 
months of each of these men. 

AVERAGE DAILY OUTPUT OF NITROGEN. 

Morris . . . . 7.03^ 

Steltz .... 7.13 

Broyles .... 7.26 

Loewenthal. . . 7.38 

Oakman .... 7.42 

Fritz 7.84 

Cohn 8.05 

Coffman . . . . 8.17 

Zooman .... 8.25 

Sliney 8.39 

Henderson . . . 8.91 

Bates 8.08 Oct. 27-Feb. 11. 

Davis 8.61 Oct. 26-Jan. 12. 

The figures given show an astonishingly low proteid metab- 
olism for the five months' period ; 7. 5 grams of nitrogen in the 
day's urine correspond to 46.8 grams of proteid metabolized, 
while 8.5 grams of nitrogen mean the metabolism of 53.1 



= 7.80 grams Nitrogen as 
the grand average. 



200 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

grams of proteid. In other words, all of these men during a 
period of five months practically averaged a daily output of 
nitrogen through the kidneys corresponding to the metabolism 
of less than one-half the 105 grams of absorbable proteid 
called for by the so-called standard diets. Further, close scru- 
tiny of the results in the individual tables shows that during 
many weeks much lower results were obtained than is indi- 
cated by the general averages. 

Just here emphasis should be laid upon one fact, doubtless 
of primary importance in any modification of the rate or ex- 
tent of metabolism in any individual, viz., that in this experi- 
ment the daily diet was prescribed, thereby taking from the 
individual freedom of choice in the selection of food. The 
writer has no question in his own mind that an intelligent 
choice of food, coupled with the satisfying of a natural or ac- 
quired appetite in moderation, will lead to better results than 
any system of prescription as to what shall be eaten each day 
and in what quantity. Still, this is the method necessarily 
made use of in the present experiment, the writer having 
prescribed the character and amount of each meal throughout 
the entire six months' period, with due regard, of course, to 
the expressed likes and dislikes of the men. 

One feature in the diet compelled by the circumstances of 
the case also needs to be referred to, namely, the necessity of 
keeping the men thoroughly satisfied, so that there should be 
no feeling of hunger, no craving for food. With a person in- 
terested in the experiment and desirous of ascertaining the 
effect of a low nitrogen intake, there would naturally be a 
willingness to endure, if necessary, for a time some personal 
discomfort ; but with this detail of the United States Army it 
could not be expected that the men would remain satisfied if 
they were compelled to undergo the pangs of hunger even for 
a day or two. Consequently, it was necessary in prescribing 
the daily diet to see that the quantity of the food was such 
as to completely satisfy the appetite. This necessitated the 
use of considerable bulky food of low fuel, and low nitro- 
gen, value. In this way only was it feasible to reduce the 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 201 

nitrogen intake, as well as the fuel value of the food, to 
the desired level. Practically during the entire six months' 
period, with the possible exception of a few days, the men 
were given sufficient food to completely satisfy their appe- 
tites. Throughout the entire period of the experiment, the 
men all manifested a keen appetite and utilized their food to 
good advantage, with establishment of the nitrogen metabo- 
lism indicated by the foregoing results. 

Still confining our attention to the average results regarding 
nitrogen excretion, we may ask the question, what was the 
excretion of metabolized nitrogen per kilo of body-weight in 
the different individuals ? This is easily calculated and the 
data are shown in the following table, in which the figures 
standing for body-\\eight are either the data for the month of 
April, 1904, or else the average between the October and April 
weights, as in those cases where the body-weight fell off dur- 
ing the experiment. 

Average daily Metabolized Nitrogen 
Body-weight. Output of Nitrogen. per kilo 

November-April. Body-weight, 
kilos grams gram 

Fritz 74.0 7.84 0.106 

Oakman .... 64.0 7.42 0.116 

Bates 68.0 8.08 0.118 

Morris 59.0 7.03 0.119 

Broyles .... 60.0 7.26 0.120 

Henderson . . . 71.0 8.91 0.125 

Loewenthal . . . 59.0 7.S8 0.125 

Cohn 63.5 8.05 0.126 

Steltz 53.0 . 7.13 0.134 

Sliney 60.0 8.39 0.138 

Coffman .... 58.0 8.17 0.140 

, Davis 58.0 8.61 0.148 

Zooman .... 55.0 8.25 0.150 

Scrutiny of these results shows that the daily excretion of 
metabolized nitrogen ranged in this period of five months from 
0.106 gram per kilo of body-weight up to 0.150 gram per kilo 
of body-weight. Since these men were on essentially the 



202 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

same diet, it is obvious that there were some peculiarities, 
or personal idiosyncrasies, that tended to modify the exact 
extent of proteid metabolism, and in some cases at least con- 
stituted a more potent factor than body-weight in determin- 
ing the rate of metabolism. This fact is clearly emphasized 
in the case of Morris, who, with a body-weight of 59 kilos, 
showed a proteid metabolism equivalent to only 7.03 grams 
of nitrogen per day, and Coffman, who, with a body-weight 
of 58 kilos, showed under the same conditions an average 
excretion of 8.17 grams of nitrogen per day. 

What was the effect of this lowered proteid metabolism upon 
the bodily condition, especially body-weight? To answer this 
question the weights of the men are given in the following 
table, the one column of figures showing the body-weight 
at the commencement of the experiment, the other column 
showing the weight at the close of the experiment. 

TABLE OF BODY-WEIGHTS. 

October, 1903. April, 1904. 

kilos kilos 

Steltz 52.3 53.0 

Zooman 54.0 55.0 

Coffman 59.1 58.0 

Morris 59.2 59.0 

Broyles 59.4 61.0 

Loewenthal 60.1 59.0 

Sliney 61.3 60.6 

Cohn 65.0 62.6 

Oakman 66.7 62.1 

Henderson 71.3 71.0 

Fritz 76.0 72.6 

Bates 72.7 64.3 February 

Davis 59.3 57.2 January 

Comparison of these figures shows that six of the men were 
practically of the same body-weight at the close of the experi- 
ment as at the beginning. Of the others, Oakman, Fritz, Cohn, 
and Bates lost somewhat. Bates, however, was quite stout, and 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 203 

the work in the gymnasium as well as the change of diet 
tended to reduce his weight. In fact, with the possible excep- 
tion of Oak man, the slight loss of weight these latter men 
underwent was a distinct gain to their bodily condition. The 
most significant feature, however, is to be found on scrutiny 
of the tables of results for each man, where is seen the body- 
weight for each day of the six months. Here it will be no- 
ticed that, as the experiment progressed, there was, as a rule, 
a tendency for the body- weight to increase ; this was followed 
by a decline, after which the weight remained practically sta- 
tionary. This is well illustrated in Oakman's case. Starting 
with a body-weight of 66.7 kilos on October 4, he reached 67.6 
kilos on November 29, then declining in weight to 62.3 on 
January 18, after which he remained practically stationary, 
or varied only within narrow limits. 

Finally, it should be said that the low proteid metabolism 
on which these men were apparently maintaining body-weight 
was not associated with any increase of non-nitrogenous food. 
At no time did the fuel value of the daily food reach 3000 
calories ; in fact, about January 1 2 the average fuel value of 
the food was only a little over 2000 calories per day. 



FIRST NITROGEN BALANCE. 

Early in January, the body-weight of the men having be- 
come practically stationary and the proteid metabolism, as 
measured by the output of metabolized nitrogen, having been 
reduced to a low level, an attempt was made to see if the 
men were truly in a condition of nitrogenous equilibrium. 
A six-day period was used, during which all the food for each 
meal was carefully analyzed, the nitrogen in every sample of 
food being determined in duplicate by the Kjeldahl-Gunning 
process. The faeces of the period were separated by lamp- 
black, given at appropriate times in gelatin capsules, and all 
necessary precautions observed to insure an accurate nitrogen 
balance. The accompanying tables of results give all the 
necessary data. 



204 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

The average nitrogen intake per day was 8.23 grams, and the 
average fuel value of the food per day was 2078 calories. 
These are the figures for Oakman. With some of the other 
men there were slight variations from these figures, as shown 
in the tables owing to slight variations in diet. Without 
exception, all the men showed a minus balance, indicating 
that on this diet the body was losing nitrogen. In other words, 
the diet as a whole was insufficient for the needs of the body 
in every case. Whether this was due to lack of sufficient pro- 
teid or to an insufficient amount of fat and carbohydrate, L e., 
a too low fuel value, cannot be said definitely, but there is 
every reason to believe that the amount of non-nitrogenous 
food was insufficient to furnish the requisite fuel value, and 
consequently body proteid was drawn upon to supply the 
deficiency. The loss of nitrogen to the body per day varied 
as a rule from 0.5 to 2.0 grams. In one case only, viz., 
Broyles, was there a close approach to a balance. In his case 
there was a minus balance of only 0.12 gram of nitrogen 
per day. 

The average daily output of nitrogen through the urine for 
this six-days period (Oakman 's case) was 7.52 grams. 




FRITZ 

Photograph taken at the close of the experiment. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 205 



OAKMAN. 



Tuesday, January 12, 1904.. 



Breakfast. Fried Indian-meal 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, one cup coffee 350 

grams, bread 50 grams, butter 15 grams. 
Dinner. Boiled macaroni 250 grams, stewed tomato 250 grams, bread 75 

grams, one cup coffee 350 grams. 
Supper. Potato chips 100 grams, fried bacon 25 grams, bread 75 grams, jam 

75 grams, one cup tea 350 grams. 



Pood. 



Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 



Fried Indian-meal 100 

Syrup 50 

Coffee (breakfast) 350 

Butter 15 

Macaroni 250 

Stewed tomato 250 

Bread. . . 50 + 75 + 75 = 200 

Potato chips 100 

Bacon 25 

Jam 75 

Tea 350 

Coffee (dinner) 350 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



X 


0.38 


= 


0.380 gram. 


X 


0.051 


= 


0.025 


X 


0.075 


= 


0.262 


X 


0.10 


as 


0.015 


X 


0.63 


s- 


1.325 


X 


0.15 





0.375 


X 


1.48 





2.960 


X 


1.09 


= 


1.090 


X 


3.13 





0.780 


X 


0.039 


-- 


0.029 


X 


0.067 





0.234 


X 


0.091 


r= 


0.318 








7.793 grams. 








6.000 



Fuel value of the food .... 2404 calories. 



206 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



OAKMAN. 



Wednesday, January 13, 1904~ 



Breakfast. Boiled rice 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, butter 10 

grams, bread 30 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with plenty of bread, fat, and onions chopped together 

150 grams, boiled potato 200 grams, apple sauce 200 grams, bread 75 

grams, one cup coffee 350 grams. 
Supper. Fried rice 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, one cup tea 350 grams, bread 

50 grams, butter 15 grams. 



Food. 



Boiled rice 150 



Milk 

Sugar 

Butter (breakfast) 

Bread " . , 

Coffee 

Hamburg steak, etc. 

Potato .... 

Apple sauce 



10 
30 
350 
150 
200 
200 



Bread (dinner) 76 



Coffee (dinner) 
Fried rice 
Syrup . . . 
Tea . . . . 
Bread (supper) 
Butter . 



350 

100 

50 

350 

50 

16 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



cent Nitroge 


n. 


Total Nitrogen. 


0.36 


= 


0.540 grams. 


0.55 





0.687 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


0.10 


= 


0.010 


1.66 


= 


0.498 


0.066 





0.231 


2.80 





4.200 


0.29 


= 


0.580 


0.067 





0.134 


1.66 





1.245 


0.076 





0.266 


0.50 





0.500 


0.051 





0.025 


0.066 


S3 


0.231 


1.66 





0.830 


0.10 


= 


0.015 






. 9.992 grams. 






. 7.330 



Fuel value of the food 



2133 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 207 



OAKMAN. 



Thursday, January 1^ 1904- 



Breakfast. Boiled hominy 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, butter 

10 grams, bread 30 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams. 
Dinner. Split pea soup (thick) 200 grains, bread 75 grams, mashed potato 

100 grams, pickles 30 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams, pie 120 grams. 
Supper. Suet pudding 150 grams, apple sauce 125 grams, crackers 25 grams, 

one cup tea 350 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Boiled hominy .150 

Milk 125 

Sugar 30 

Butter 10 

Bread (breakfast) 30 

Coffee (breakfast) 350 

Split pea soup 200 

Bread (dinner) 75 

Mashed potato 100 

Pickles 30 

Coffee (dinner) 350 

Pie 120 

Suet pudding 150 

Apple sauce 125 

Crackers 25 

Tea 350 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.21 





0.315 gram. 


X 


0.52 





0.650 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


X 


0.10 


= 


0.010 


X 


1.59 


= 


0.477 


X 


0.096 





0.336 


X 


0.69 





1.380 


X 


1.59 





1.192 


X 


0.31 





0.310 


X 


0.054 


= 


0.016 


X 


0.075 





0.262 


X 


0.50 





0.600 


X 


0.78 





1.170 


X 


0058 





0.072 


X 


1.61 


= 


0.402 


X 


0.063 


= 


0.220 








7.412 grams, 








8.290 



Fuel value of the food .... 2000 calories. 



208 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



OAKMAN. 



Friday, January lo, 1904- 



Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, one cup coffee 

350 grams. 
Dinner. Codfish-balls (4 parts potato, 1 part fish, fried in pork fat) 150 grams, 

stewed tomato 200 grams, bread 75 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams, 

apple pie 95 grams. 
Supper. Apple fritters 200 grams, stewed prunes 125 grams, bread 50 grams, 

butter 15 grams, one cup tea 350 grams. 



Food. 
Wheat griddle cakes . 

Syrup 

Coffee (breakfast) . . 
Codfish-balls, etc. . . 
Stewed tomato . . . 
Bread (dinner) . . . 
Coffee (dinner) . . . 

Apple pie 

Apple fritters .... 
Stewed prunes . . . 
Bread (supper) . . . 

Butter 

Tea 



. 200 

. 50 

. 350 

. 150 

. 200 
75 

. 350 



200 

125 

50 

15 

350 



Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.78 = 


1.560 grams. 


x 


0.051 = 


0.025 


x 


0.075 = 


0.262> 


X 


1.77 = 


2.655 


X 


0.14 = 


0.280 


x 


1.59 = 


1.192 


X 


0.075 = 


0.262 


x 


0.40 = 


0.380 


X 


0.40 = 


0.800 


x 


0.15 = 


0.187 


x 


1.59 = 


0.795 


X 


0.10 = 


0.015 


X 


0.042 = 


0.147 







8.560 grams. 






7.140 



Fuel value of the food 



. 2030 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 209 



OAKMAN. 



Saturday, January 16, 1904- 



Breakfast. Soft oat-meal 150 grams, milk 100 grams, sugar 30 grams, bread 

30 grams, butter 10'grams, one cup coffee 350 grams. 
Dinner. Baked macaroni with a little cheese 200 grams, stewed tomato 200 

grams, bread 50 grams, tapioca-peach pudding 150 grams, one cup coffee 

350 grams. 
Supper. French fried potato 100 grams, fried bacon "20 grams, bread 75 

grams, jam 75 grams, one cup tea 350 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per 


cent Nitre 


gen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Soft oat-meal 


150 


X 


0.27 


= 


0.405 grams. 


Milk 


100 


X 


0.44 





0.440 


Sugar 


30 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Bread (breakfast) 


30 


X 


1.61 


= 


0.483 


Butter 


10 


X 


0.10 





0.010 


Coffee (breakfast) 


350 


X 


0.075 


= 


0.262 


Baked macaroni, etc 


200 


X 


0.72 





1.440 


Stewed tomatoes 


200 


X 


0.15 





0.300 


Bread (dinner) 


50 


X 


1.61 





0.805 


Tapioca-peach pudding . . . 


150 


X 


0.087 


= 


0.130 


Coffee (dinner) 


350 


X 


0.093 





0.325 


French fried potato 


100 


X 


0.47 


= 


0.470 


Fried bacon 


20 


X 


3.15 





0.630 


Bread (supper) 


75 


X 


1.61 


= 


1.207 


Jam 


75 


X 


0.039 


= 


0.029 


Tea 


350 


X 


0.099 


= 


0.346 


Total nitrogen 


in food . 








7.282 grams. 


Total nitrogen 


in urine 






. . 


8.230 



Fuel value of the food .... 1824 calories. 



14 



210 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



OAKMAN. 



Sunday, January 17, 1904- 



Breakfast. Boiled Indian-meal 125 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, 
butter 10 grams, bread 30 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams. 

Dinner. Bean soup (thick) 200 grams, bread 75 grams, mashed potato 100 
grams, pickles 25 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams, custard pie 105 grains. 

Supper. Crackers 50 grams, butter 15 grams, stewed prunes 125 grams, 
sponge cake 100 grams, one cup tea 350 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Boiled Indian-meal 


125 


X 


. 0.24 = 


0.300 grams. 


Milk 


125 


X 


0.50 = 


0.625 


Sugar 


30 


X 


0.00 = 


0.000 


Butter (breakfast) 


10 


X 


0.10 = 


0.010 


Bread (breakfast) 


30 


X 


1.61 = 


0.483 


Coffee (breakfast) 


3GO 


X 


0.087 = 


0.304 


Bean soup 


200 


X 


0.86 = 


1.720 


Bread (dinner) 


75 


X 


1.61 = 


1.207 


Mashed potato 


100 


X 


0.28 = 


0.280 


Pickles 


25 


X 


0.054 = 


0.013 


Coffee (dinner) 


350 


X 


0.081 = 


0.283 


Custard pie 


105 


X 


0.88 = 


0.924 


Crackers 


50 


X 


1.61 


0.805 


Butter (supper) 


15 


X 


0.10 = 


0.015 


Stewed prunes 


125 


X 


0.17 = 


0.212 


Sponge cake 


100 


X 


1.00 = 


1.000 


Tea 


350 


X 


0.048 = 


0.168 


Total nitrogen in food , 


8.349 grams. 


Total nitrogen 


in urine 







8.140 



Fuel value of the food . . 2081 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 211 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Oakman. 



Nitrogen Output. 
Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 


Jan. 12 


7.793 grams. 


6.00 grams. 




13 


9.992 ' 


7.33 




14 


7.412 


8.29 


5.0 grams. 


15 


8.560 


7.14 


76.0 


16 


7.282 


8.23 


13.5 


17 


8.349 


8.14 


9.5 








104.0 grams contain 








7.39% N. 




49.388 


45.13 + 


7.685 grams nitrogen. 



49.388 grams nitrogen. 52.815 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for six days = 3.427 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = 0.571 gram. 

Average Intake. 

Calories per day 2078. 

Nitrogen per day 8.23 grams. 



212 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Loewenthal. 



Nitrogen 
Taken in. 



Output. 
Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 



Jan. 12 7.793 grams. 7.33 gr: 


ims. . . . 


13 9.992 7.64 


21 grams. 


14 7.388 6.21 


26 


16 8.560 8.18 


52 


16 7.282 7.92 


37 


17 8.349 7.26 


11 




147 grams contain 




6.97% N. 


49.364 44.54 


-f 10.24 grams nitrogen. 


49.364 grams nitrogen. 


54.78 grams nitrogen. 


Nitrogen balance for six days = 


5.416 grams. 


Nitrogen balance per day 


0.902 gram. 



Daily diet same as Oakman's, except that a smaller amount of coffee was 
taken at breakfast on the 14th. Nitrogen correction made accordingly. 




COFFMAN STELTZ 

Photographs taken at the close of the experiment. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 213 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Stellz. 

Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Fseces (dry). 



Jan. 12 


7.793 grams. 


4.61 grams. 


15.0 grams 


13 


9.463 


7.90 


34.0 


14 


7.412 


4.99 


21.0 


15 


8.560 


9.05 


31.5 


16 


7.282 


7.56 


33.0 


17 


8.349 


8.55 


18.0 








152.5 grams contain 








6.52% N. 




48.859 


42.66 + 


9.94 grams nitrogen. 



48.859 grams nitrogen. 52.60 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for six days = 3.741 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = 0.623 gram. 



Daily diet same as Oakman's, except on January 13, wlien 8 grains of 
boiled rice were uneaten at breakfast and 100 grains of fried rice at supper. 
Correction in nitrogen-content made accordingly. 



2U PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Bates. 

Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 



Jan. 12 


7.706 grams. 


7.46 grams. 




13 


9.916 


7.03 




14 


7.375 


7.13 


36 grams. 


15 


8.439 


8.04 


30 


16 


7.226 


7.66 


34 


17 


8.349 


7.38 


34 








134 grams contain 








7.17% N. 




49.011 


44.70 + 


9.61 grams nitrogen. 



49.011 grams nitrogen. 54.31 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for siz days = 5.299 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = 0.883 gram. 

Daily diet same as Oakman's, with the following exceptions: 

Jan. 12 Supper : 8 grams Potato chips, uneaten. 

13 Dinner: 113 " Applesauce, " 

14 50 " Coffee, 

16 Supper: 81 " Prunes, " 

16 Breakfast: 75 " Coffee, 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 215 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Coffman. 



Nitrogen Output. 
Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry) 


Jan. 12 


7.793 grams. 8.82 grams. 




13 


9.992 8.28 




14 


7.412 8.30 


57.00 grams. 


15 


8.560 7.91 


41.25 


16 


7.282 7.32 


47.00 


17 


8.349 7.44 


21.50 






166.75 grams contain 






6.66% N 




49.388 48.07 + 


11.10 grams nitrogen. 


49.388 grams nitrogen. 59.17 grams nitrogen. 




Nitrogen balance for six days = 


-9.782 grams. 




Nitrogen balance per day = 


1.630 grams. 



Daily diet same as Oakman's. 



216 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Fritz. 



Nitrogen 
Taken hi. 



Output. 
Nitrogen iu Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 



Jan. 12 


7.793 grams. 8.99 grams. 




13 


9.992 6.49 




14 


7.412 10.26 


64.0 grams. 


15 


8.560 7.97 


29.5 


16 


7.282 5.20 


62.0 


17 


8.186 9.40 


31.0 






186.5 grams contain 






6.49% N. 




49.225 48.31 + 


12.10 grams nitrogen. 




49.225 grams nitrogen. 60.41 


grams nitrogen. 




Nitrogen balance for six days = 


11. 185 grams. 




Nitrogen balance per day 


1.864 grams. 



Daily diet same as Oakman's, except that on the 17th inst. a portion of the 
prunes was uneaten. Correction made accordingly. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTKITION 217 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Henders 
Output. 





Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. 


Weight of Fasces (dry). 


Jan. 12 


7.639 grams. 7.68 grams. 


... 


13 


9.794 8.22 




14 


7.487 8.24 




16 


8.560 7.76 


45 grams. 


16 


7.068 7.56 


26 


17 


8.045 7.87 


22 






93 grams contain 






6.45% N. 




48.593 47.33 + 


6.00 grams nitrogen. 


48.593 grams nitrogen. 53.33 grams nitrogen. 




Nitrogen balance for six days = 


4.737 grams. 




Nitrogen balance per day = 


-0.789 gram. 



Daily diet same as Oakman's, except that on several days smaller amounts of 
coffee and tea were taken. Corrections made accordingly. 



218 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Morns 



Nitrogen Output. 
Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. W 


light of Faeces (dry). 


Jan. 12 


7.255 grams. 


4.19 grams. 




13 


9.573 


7.92 




14 


7.325 


7.91 


4.75 grams. 


15 


8.538 


7.44 


38.00 


16 


7.282 


7.38 


71.00 


17 


8.349 


6.28 


53.00 




166.75 grams contain 








6.45$ N. 




48.322 


40.12 + 


10.75 grams nitrogen. 



48.322 grams nitrogen. 50.87 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for six days = 2.548 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = 0.424 gram. 



Daily diet same as Oakman's except that on the first three days smaller 
amounts of tea and coffee were taken. Corrections made accordingly. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 219 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Zooman. 



Nitrogen Output. 
Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 


Jan. 12 


7.466 grams. 


11.31 grams. 




13 


9.992 


11.63 




14 


7.412 


9.38 




15 


8.560 


8.44 


27.5 grams. 


16 


7.282 


8.89 


28.5 


17 


8.349 


8.99 


13.0 








69.0 grams contain 








6.46% N. 




49.061 


58.64 + 


4.45 grams nitrogen. 



49.061 grams nitrogen. 63.09 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for six days = 14.029 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = 2.338 gram. 



Daily diet same as Oakman's, except that on January 12th 30 grams potato 
chips were not eaten. Nitrogen intake corrected accordingly. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Sliney. 

Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Fseces (dry). 



Jan. 12 


6.501 grams. 


5.94 grams 


22.5 grams. 


13 


9.975 


8.44 


26.0 


14 


7.388 


7.42 


22.5 


15 


8.560 


7.89 


24.0 


16 


7.282 


7.23 


13.0 


17 


8.349 


8.15 


15.0 








123.0 grams contain 








6.72 % N. 




48.055 


45.07 + 


8.26 grams nitrogen. 



48.055 grams nitrogen. 53.33 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for six days = 5.275 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = 0.879 gram. 



Daily diet same as Oakman's, except that on the 12th 190 grams stewed 
tomatoes and 190 grams macaroni were uneaten; on the 13th at breakfast 25 
grams of coffee were left, and on the 14th at breakfast 25 grams coffee were not 
taken. Corrections in intake of nitrogen made accordingly. 




COFFMAN STELTZ 

Photographs taken at the dose of the experiment. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 221 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Cohn. 



Jan. 12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 



Nitrogen 
Taken in. 



Output. 
Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Fa 



' (dry). 



7.793 grams. 6.49 grams. . . . 


9.957 9.10 


29.0 grams. 


7.412 7.33 


8.5 


8.320 8.04 


44.0 


7.282 8.58 


19.0 


8.349 7.44 


5.5 




106.0 grams contain 




6.48% N. 


49.113 46.98 


+ 6.87 grams nitrogen 


49.113 grams nitrogen. 


53.85 grams nitrogen. 


Nitrogen balance for six days 


= 4.737 grams. 


Nitrogen balance per day 


= 0.789 gram. 



Daily diet same as Oakman's, except that on the 15th inst. at supper 60 grams 
fritters were uneaten, and on the 13th at breakfast 30 grams coffee, and at dinner 
22 grams apple sauce were uneaten. Corrections made accordingly. 



222 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITKOGEN BALANCE. Broyles. 





Nitrogen 
Taken in. 


Output. 
Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Fasces (dry). 


Jan. 12 


7.475 grams. 


5.38 grams. 




13 


9.496 


6.99 




14 


6.814 


7.47 


. . . 


15 


8.036 


9.67 


35 grams. 


16 


6.696 


7.66 


14 


17 


7.762 


5.28 


20 








69 grams contain 








6.61% N. 




46.277 


42.44 + 


4.56 grams nitrogen. 



46.277 grams nitrogen. 47.00 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for six days = -0.723 gram. 
Nitrogen balance per day = 0.120 gram. 



Daily diet same as Oakman's, except that each day coffee was omitted from 
breakfast and dinner. Corrections made accordingly. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 223 

SECOND NITROGEN BALANCE. 

Commencing February 29, a second nitrogen balance was 
attempted with very different results. This balance period 
extended through seven days and was characterized by an 
average daily intake of 9.50 grams of nitrogen, an increase of 
1.3 grams of nitrogen per day over the preceding period, to- 
gether with an average fuel value of the food equal to 2500 
calories per day. 

The daily diet with its content of nitrogen, etc., is detailed 
under Oakman. Any variations (only slight ones) from this 
diet are indicated on the individual balance-sheets, corrections 
being made in the nitrogen intake. 

In all of the men, with one exception, a distinct plus bal- 
ance is seen, showing that under the conditions of this experi- 
ment the men were all storing up nitrogen. The plus balance 
per day varied from 0.132 gram to 1.231 grams of nitrogen. 

The average daily output of nitrogen through the urine for 
this seven days' period (Oakman's case) was 7.24 grams, being 
0.28 gram less per day than in the preceding period. Sliney, 
the one man who failed to show a positive balance, was ap- 
parently losing nitrogen at the rate of 0.48 gram per day 
during this period. 

All of the individual data are shown in the accompanying 
tables of results : 



224 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



OAKMAN. 
Monday February 29, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 175 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, baked 

potato 150 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams, butter 10 grams. 
Dinner. Baked spaghetti 250 grams, mashed potato 250 grams, bread 75 

grams, boiled tomato 150 grams, apple pie 112 grams, one cup coffee 

350 grams. 
Supper. Biscuit 175 grams, fried bacon 20 grams, fried sweet potato 150 

grams, butter 20 grams, one cup tea 350 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Boiled rice 


175 


X 


0.34 


= 


0.595 grams. 


Milk 


125 


X 


0.55 





0.687 


Sugar 


25 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Baked potato . 


150 . 


X 


0.34 





0.510 


Coffee (breakfast;- 


350 


X 


0.082 





0.287 


Butter 10 + 20 = 


30 


X 


0.16 





0.480 


Spaghetti 


250 


X 


0.73 


= 


1.825 


Mashed potato 


250 


X 


0.30 





0.750 


Bread . . . 


75 


X 


1.61 





1.207 


Tomato 


150 


X 


0.16 





0.240 


Apple pie 


112 


X 


0.46 


- 


0.515 


Biscuit 


175 


X 


1.21 


= 


2.117 


Fried bacon 


20 


X 


3.80 





0.760 


Fried sweet potato 


150 


X 


0.22 





0.330 


Tea 


350 


X 


0.06 





0.210 


Coffee (dinner) 


350 


X 


0.11 


= 


0.385 


Total nitrogen 


in food 








10.466 grams. 


Total nitrogen 


in urine 








6.880 



Fuel value of the food .... 2670 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 225 



OAKMAN. 



Tuesday, March 1, 1904. 



Breakfast. Fried rice 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 150 grams, 

butter 10 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams. 
Dinner. Thick pea soup 250 grams, boiled onions 150 grams, boiled sweet 

potato 150 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 20 grams, one cup coffee 

350 grams. 
Supper. Celery -lettuce-apple salad 120 grams, crackers 32 grams, American 

cheese 20 grams, Saratoga chips 79 grams, one cup tea 350 grams, rice 

custard 100 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Fried rice 


150 


X 


0.34 


- 


Syrup 


50 


X 


0.00 


= 


Baked potato 


150 


X 


0.33 


= 


Butter - . . . . 10 + 20 = 


30 


X 


0.16 





Coffee (breakfast) 


350 


X 


0.042 





Pea soup 


250 


X 


0.54 







150 


X 


0.27 





Boiled sweet potato .... 


150 


X 


0.13 


= 


Bread 


75 


X 


1.65 





Coffee (dinner) 


350 


X 


0.084 


= 


Salad ' 


120 


X 


0.14 





Crackers 


32 


X 


1.50 





Cheese 


20 


X 


3.92 





Saratoga chips 


79 


X 


1.22 





Tea 


350 


X 


0.054 





Rice custard 


100 


X 


0.56 





Total nitrogen 


in food . 


. 


. . . . 


. . 


Total nitroeren 


in urine 









Total Nitrogen. 

0.510 grams. 

0.000 

0.495 

0.048 

0.147 

1.350 

0.405 

0.195 

1.237 

0.294 

0.168 

0.480 

0.784 

0.963 

0.189 

0.560 

7.825 grams. 

7.420 



Fuel value of the food .... 2279 calories. 



15 



226 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



OAKMAN. 



Wednesday, March 2, 1904. 



Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, butter 10 grams, 

one cup coffee 350 grams, banana 75 grams. 
Dinner. Boiled salt mackerel 25 grams, boiled potato 250 grams, boiled 

turnip 150 grams, bread 75 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams, apple sauce 

150 grams. 
Supper. Chopped fresh cabbage with salt, pepper, and vinegar 100 grams, 

bread 75 grams, butter 20 grams, chocolate cake 150 grams, cranberry 

sauce 100 grams, one cup tea 350 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Griddle cakes 


200 


X 


0.80 





1.600 grams. 


Syrup . . . 


50 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Butter . . . 


10 + 20 = 30 


X 


0.16 





0.048 


Coffee (breakfasv 


350 


X 


0.066 





0.231 


Banana . . . 


75 


X 


0.20 





0.150 


Mackerel . , 


25 


X 


392 





0.980 


Boiled potato . 


250 


X 


0.27 


S3 


0.675 


Boiled turnip . 


150 


X 


0.071 





0.106 


Bread .... 


. 75 + 75 = 150 


X 


1.63 





2.445 


Coffee (dinner) 


360 


X 


0.066 





0.231 


Apple sauce . 


150 


X 


0.048 





0.072 


Cabbage . . . 


100 


X 


0.28 





0.280 


Chocolate cake 


150 


X 


0.96 





1.425 


Cranberry sauce 


100 


X 


0.045 





0.045 


Tea .... 


350 


X 


0.057 


53 


0.199 




Total nitrogen in food , 








8.487 grams. 




Total nitrogen in urine 








7.580 



Fuel value of the food .... 2391 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 227 



OAKMAN. 



Thursday, March 3, 1904. 



Breakfast. Boiled hominy 175 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, baked 

potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with much bread, fat, and onions 150 grams, boiled 

potato 250 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 10 grams, one cup coffee 

350 grams. 
Supper. Tapioca-peach pudding 250 grams, bread 75 grams, jam 75 grams, 

butter 20 grams, one cup tea 350 grains. 



Food. 



Grams. 



Boiled hominy 175 

Milk 125 

Sugar 25 

Baked potato 150 

Butter . . 10 + 10 + 20 = 40 

Coffee (breakfast) 350 

Hamburg steak 150 

Boiled potato 250 

Bread 75 + 75 = 150 

Coffee (dinner) 350 

Tapioca-peach pudding . . . 250 

Jam 75 

Tea 350 

Total nitrogen in food . 

Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.19 


- 


0.330 grams. 


X 


0.40 





0500 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


X 


028 





0420 


X 


0.16 


= 


0.064 


X 


0.075 





0.262 


X 


2.12 





3.180 


X 


0.27 


rs 


0.675 


X 


1.48 





2.220 


X 


0.093 


s: 


0.325 


X 


0.22 


= 


0.550 


X 


0.034 





0.025 


X 


0.057 


= 


0.199 








8.750 grams. 








6.850 



Fuel value of the food .... 2375 calories. 



228 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



OAKMAN. 



Friday, March 4, 190J.. 



Breakfast. Fried hominy 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 150 grams, 

one cup coffee 350 grams, butter 10 grams. 
Dinner. Codfish-balls (1 part fish, 4 parts potatoes, fried in pork fat) 150 

grams, stewed tomato 200 grams, stewed potato 150 grams, bread 75 

grams, one cup coffee 350 grams, apple pie 130 grams. 
Supper. French fried potato 200 grams, fried sausage 50 gramo, butter 10 

grams, bread 50 grams, stewed prunes 125 grams, sponge cake 35 grams, 

one cup tea 350 grams. 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 



Fried hominy 
Syrup ... 


150 
50 


X 
X 


0.32 
0.00 


= 


0.480 grams. 
0.000 


Baked potato 
Coffee (breakfast) 
Butter .... 10 + 10 = 
Fish-balls 
Stewed tomato 
Bread .... 75 + 50 = 
Coffee (dinner) 


150 
350 
20 
150 
200 
125 
350 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

x 


0.37 
0.099 
0.16 
1.73 
0.19 
1.54 
0.06'J 


= 


0.555 
0.346 
0.032 
2.595 
0.380 
1.925 
0.241 


Apple pie 


130 


X 


0.38 




0.494 


French fried potato 
Sausage 
Prunes . .... . . 


200 
50 
125 


X 
X 

x 


0.49 
2.75 
0.17 





0.980 
1.375 
0.212 


Sponge cake 
Tea 
Stewed potato 
Total nitrogen 
Total nitrogen 


35 
350 
150 
in food 
in urine 


X 
X 
X 


0.83 
0.072 
0.18 


= 


0.290 
0.252 
0.270 
10.427 grams. 
7.950 



Fuel value of the food . . 2374 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 229 

OAKMAN. 
Saturday, March 5, 1904. 



Breakfast. Boiled Indian-meal 200 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, 

one cup coffee 350 grams, fried sweet potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams. 
Dinner. Tomato soup, thick with potatoes and onions boiled together 325 

grams, bread 100 grams, scrambled eggs 50 grams, mashed potato 150 

grams, one cup coffee 350. 
Supper. Bread pudding with raisins 250 grams, stewed peaches 150 grams, 

bacon 20 grams, French fried potato 150 grams, bread 50 grams, butter 

10 grams, one cup tea 350 grams. 



Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 



Boiled Indian-meal 
Milk 
Sugar 
Coffee (breakfast) 
Fried sweet potato 
Butter .... 10 + 10 = 


200 
125 
25 
350 
150 
20 
325 
150 
50 
150 
350 
250 
150 
20 
150 
350 
in food 
in urine 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


0.20 
0.52 
0.00 
0.10 
0.22 
0.16 
0.10 
1.57 
2.22 
025 
0.075 
0.80 
0.24 
4.00 
056 
0.084 





0.400 gram. 
0.650 
0.000 
0.350 
0.330 
0.032 
0.325 
2.355 
1.110 
0.375 
0.262 
2.000 
0.360 
0.800 
0.840 
0.294 
10.483 grams. 
6.100 


Bread 100 + 50 
Scrambled eggs 
Mashed potato 


Coffee (dinner) 
Bread pudding 
Stewed peaches 
Bacon 


Tea 


Total nitrogen 
Total nitrogen 



Fuel value of the food .... 2302 calories. 



230 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



OAKMAN. 



Sunday, March 6, 1904. 



Breakfast. Fried Indian-meal 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, sliced banana 100 

grams, baked potato 150 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams, butter 10 

grams. 
Dinner. Corned beef 50 grams, boiled cabbage 200 grams, mashed potato 

250 grams, bread 75 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams, fried rice 100 

grams, jam 75 grams. 
Supper. Sponge cake 150 grams, apple sauce 150 grams, crackers 32 grams, 

butter 10 grams, one cup tea 350 grams, sardine 14 grams. 



Fried Indian-meal 
Syrup 
Banana 
Baked potato 


150 
50 
100 
150 
350 
20 
50 
200 
250 
75 
350 
100 
75 
150 
150 
32 
350 
14 
in food 
in urine 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


0.38 
0.00 
0.19 
0.37 
0.072 
0.16 
5.24 
0.34 
0.32 
167 
0.093 
0.23 
0.034 
1.02 
0.044 
1.50 
0.054 
3.35 


Coffee (breakfast) 
Butter .... 10 + 10 = 
Corned beef 


Cabbage 


Mashed potato 


Bread 


Coffee (dinner) 
Fried rice . 


Jam 


Sponge cake ... 


Apple sauce . 
Crackers 


Tea 


Sardine 
Total nitrogen i 
Total nitrogen 



Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 

0.570 gram. 

0.000 

0.190 

0.555 

0.252 

0.032 

2.620 

0.680 

0.800 

1.252 

0.325 

0.230 

0.025 

1.530 

0.066 

0.480 

0.189 



10.265 grams 
7.960 



Fuel value of the food .... 3173 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 231 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Oakman. 

Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Fasces * (dry). 



Feb. 29 10.466 grams. 

Mar. 1 7.825 

2 8.487 

3 8.750 

4 10.427 

5 10.483 

6 10.266 



66.703 



6.88 grams. 




7.42 




7.58 


17 grams 


6.85 


72 


7.95 


39 


6.10 


19 


7.96 


35 




182 grams contain 




6.81% N. 


50.74 + 


12.394 grams nitrogen. 



66.703 grams nitrogen. 63.134 grams nitrogen 

Nitrogen balance for seven days = +3.569 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = +0.509 gram. 

Average Intake. 

Calories per day 2509. 

Nitrogen per day 9.50 grams. 



* The figures given for weight of faeces during this balance period are tabu- 
lated for convenience as above, but naturally the last yield was not obtained 
until the 8th of March. The total of 182 grams, however, is the exact amount 
of air-dry faeces collected between the two charcoal layers, marking off accurately 
the balance period. 



STATE NOKMAL SCHOOL 



232 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Henderson. 



Feb. 29 
Mar. 1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



Nitrogen 
Taken In. 

10.261 grams. 

7.384 

8.487 

8.555 
10.427 
10.483 
10.265 



65.862 



Nitrogen 

8.36 grams 

6.80 

8.28 

7.37 

8.22 

8.09 

8.20 



55.32 



Output. 
Urine. Weight of Fa 



(dry). 



85 grams. 



28 

113 grams contain 
6.21 # N. 
7.017 grams nitrogen. 



65.862 grams nitrogen. 



62.337 grams nitrogen. 



Nitrogen balance for seven days =: +3.525 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day ~ +0.503 grams. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 233 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Moms. 







Nitrogen 
Taken in. 


Output. 
Nitrogen in Urine. We 


sight of Fseces (dry). 


Feb. 


29 


10.466 grams. 


6.40 grams. 






Mar. 


1 


7.720 


6.64 


45 grams. 






2 


8.319 


5.40 


43 






3 


8.750 


6.55 


41 






4 


10.427 


4.99 


45 






5 


10.483 


5.38 


38 






6 


10.265 


7.01 


13 




225 grams contain 












6 N. 






66.430 


42.37 + 


16.155 grams 


nitrogen. 



66.430 grams nitrogen. 58.525 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for seven days = +7.905 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = +1.129 grams. 



234 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Coffman. 



Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 



Feb. 29 


10.466 grams. 8.63 grams. 




Mar. 1 


7.825 7.48 




2 


8.487 8.62 




3 


8.750 7.18 




4 


10.427 7.93 


65 grams 


5 


10.483 7.67 


83 


6 


10.265 7.95 


20 






168 grams contain 






6.14% N. 




66.703 55.46 + 


10.315 grams nitrogen. 


66.703 grams nitrogen. 65.775 grams nitrogen. 




Nitrogen balance for seven days = 


+0.928 gram. 




Nitrogen balance per day 


+0.132 gram. 




ZOOMAN 



COHN 



Photographs taken at the close of the experiment. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 235 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Steltz. 



Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 



Feb. 29 


9.989 grams. 


7.90 grams. 


23 grams. 


Mar. 1 


8.090 


5.98 


22 


2 


8.487 


6.58 


21 


3 


9.300 


8.10 


45 


4 


11.107 


4.66 


18 


5 


10.024 


8.69 


36 


6 


10.392 


8.20 


31 








10 








206 grams contain 








6.66 # N. 




67.389 


50.11 + 


13.719 grams nitrogen. 



67.389 grams nitrogen. 63.829 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for seven days = +3.560 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = +0.508 gram. 



236 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Feb. 29 
Mar. 1 
2 
3 
4 
6 
6 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Loewenthal. 



Nitrogen in Urine. 
7.38 grams. 
7.05 
7.07 
7.83 
7.35 
4.29 
8.07 



Output. 

Weight of Faeces (dry). 



Nitrogen 
Taken in. 

10.466 grams. 

7.825 

8.487 

8.750 
10.427 
10.654 
10.886 



67.495 



67.495 grams nitrogen. 61.020 grams nitrogen. 



49.04 



+ 



16.5 grams. 

38.0 

21.0 

15.0 
22.0 
66.0 
168.5 grams contain 

7.11% N. 
11.980 grams nitrogen 



Nitrogen balance for seven days = +6.475 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = +0.925 gram. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 237 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Cohn. 





Nitrogen 
Taken in. 


Output. 
Nitrogen in Uriue. Weight of Fjeces (dry). 


Feb. 29 


10.442 grams. 


9.74 grams. 


. . . 


Mar. 1 


7.825 


6.86 




2 


8.487 


7.29 


43 grams. 


4 


10.215 


5.59 


24 


5 


10.483 


9.55 


57 


6 


8.164 


6.77 


25 








149 grams contain 








6.63% N. = 9.878 gr. 








-1.401* = 




55.616 


45.80 + 


8.477 grams nitrogen. 



55.616 grams nitrogen. 54.277 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for six days = +1.339 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = . +0.223 gram. 



* This balance is complicated by the loss of the urine on March 3. Conse- 
quently one-seventh of the total nitrogen of the faeces of the period, namely 
1 401 grams, was deducted from the total faecal nitrogen. 



238 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY JN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Zooman. 



Nitrogen 
Taken in. 



Output. 
Ni rogen in Urine. Weight of Fseces (dry). 



Feb. 29 10.466 grams 7.02 grams. 18 grams. 


Mar. 1 7.604 6.66 


25 


2 8.487 7.26 


62 


3 8.760 7.56 


40 


4 10.427 7.51 


14 


5 10.483 7.08 


30 


6 10.265 6.81 


10 


. 


189 grams contain 




6.54 % N. 


66.482 49.90 


+ 12.36 grains nitrogen. 


66.482 grams nitrogen. 


62.26 grams nitrogen. 


Nitrogen balance for seven days 


= +4.222 grams. 


Nitrogen balance per day 


= +0.603 gram. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 239 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Sliney. 

Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen iu Urine. Weight of Fasces (dry). 

Feb. 29 10.466 grams. 9.50 grams. 15 grams. 

Mar. 1 7.825 8.09 35 

2 8.487 7.97 25 

3 8.734 7.78 45 

4 10.427 7.49 28 

5 10.475 7.54 21 

6 10.265 8.23 J?2 

201 grams contain 

6.70% N. 

66.679 56.60 + 13.467 grams nitrogen, 

66.679 grams nitrogen. 70.067 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for seven days = 3.388 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = -0.484 gram. 



240 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Broyles. 



Nitrogen Output. 
Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight in Fseces (dry). 


Feb. 29 10.179 grams. 5.74 grams. 




Mar. 1 7.468 9.26 




2 8.487 6.97 


13 grams. 


3 8.750 6.18 


4 


4 10.427 7.68 


46 


6 10.483 5.56 


29 


6 10.265 7.69 


42 




134 grams contain 




6.24% N. 


66.059 49.08 + 


8.361 grams nitrogen. 


66.059 grams nitrogen. 57.441 grams nitrogen. 


Nitrogen balance for seven days = 


+8.618 grams. 


Nitrogen balance per day 


+1.231 grams. 




ZOOMAX 



COHN 



Photograplis taken at the dose of the experiment. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 241 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Fritz. 







Nitrogen 
Taken in. 


Hitroj 


Feb. 
Mar 


29 
. 1 


10.466 grams. 
7.825 


6.22 
7.44 




2 


8.487 


4.00 




3 


8.750 


7.05 




5 


10.483 


8.71 




6 


10.265 


4.78 



56.276 



Output. 
Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 



71 
28 
49 
44 
192 grams contain 

6.61% N. =12.691 gr. 

= 1.813* 
+ 10.878 grm. N. 



38.20 



56.276 grams nitrogen. 



49.078 grains nitrogen. 



Nitrogen balance for six days 
Nitrogen balance per day 



+7.198 grams. 
+1.199 grams. 



* Tliis balance is somewhat complicated by the fact that on March 4 the 
urine was lost, so that this day had to be thrown out. Correction on the faeces, 
however, was made by deducting one-seventh of the total faecal nitrogen, on the 
assumption that the nitrogen-content was essentially the same for each day of 
the seven-day period. 



16 



242 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION . 

THIRD NITROGEN BALANCE. 

The last of March, a third nitrogen balance was tried on a 
slightly lowered nitrogen intake and with a slight increase in 
the fuel value of the daily food. In this period of five days, 
March 28 to April 1, the nitrogen taken in per day aver- 
aged 8.62 grams, or nearly one gram per day less than in 
the preceding period. The fuel value of the food averaged 
2840 calories per day, or about 300 calories more than in the 
preceding period. 

The daily diet, with its content of nitrogen, etc., is detailed 
for each day under Oakman, Any deviation from this diet in 
the cases of the other men is indicated on the accompanying 
balance-sheets. 

The results obtained in this balance period indicate that 
the lowest level had been practically reached, at least under 
the conditions of body-weight, food, and work prevailing. 
Cohn, Fritz, and Broyles showed a distinct positive balance. 
Steltz and Loewenthal were practically in equilibrium, the 
deviation being within the limits of error. The remaining 
six men showed a minus balance, although in no case was it 
very marked. 

It is interesting to note in this connection that the average 
daily output of nitrogen through the urine for this five days' 
period (Oakman's case) amounted to 7.04 grams, being 0.2 
gram less per day than in the preceding period. This figure 
for nitrogen in the urine means the metabolism daily of 44 
grams of proteid. 

Undoubtedly, the rate of proteid metabolism for these men 
could have been lowered considerably beyond the present 
level by increasing largely the intake of carbohydrates and 
fats, but it has been the intent throughout all of these experi- 
ments to learn the minimal proteid requirement under condi- 
tions precluding the use of any excess of non- nitrogenous 
foods ; also, to study the effect of a general physiological 
economy in nutrition, with a view to ascertaining the real 
necessities of the body for both proteid and non-proteid foods 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 243 

with maintenance of bodily strength and vigor. Hence, we 
may again emphasize the fact that the low proteid metabolism 
maintained by all these men throughout the period of the 
experiment, with establishment of nitrogenous equilibrium on 
a consumption of proteid or albuminous food averaging one- 
half the amount ordinarily specified as the daily requirement 
of the healthy man, has been accomplished with even less total 
food fats and carbohydrates than the ordinary standards 
call for, i. e., considerably less than 3000 calories per day in 
fuel value. 

OAKMAN. 
Monday, March 28, 1904. 



Breakfast. Fried rice 150 grams, syrup 75 grams, baked potato 250 grams, 

butter 20 grams, one cup coffee 850 grams. 
Dinner. Thick pea soup 200 grams, boiled onions 100 grams, boiled sweet 

potato '250 grams, bread 50 grams, mashed potato 200 grams, butter 20 

grams, one cup coffee 350 grams. 
Supper. Sliced banana 150 grams, biscuit 125 grams, fried bacon 20 grams, 

French fried potato 200 grams, butter 25 grams, one cup tea 350 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Fried rice . 


150 


X 


0.40 


= 


600 grami. 


Syrup 


75 


X 


0.051 


= 


0.038 


Baked potato 


...'.... 250 


X 


0.33 


= 


0.825 


Butter . . 


25 + 20 + 20 = 65 


X 


0.15 


= 


0.097 


Coffee (breakfast) 350 


X 


0.10 


= 


0.350 


Pea soup 


200 


X 


0.50 


= 


1.000 


Boiled onion 


100 


X 


0.30 


= 


0.300 


Sweet potato 


250 


X 


0.12 


= 


0.300 


Bread . . . 


50 


X 


1.57 


= 


0.785 


Mashed potato 


200 


X 


0.30 


= 


0.600 


Coffee (dinner) 


350 


X 


0.075 


= 


0.262 


Banana . 


. . 150 


X 


0.27 


= 


0405 


Biscuit . . 


125 


X 


1.21 





1.513 


Bacon . . 


20 


X 


3.85 


= 


0.770 


Fried potato 


200 


X 


0.46 


= 


0.920 


Tea ... 


350 


X 


0.075 


= 


0.262 




Total nitrogen in food . 








9.027 grams. 




Total nitrogen in urine 








6.640 



Fuel value of the food .... 2936 calories. 



244 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



OAKMAN. 



Tuesday, March 29, 1904. 



Breakfast. Boiled hominy 175 grams, milk 75 grams, sugar 25 grams, baked 

potato 250 grams, butter 20 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with much bread, fat, and onions 125 grams, boiled 

potato 300 grams, butter 10 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams, bread 35 

grams, boiled carrots 125 grams. 
Supper. Tapioca-peach pudding 300 grams, bread 35 grams, Saratoga chips 

75 grams, butter 20 grams, jam 75 grams, one cup tea 350 grams. 



Food. 



Grains. 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 



Boiled hominy ...... 175 X 

Milk .......... 75 X 

Sugar ......... 25 X 

Baked potato ....... 250 X 

Butter . . 20 + 10 + 20 = 50 X 

Coffee (breakfast) ..... 350 X 

Hamburg steak, etc ..... 125 X 

Boiled potato ....... 300 X 

Coffee (dinner) ...... 350 X 

Carrots ......... 125 X 

Tapioca-peach pudding ... 300 X 

Bread ..... 35 + 35 = 70 X 

Saratoga chips ...... 75 X 

Jam .......... 75 X 

Tea .......... 350 X 

Total nitrogen in food . . 
Total nitrogen in urine . . 



0.23 

0.55 

000 

0.36 

0.15 

0.057 

2.50 

0.26 

0.061 

JO. 13 

0.28 

1.51 

0.79 

0.039 

0.06 



0.403 grams. 

0.413 

0.000 

0.900 

0.075 

0.200 

3.130 

0.780 

0.179 

0.163 

0.840 

1.057 

0.593 

0.029 

0.210 

8.972 grams. 

8.340 



Fuel value of the food . . 2840 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 245 



OAKMAN. 



Wednesday, March 30, 1904. 



Breakfast. Fried hominy 150 grams, syrup 75 grams, butter 10 grams, sliced 
banana 250 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams. 

Dinner. Codfish-balls ( 1 part fish, 5 parts potatoes, fried in pork fat) 125 
grams, mashed potato 250 grams, stewed tomato 200 grams, bread 35 
grams, apple sauce 200 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams. 

Supper. Chopped fresh cabbage with salt, pepper, and vinegar 75 grams, 
bread 50 grams, butter 20 grams, fried sweet potato 250 grams, cranberry 
sauce 200 grams, sponge cake 50 grams, one cup tea 350 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 
150 


Pe 

x 


r cent Nitrogen. 

035 - 


Total Nitrogen. 
525 grams. 




75 


x 


0.051 


0.038 


Butter . ... 10 + 20 = 
Banana 
Coffee (breakfast) 
Codfish-balls, etc 
Mashed potato 
Tomato 
Bread 35 + 50 = 


30 
250 
350 
125 
250 
200 
85 
200 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

x 


0.15 = 
0.25 = 
0.066 = 
3.25 = 
0.26 = 
0.18 = 
1.50 = 
0.053 - 


0.045 
0.625 
0.231 
4.0fi3 
0.650 
0-360 
1.280 
0.106 


Coffee (dinner) 
Cabbage 


350 
75 
250 


X 
X 

x 


0.051 = 
0.22 = 
0.15 


0.179 
0.165 
0.375 


Cranberry sauce 


200 
50 


X 

V 


0.066 = 

0.87 = 


0.132 
0.435 


Tea 


350 


V 


0.042 = 


0.147 










9 356 grams. 


Total nitrogen 


in urine 






6.300 



Fuel value of the food .... 2657 calories. 



246 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



OAKMAN. 



Thursday, March 31, 1904. 



Breakfast. Fried Indian meal 100 grams, syrup 75 grams, baked potato 250 

grams, one cup coffee 350 grams, butter 20 grams. 
Dinner. Tomato soup, thick, with potatoes and onions boiled together 300 

grams, mashed potato 200 grams, scrambled egg 50 grams, bread 50 

grams, butter 10 grains, one cup coffee 350 grams. 
Supper. Bread pudding 150 grams, sliced banana 200 grams, fried bacon 20 

grams, boiled potato 200 grams, butter 10 grams, one cup tea 350 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 

100 
75 
250 
350 
40 
300 
200 
50 
50 
350 
150 
200 
20 
200 
350 

in food . 
in urine 


Per cent Nitrogen. 

X 0.44 
X 0.051 = 
X 0.32 = 
X 0.066 = 
X 0.15 = 
X 0.48 
X 0.26 = 
X 2.15 
X 1.48 = 
X 0.057 = 
X 0.92 = 
X 0.24 
X 1.95 = 
X 0.25 - 
X 0.036 = 


Total Nitrogen. 

0.440 grams. 
0.038 
0.800 
0.231 
0.060 
1.440 
0.520 
1.075 
0.740 
0.200 
1.380 
0.480 
0.390 
0.500 
0.126 

8.420 grams. 
7.100 


Syrup . . . 


Baked potato 
Coffee (breakfast) 
Butter . . 10 + 20 + 10 = 
Tomato soup 
Mashed potato 
Scrambled egg 
Bread 


Coffee (dinner) 
Bread pudding 


Bacon 
Boiled potato 


Tea 

Total nitrogen 
Total nitroeen 



Fuel value of the food .... 2466 caloriet. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 247 



OAKMAN. 



Friday, April 1, 1904. 



Breakfast. Fried hominy 150 grams, syrup 75 grams, baked potato 200 grams, 

butter 20 grams, one cup coffee 350 grams. 
Dinner. Baked spaghetti 250 grams, mashed potato 250 grams, boiled turnip 

150 grams, bread 35 grams, butter 10 grams, apple sauce 200 grams, one 

cup coffee 350 grams. 
Supper. Apple-tapioca pudding 300 grams, fried sweet potato 200 grams, 

butter 20 grams, jam 100 grams, fried bacon 25 grams, bread 35 grams, 

one cup tea 350 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Fried hominy 


. 150 


X 


0.24 


= 


0.360 grams. 


Syrup 


. 75 


X 


0.051 





0.038 


Baked potato 


. 200 


X 


0.33 


= 


0.660 


Butter . . 20 + 10 + 20 


= 50 


X 


0.15 


= 


0.075 


Coffee (breakfast) .... 


. 350 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.210 


Spaghetti 


. 250 


X 


0.64 


= 


1.600 


Mashed potato 


. 250 


X 


0.28 


= 


0.700 


Boiled turnip 


. 150 


X 


0.61 


= 


0.915 


Bread 35 + 35 


= 70 


X 


1.56 


= 


1.092 


Apple sauce . 


200 


X 


0.053 


= 


0.106 


Coffee (dinner) ..... 


. 350 


X 


0.072 


= 


0.252 


Apple-tapioca pudding . . , 


, . 300 


X 


0.043 


= 


0.129 


Fried sweet potato .... 


. 200 


X 


0.15 


= 


0.300 


Jam 


100 


X 


0.039 


= 


0.039 


Bacon 


. 25 


X 


2.96 


= 


0.740 


Tea 


350 


X 


0.036 





0.126 


Total nitrogen in food 


7.342 grams. 


Total nitrogen in urine 


6.830 



Fuel value of the food .... 3248 calories. 



248 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Oakman. 



Nitrogen Output. 
Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 


Mar. 28 


9.027 grams 


6.64 grams 


t 


29 


8.972 


8.34 


39 grams. 


30 


9.356 


6.30 


38 


31 


8.420 


7.10 


31 


Apr. 1 


7.342 


6.83 


29 








137 grams contain 








6.84% N. 




43.117 


35.21 + 


9.37 grams nitrogen. 



43.117 grams nitrogen. 44.580 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for five days =: 1.463 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = 0.292 gram. 

Average Intake. 

Calories per day 2840. 

Nitrogen per day 8.62 grams. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 249 

NITROGEN BALANCE. Broyles. 

Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry;. 

Mar. 28 9.027 grams. 6.79 grams. 27.0 grams. 

29 8.972 7.06 45.5 

30 9.366 7.27 41.0 

31 8.640 6.21 25.0 
Apr. 1 7.342 5.86 20.0 

158.5 grains contain 

5.92% N. 

43.337 33.19 + 9.383 grams nitrogen 

43.337 grams nitrogen. 42.573 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for five days = +0.764 gram. 
Nitrogen balance per day = +0.153 gram. ^ 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Fritz. 

Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 

Mar. 29 7.229 grams. 5.09 grams. 

30 9.235 7.10 25 grams. 

31 8.640 5.18 43 
Apr. 1 7.439 5.74 JM 

102 grams contain 

6.42% N. 

32.543 23.11 + 6.548 grams nitrogen. 

32.543 grams nitrogen. 29.658 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for four days = +2.885 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = +0.721 gram. 



250 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Loewenthal. 

Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 



Mar. 28 9.027 grams. 6.27 grams. 13.5 grams. 




29 8.760 7.54 


52.0 




30 9.341 7.07 


41.0 




31 8.112 5.24 


21.0 




Apr. 1 7.342 6.43 


17.0 






144.5 grams contain 






7.00% N. 




42.582 32.55 


4- 10.115 grams nitrogen 




42.582 grams nitrogen. 


42.665 grams nitrogen. 




Nitrogen balance for five days 


= 0.083 gram. 





Nitrogen balance per day 


= 0.016 gram. 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Cohn. 

Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 



Mar. 28 


8.825 grams. 


6.61 grams. 




29 


8.151 


6.48 


27 grams. 


30 


9.211 


6.36 


25 


31 


8.030 


7.47 


23 


Apr. 1 


7.246 


4.35 


39 








114 grams contain 








6.84% N. 




41.463 


31.27 + 


7.797 grams nitrogen. 



41.463 grams nitrogen. 39.067 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for five days = +2.396 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = + 0.479 gram. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 251 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Coffman. 



Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 



Mar. 28 


9.027 grams. 


8.38 grams. 




29 


8.972 


8.06 


42 grams. 


30 


9.356 


6.88 


24 


31 


8.640 


7.78 


29 


Apr. 1 


7.342 


7.22 


32 








127 grams contain 








6.54% N. 




43.337 


38.32 + 


8.306 grams nitrogen. 



43.337 grams nitrogen. 46 626 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for five days = -3.289 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = 0.657 gram. 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Sliney. 

Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 

Mar. 28 8.527 grams. 7.09 grams. 28.0 grams. 

29 8.630 7.37 31.5 

30 9.356 8.10 33.0 

31 8.420 7.47 26.0 
Apr. 1 7.342 6.78 50.0 

168.5 grams contain 

6.42% N. 

42.275 36.81 + 10.82 grams nitrogen. 

42.275 grams nitrogen. 47.63 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for five days = -5.355 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = 1.071 grams. 



252 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

NITROGEN BALANCE. Steltz. 



Nitrogen Output. 
Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 


Mar. 28 


8.026 grams. 


3.60 grams. 


32.0 grams. 


29 


8.252 


6.79 


29.0 


30 


9.255 


7.20 


44.0 


31 


8.720 


7.11 


22.0 


Apr. 1 


7.357 


7.82 


30.5 






157.5 grams contain 








5.97% N. 




41.610 


32.52 + 


9.403 grains nitrogen 



41.610 grams nitrogen. 41.923 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for five days = 0.313 gram. 
Nitrogen balance per day = 0.062 gram. 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Zooman. 

Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 



Mar. 28 


9.027 grams. 


7.47 grams. 


33.0 grams. 


29 


8.379 


7.80 


45.0 


30 


9.356 


5.40 


30.0 


31 


8.420 


8.04 


28.0 


Apr. 1 


7.269 


8.44 


11.5 








147.5 grams contain 








6.39% N. 




42.451 


37.15 + 


9.425 grams nitrogen 



42.451 grams nitrogen. 46.575 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for five days = 4.124 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = -0.824 gram. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 253 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Henderson. 



Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faces (dry). 



Mar. 28 


9.027 grams. 


8.40 grams 




29 


8.972 


9.04 




30 


9.366 


5.95 


83 grams. 


31 


8.640 


6.42 


36 


Apr. 1 


7.342 


6.60 


58 








177 grams contain 








6.48% N. 




43.337 


35.41 + 


11.469 grams nitrogen. 



43.337 grams nitrogen. 46.879 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for five days = 3.542 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = 0.708 gram. 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Morris. 



Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 



Mar. 28 


8.877 grams. 


6.68 grams. 


12 grams. 


29 


8.774 


5.69 


48 


30 


8.941 


6.06 


34 


31 


8.420 


6.96 


34 


Apr. 1 


7.286 


7.10 


JJ3 








161 grams contain 








7.08% N. 




42.298 


32.49 + 


11.399 grams nitrogen. 



42.298 grams nitrogen. 43.889 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for five days = -1.591 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = -0.317 gram. 



254 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

SUMMARY REGARDING NITROGEN REQUIREMENT. 

These results obtained with this body of United States 
soldiers, living on a prescribed diet and exposed to the stress 
and strain of military discipline with its attendant duties, to- 
gether with the gymnastic work and training required each 
day, confirm in every detail the conclusions arrived at with 
the preceding group of professional workers. Once accus- 
tomed to a more sparing proteid diet, less rich in nitrogen, 
each one of these subjects had no difficulty in maintaining 
body-weight on the simpler and lighter food provided. No 
great difficulty was experienced in establishing a condition of 
nitrogenous equilibrium with this lowered intake of proteid 
food, neither was it necessary to increase the amounts of non- 
nitrogenous foods (fats and carbohydrates) to accomplish 
this end. The bodies of these men were quite able to adjust 
themselves to a lowered proteid metabolism, and physiolog- 
ically speaking, one might well conjecture whether we have 
not in this condition a nearer approach to the normal and 
ideal state of the body than when the latter is struggling 
daily with 118 grams of proteid food, reinforced by fats and 
carbohydrates correspondingly increased in amount. How- 
ever this may be, the members of the soldier detail were able 
to live for five consecutive months with a proteid metabolism 
corresponding to 7 to 8 grams of nitrogen per day, with main- 
tenance of body-weight and without discomfort or loss of 
bodily vigor. 

It was easy in most instances to prove the establishment of 
nitrogen equilibrium with a daily intake of 8.5 to 9.5 grams of 
nitrogen, and with a total fuel value of the daily food equal 
to 2500 to 2800 calories. In other words, a metabolism of less 
than 50 grams of proteid per day was quite sufficient for the 
needs of the body, and a fuel value of 2500 to 2600 calories 
was ample to meet the requirements of the men under the 
then existing conditions of bodily and mental activity. Are 
we not justified, therefore, in again asking the question, why 
should we hold and teach the doctrine that the healthy adult 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 255 

needs to metabolize 105 grams of proteid food daily ? , As Voit 
has well said, the smallest amount of food that will serve to 
maintain physiological equilibrium and keep up health and 
strength is the ideal diet. The eleven subjects of this Hospital 
detachment, who remained throughout the experiment, were 
apparently able to maintain physiological equilibrium and pre- 
serve their health and strength under the conditions of diet as 
described, thereby demonstrating the possibilities of a physi- 
ological economy corresponding to a saving of full fifty per 
cent or more in proteid food ; a saving of possibly great physi- 
ological import, to say nothing of the possible economic and 
sociological importance of the saving. Further, we may add 
that the minimal proteid requirement as evidenced by the re- 
sults of these experiments is more than fifty per cent lower 
than the figures quoted by most physiologists as necessary for 
the maintenance of life and strength; and we are certainly 
justified in the additional statement that if the figures ob- 
tained in these experiments truly represent the minimal pro- 
teid requirement of the men under observation, then this 
minimal requirement is quite sufficient to meet the physi- 
ological needs of the body for an indefinite period. 

PHYSICAL CONDITION OF THE MEN. 

Recalling the fact that this condition of lowered proteid 
metabolism was maintained for a period of five months, we 
may next consider the effect of this changed nutritive con- 
dition upon the health and strength of the men. The question 
of body-weight we have already considered. More pertinent 
is the question, to how great an extent was the strength and 
bodily vigor of the men modified by the diminished amount 
of proteid food ? The answer to this question is found in the 
subjoined report from Dr. William G. Anderson, Director of 
the Yale University Gymnasium. 



256 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

YALE UNIVERSITY GYMNASIUM, 
NEW HAVEN, CONN., April 6, 1904. 

To Professor RUSSELL H. CHITTENDEN, 
Director of the Sheffield Scientific 
School, Yale University, 
NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

DEAR SIR, I hand you herewith a report of the physical 
training of the squad of soldiers sent by you to the Yale 
Gymnasium. 

These men have taken one hour's exercise daily for six months, 
Sundays excepted, October 1, 1903, to April 1, 1904. 

Before beginning the bodily development of the men we 
measured each one and took what are known as the American 
Collegiate Strength Tests. The^e measurements and tests have 
been taken twice each month. For details as to measurements 
and methods of testing the strength of the body, see the " Notes" 
attached to this report. 

The members of the squad were called to the floor each morning 
as soon after nine-thirty as they could don the required suit. For 
twenty minutes they were put through a series of setting up exer- 
cises and body-building movements ; then followed exercises on the 
apparatus, such as bars, rings, ladders, etc. This was followed by 
a jump or game. 

The exercises were progressive as to duration, force, extent, and 
number of movements. At the end of the six months the men were 
being put through gymnastics that were exacting and fatiguing. 
As the progression was carefully made, the men did not suffer 
from soreness to any marked degree. By way of comparison it 
may be said, the gymnastic training given the soldiers was much 
more severe than is given to the Freshmen of Yale in their required 
physical training. Perhaps the Varsity Crew are "put through" 
as rigid gymnastic training as any of the athletes in college, so we 
copied the exercises taken by oarsmen in order to " try out" the 
soldiers. This work was easily taken by all the " Dieters," no 
complaint, so far as I know, having been entered. 

The improvement in accuracy and grace of movement has been 
noticeable, while there has been a gain in skill as well. 

I do not consider these men, as a body, well put up. They did 
not rank favorably with applicants for policeman or fireman and 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 257 

were noticeably timid in exercises that called for courage. In 
the vault over a fence there was a very marked fear. This was 
the poorest and least satisfactory test of all we made. At the end 
of the six months the hesitancy to vault had entirely disappeared, 
the event being looked upon by the men as a " cinch." 

The gain in self-reliance and courage has been as evident as the 
increase in the figures of the strength test. I consider this a valu- 
able acquisition as it stands for a good body condition. Among 
athletes, especially gymnasts, a weakened or tired body is made 
known by fear or uncertainty. Our students, as well as professional 
athletes, admit this. 

I attribute the timidity of the soldiers in these seemingly simple 
tests to their general physical condition at the outset, and the in- 
crease in self-reliance to the better condition of their bodies at the 
end of the six months' training. The story told by the measure- 
ments is both interesting and significant, but of less importance 
than the ability to improve under training, which ability cannot 
be measured with a tape or weighed with scales. 

In the majority of cases there was a loss in body-weight, but this 
we look for, as the larger number of soldiers were fairly well sup- 
plied with adipose tissue. Both Sliney and Oakman are exceptions, 
these men being " fine " at the outset. I mean thin and muscular 
with little fat. The latter, Oakman, is an old man judged from 
the physical activity standpoint, and lost noticeably during the 
tests and exercise. I refer to weight and girth measurements only. 
He made a very large gain in his strength tests and was among 
the leading men in all that called for courage and self-control. 
Sliney, nervous, irritable, and aggressive, balanced his losses with 
his gains in the tape and scale events, but made great improvement 
in the use of the dynamometers. Fritz and Cohn were quite fat 
and showed the expected loss in weight, but not in other respects. 

For comparison I have quoted from Dr. J. W. Seaver's anthro- 
pometric charts and have selected the " Average Student Measure- 
ments" (2390 men) as well as the mean measurements of 500 
athletes and gymnasts. A glance at either set of figures will give 
an idea of how the soldiers compare with men living on a regular 
diet and surrounded with the very best environment. 

The strength tests stand for mental states more than the tape 
line and calipers, and are suggestive of improvement in body con- 
17 



258 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

ditions for the reasons mentioned above. These records are far 
above those made by Academic Freshmen in Yale, but it must be 
added that the soldiers have taken more exercise than the 
collegians. 

The hearts and lungs of the men are in excellent condition, 
while the soldiers as a body are in better shape physically, are 
stronger and healthier than in October. The skin of the men is 
clear and ruddy. 

The figures for comparison in the Strength Test Table are from 
the records sent me by Dr. Geo. Meylan, the Director of the 
Columbia University Gymnasium. I understand that others than 
college men are represented in his data. In the figures given in 
my own tables I have omitted the small fractions in the main 
body of the tables, but have recorded them in the totals. 

The greater portion of the training of the soldiers has been 
under the personal supervision of Wm. H. Callahan, M. D., the 
Medical Assistant at the Gymnasium, to whom I am indebted for 
help and suggestions. Mr. Wm. Chase, Mr. Anton Muller, Mr. John 
Stapleton, and Mr. H. R. Gladwin, Assistant Instructors in the 
Gymnasium, have led the drills and have looked after the actual 
muscular training of the men. I gladly acknowledge the co-opera- 
tion of these gentlemen in the physical development of the squad. 

A brief summary of my conclusions : 

The men were not above the average standard, physically, when 
they began their work, this standard being set by applicants for 
firemen and policemen, not by college students. At the end of 
their training they were much above the same standard, while 
their strength tests were far greater than the averages made 
by college men. They showed less improvement in increase in 
size than University men do under like gymnastic treatment, but 
the gain in self-confidence and in body-fibre was very evident. 
The gain in accuracy and skill was marked. The men showed 
interest in their work throughout the six months. At the end of 
the period of training the soldiers were in excellent condition in 
spite of the fact that in some cases there was a slight loss of body- 
weight. This loss is not to be attributed necessarily to the diet, 
because most men who exercise lose slightly if there is an excess 
of adipose tissue. 

Respectfully yours, 

(Signed^ W. G. ANDERSON. 




LOEWENTHAL MORRIS 

Photographs taken at the close of the experiment. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 259 

Dr. Anderson furnishes the following " Notes " descriptive 
of the methods by which the strength tests were made : 

" Strength of Back. The subject, standing upon the iron 
foot-rest with the dynamometer so arranged that when grasp- 
ing the handles with both hands his body will be inclined for- 
ward at an angle of 60 degrees, should take a full breath and, 
without bending the knees, give one hard lift, mostly with 
the back. 

" Strength of Legs. The subject while standing on the foot- 
rest with body and head erect, and chest thrown forward, 
should sink down, by bending the knees, until the handle 
grasped rests against the thighs, then taking a full breath, he 
should lift hard principally with the legs, using the hands to 
hold the handle in place. 

" Strength of Chest. The subject with his elbows extended 
at the sides until the forearms are on the same horizontal 
plane and holding the dynamometer so that the dial will face 
outward and the indicator point upward, should take a full 
breath and push vigorously against the handles, allowing the 
back of the instrument to press on the chest. 

" Strength of Upper Arms, Triceps. The subject, while hold- 
ing the position of rest upon the parallel bars, supporting his 
weight with arms straight, should let the body down until 
the chin is level with the bars, and then push it up again 
until the arms are fully extended. Note the number of times 
that he can lift himself in this manner. 

"Strength of Upper Arms, Biceps. The subject should 
grasp a horizontal bar or pair of rings and hang with the 
feet clear from the floor while the arms are extended. Note 
the number of times that he can haul his body up until his 
chin touches the bar or ring. 

"Strength of Forearms. The subject, while holding the dyna- 
mometer so that the dial is turned inward, should squeeze the 
spring as hard as possible, first with the right hand then with 
the left. The strength of the muscles between the shoulders 
may be tested with the same instrument. The subject, while 
holding the dynamometer on a level with the chest, should 



260 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

grasp it with handles and pull both arms from the centre 
outward. 

" The total strength is ascertained by multiplying the weight 
by the number of times it has been raised (push up and pull 
up), to this product we add the strength of hands, legs, back, 
and chest. The result is the total strength of the man. In 
some cases the product obtained by multiplying the weight 
by push up and pull up is divided by ten to reduce the size 
of the figures. We have not done so here. 

" The run, vault, and ladder tests are not figured in. The 
lung capacity is also omitted from the final figures." 

The following tables furnished -by Dr. Anderson and Dr. 
Callahan give (1) the measurements of the eleven men who 
completed the experiment, taken on October 12, 1903, and 
April 2, 1904. For comparison are also given measurements 
of Yale College students, athletes, etc. (2) Strength or dyna- 
mometer tests, i. e., the first test taken in October and the final 
test taken in April, 1904, together with Columbia University 
strength tests for comparison. (3) A series of eleven tables 
giving for each man the individual strength tests, two or 
three each month, taken during the stay of the detachment 
in New Haven. Study of these individual results is quite 
interesting, since it shows very strikingly the gradual gain in 
strength of the men, and at the same time illustrates how 
temporary conditions, bodily or mental, may influence a 
record of this character, more noticeable in some individuals 
than in others. Mental stimulus, as is well known, counts 
for much in the manifestation of muscular power, but the 
neuro-muscular mechanism depends for its highest efficiency 
upon the nutritive condition of the tissues as much as does 
the muscle tissue alone. In the obtaining of a strength test, 
it is usually found that the best results are recorded when 
there is competition among the men ; i. e., under the in- 
fluence of an outside stimulus. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 261 



MEASUREMENTS. 
(OCTOBER 12 APRIL 2.) 





* 

1 



11 
or. 


1 


! 


ll 
w 


Chest 1 
Deflated. 


II 
a 


ii 


s| 


SI 


sl 


!i 


Henderson < 


157 
153 


362 
369 


755 
731 


953 
942 


1035 
1025 


890 

886 


316 
311 


510 
503 


291 

287 


362 
357 


500 
495 


351 
347 


Oakman 


145 
137 


344 

336 


738 
727 


888 
869 


947 

938 


793 
795 


305 
297 


508 
602 


289 

282 


335 
331 


512 
507 


3:50 
331 


Morris { 


129 
131 


340 
351 


713 
719 


850 

862 


932 
938 


831 

834 


280 
285 


519 
525 


283 
280 


327 
333 


502 
509 


325 
332 


Zooman 


120 
122 


350 
360 


713 
712 


868 
859 


020 

914 


804 
803 


290 
307 


479 

486 


286 
293 


312 
315 


478 
484 


313 
314 


Coffman 


129 
127 


352 
349 


738 
716 


860 
857 


923 
931 


815 
818 


309 
314 


518 

527 


311 

316 


364 

359 


520 
529 


350 
354 


Steltz 


116 
115 


330 
330 


713 

717 


815 
821 


850 

857 


779 
771 


291 

287 


487 
492 


283 
281 


319 

324 


483 

478 


318 

322 


Loewenthal | 


133 
130 


338 
341 


680 
684 


835 

840 


881 
890 


822 
819 


315 
306 


510 
504 


311 
302 


338 
342 


512 
505 


333 

337 


Sliney j 


135 
133 


359 
361 


718 
702 


824 
834 


930 
926 


823 
813 


314 

306 


476 

475 


302 
298 


331 
333 


473 
475 


330 

332 


Fritz 


167 
161 


390 
361 


860 
795 


880 
892 


930 
997 


860 
855 


360 
358 


560 
655 


343 
340 


377 
372 


562 
559 


375 
373 


Cohn j 


142 
138 


3t53 
354 


810 
771 


871 
878 


912 
914 


832 
818 


326 
324 


636 
529 


310 
308 


374 
371 


528 
520 


375 
371 


Broyles 


130 
133 


356 
370 


710 
720 


861 
864 


941 
966 


805 

798 


281 
283 


500 
506 


282 
284 


341 
344 


498 
501 


334 
338 


Yale College t 


139 


350 


730 


861 


910 




295 


515 




360 


609 


350 


Yale College J 


147 


357 


747 


886 


940 




308 


534 


... 


358 


627 


361 



* Given here in pounds. 

t Yale College students, 50% class of the mass of students (2,390 men). 
J Yale College students, 60% or mean of 500 athletes and gymnasts, picked 
men. 



262 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



STRENGTH OR DYNAMOMETER TESTS. 
FIRST TRIALS OCTOBER, 1903; FINAL TEST APRIL, 1904. 








rf 


1 


1 








& 


H 


|l 




J 








jy 


51 


l> 


e 
* 


1 


i 


i 


|f 


f-8 


a'g 


1- 




1 






^ 


w 


5 







M 


3 


(X<M 


H 


O K 


> 


3 


H 




( 


157 


465 


103 


105 


130 


340 


560 


8 


3 


1.25 


Dt 


B1 


2970 


Oct. 


Henderson < 


153 


655 


135 


105 


135 


600 


865 


9 


9 


1.08 


E 


E 


4598 


Apr. 


Oakman 


145 
137 


365 
410 


110 
130 


115 
100 


95 
120 


305 
560 


500 
720 


12 
15 


4 
10 


1.24 
1.21 


D 

E 


D 
E 


3445 
5055 




( 


129 


320 


90 


75 


75 


270 


350 


9 


4 


1.30 


D 


D 


2543 




Morns < 


131 


360 


100 


85 


105 


450 


710 


14 


12 


1.09 


E 


E 


4869 




( 


120 


400 


110 


90 


130 


350 


350 


8 


9 


1.40 


F 


E 


3070 




Zooman < 


122 


420 


115 


95 


100 


440 


910 


13 


18 


1.13 


-E 


E 


5457 




Coffman 


129 
127 


290 
400 


105 
105 


103 
85 


100 
110 


320 
440 


530 
830 


7 
20 


6 
17 


1.20 
1.13 


F 
E 


F 
E 


2835 
6269 




i 


116 


300 


80 


85 


105 


300 


400 


10 


6 


1.30 


E 


E 


2838 




i 


115 


380 


100 


90 


135 


410 


490 


19 


10 


1.06 


E 


E 


4581 




Loe wen thai j 


133 
130 


365 
425 


100 
130 


95 

115 


85 
115 


260 
570 


460 
700 


6 
16 


5 
12 


1.20 
108 


E 
E 


E 
E 


2463 
5277 




Sliney 


135 
133 


380 
420 


125 
145 


130 
135 


100 
115 


400 
508 


600 
800 


8 
15 


6 
12 


1.15 
1.08 


E 

E 


E 
E 


3245 
5307 




.;<, 1 


167 


480 


121 


85 


120 


310 


615 


4 


3 


2.40 


D 


D 


2504 




r ntz -< 


161 


495 


140 


110 


115 


720 


1030 


11 


8 


1.17 


E 


E 


5178 




, 


142 


320 


50 


75 


80 


245 


340 


3 


6 


2.30 


D 


D 


2210 




Colin i 

< 


138 


400 


90 


90 


97 


370 


580 


9 


11 


1.14 


E 


E 


4002 




Broyles 


130 
134 


485 
515 


105 
105 


95 
110 


90 
135 


340 
560 


560 
875 


6 
15 


4 
13 


1.45 
1.15 


D 

E 


F 
E 


2560 
5530 




Columbia ( 
University* J 


138 


410 


103 


100 




332 


417 


9 


8 













* Columbia University strength test records for comparison. The 50% or 
mean test. From Dr. Meylan. 

t D = difficult ; E = easy ; F = failure. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 263 



INDIVIDUAL STRENGTH TESTS. 



MORRIS. 











1 












| 


s 








1 


{ 


& 

I 


w 
1, 


s 





J_ 


1 


11 


| 


One-foul 
Mile Rt 


i 


1 


Oct. 1, '03 


129 





4 


90 


75 


75 


270 


350 


D 


320 


130 


1683 


2543 


Oct. 12, '03 


130 


7 


2 


95 


75 


75 


250 


430 


D 


310 


1.40 


1170 


2095 


Oct. 26, '03 


132 


8 


5 


85 


70 


80 


250 


400 


I) 


320 




1120 


2667 


Nov. 9, '03 


133 


12 


7 


108 


84 


85 


340 


457 


F 


380 


1.45 


2536 


3620 


Nov. 23, '03 


132 


12 


3 


95 


70 


90 


315 


450 


F 


325 


1.18 


2046 


3066 


Dec. 1, '03 


134 


10 


6 


95 


85 


75 


350 


455 


F 


350 


1.14 


2152 


3212 


Dec. 15, '03 


130 


7 


4 


100 


100 


85 


400 


490 


F 


340 


1.12 


1430 


2605 


Dec. 29, '03 


129 


10 


6 


100 


85 


90 


260 


475 


E 


330 


1.11 


2075 


3085 


Jan. 12, '04 


131 


10 


6 


95 


69 


90 


260 


445 


E 


345 


1.15 


2108 


3067 


Jan. 24, '04 


132 


10 


5 


80 


80 


85 


340 


510 


E 


350 


1.18 


1980 


3075 


Feb. 9, '04 


130 


7 


6 


80 


70 


85 


280 




E 


345 


1.14 


1699 


2214 


Feb. 23, '04 


134 


6 





100 


100 


90 


310 


450 


E 


360 


1.09 


1479 


2529 


Mar. 8, '04 


131 


10 


10 


90 


85 


95 


375 


550 


E 


320 


1.14 


2620 


3815 


Mar. 22, '04 


132 


10 


9 


98 


82 


100 


370 


500 


E 


360 


1.15 


2508 


3658 


April 2, '04 


131 


14 


12 


100 


85 


105 


450 


710 


E 


360 


1.09 


3419 


4869 



264 PHYSJOLO.GICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



COFFMAN. 





i 


| 


c. 
p 

! 


1 


Left Hand. 


o 


i 


! 


11 


Lung Capacity. 1 


One-fourth 
Mile Run. 


Product. 


1 


Oct. 1, '03 


129 


7 


6 


105 


103 


100 


320 


530 


D 


290 


1.20 


1677 


2835 


Oct. 12, '03 


129 


9 


8 


110 


85 


120 


350 


500 


F 


310 


1.09 


2193 


3358 


Oct. 26, '03 


129 


9 


12 


100 


100 


110 


350 


610 


F 


345 


1.11 


2719 


4119 


Nov. 9, '03 


131 


13 


12 


105 


100 


125 


370 


725 


E 


350 


1.12 


3287 


4727 


Nov. 23, '03 


130 


12 


11 


95 


85 


120 


320 


620 


E 


360 


1.12 


2990 


4230 


Dec. 1, '03 


133 


18 


13 


107 


83 


111 


330 


530 


E 


380 


1.12 


3471 


4632 


Dec. 15, '03 


129 


15 


12 


100 


98 


120 


390 


649 


E 


375 


1.12 


3483 


4840 


Dec. 29, '03 


126 


12 


12 


100 


85 


100 


250 


580 


E 


365 


1.07 


3042 


4157 


Jan. 12, '04 


127 


12 


12 


100 


86 


107 


350 


575 


E 


360 


1.12 


3060 


4278 


Jan. 26, '04 


127 


15 


11 


105 


97 


100 


465 


680 


E 


400 


1.13 


3312 


4759 


Feb. 9, '04 


126 


15 


14 


95 


85 


100 


410 


725 


E 


390 


1.11 


3675 


5090 


Feb. 23/04 


126 


17 


14 


100 


95 


90 


460 


555 


E 


380 


1.09 


3921 


5221 


Mar. 8, '04 


126 


18 


it; 


90 


95 


100 


425 


675 


E 


390 


1.14 


4284 


5669 


Mar. 22/04 


129 


19 


16 


116 


93 


100 


430 


600 


E 


400 


1.10 


4515 


5913 


Apr. 2, '04 


127 


20 


17 


105 


85 


110 


440 


830 


E 


400 


1.13 


4699 


6269 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 265 



OAKMAN. 





i 


g, 

3 
1 


t 

1 


Right Hand. 1 


Left Hand. 


I 


t 


! 


Vault and 
Ladder. 


ft 




One-fourth 
Mile Run. 


tj 

& 


1 


Oct. 1, '03 


145 


12 


4 


110 


115 


95 


305 


600 


D 


365 


1.24 


2320 


3445 


Oct. 12, '03 


146 


9 


6 


112 


111 


120 


360 


507 


D 


375 


1.30 


2044 


3254 


Oct. 26, '03 


148 


10 


6 


120 


115 


120 


480 


680 


F 


400 


1.40 


2368 


3783 


NOT. 9, '03 


150 


18 


9 


123 


121 


125 


390 


620 


F 


406 


1.40 


3150 


4529 


Nov. 23, '03 


147 


18 


5 


125 




125 


410 


620 


F 


360 


1.25 


2409 


3779 


Dec. 1, '03 


147 


12 


9 


135 


105 


112 


340 


590 


F 


405 


1.24 


3092 


4374 


Dec. 15, '03 


141 


10 


6 


125 


120 


115 


390 


670 


E 


400 


1.25 


2264 


3684 


Dec. 29, '03 


139 


13 


9 


105 


100 


110 


350 


640 


B 


380 


1.29 


3058 


4263 


Jan. 12, '04 


143 


9 


6 


106 


104 


112 


345 


645 


E 


370 


1.27 


2152 


3365 


Jan. 26, '04 


142 


12 


6 


120 


102 


105 


350 


610 


E 


410 


1.29 


2556 


3843 


Feb. 9, '04 


138 


18 


8 


110 


105 


100 


425 


700 


E 


435 


1.26 


2913 


4353 


Feb. 23, '04 


143 


12 


7 


120 


110 


100 


380 


800 


B 


430 


1.28 


2716 


4226 


Mar. 8, '04 


137 


12 


8 


105 


110 


120 


400 


700 


B 


440 


1.26 


2756 


4190 


Mar. 22, '04 


143 


12 


6 


115 


90 


105 


400 


676 


B 


440 


1.25 


2439 


3724 


Apr. 2, '04 


137 


15 


10 


130 


"100 


120 


560 


720 


E 


410 


1.21 


3425 


5055 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



ZOOMAN. 





1 


& 

I 


1 

i 


"3* 

s 


Uft Hand, 

('li.-nl 


Jjj ?!" M | 
t ? 1] -1 if 1 


1 




Oct. 1, TO 


120 


8 


9 


110 


90 


130 


350 


350 


D. 


400 


1.40-2040 


3070 


Oct. 12 TO 


121 


9 


12 


100 


1 95 


130 


360 


370 


F 


410 1.28 2551 


3616 


Oct. 26, TO 


124 


11 


17 


115 


! 75 


130 


400 


400 


F 


440 


1.11 3472 


4592 


NOT. 9, TO 


126 


9 


18 


115 


107 


125 


365 


540 





420 


1.14 ' 3415 


4681 


KOT. 23, TO 


120 


13 


20 


110 


100 


117 


350 


470 





400 


1.12 j 3968 


5115 


Dec. 1,TO 
Dec. 15, TO 


123 
120 


12 
12 


18 

17 


120 
100 


105 
90 


103 
110 


445 
360 


520 
490 






380 
410 


1.10 3690 
1.14 3540 


4983 
4690 


Dec. 29, TO 


119 


12 


17 


105 


90 


115 


350 


495 





4iv 


1.14 J3472 


4-:,7 


Jan. 12, W 


122 


11 


1-5 


112 


102 


117 


320 


520 





420 


1.21 3172 


4.v..;. 


Jan. 26,104 


121 


11 


14 


105 


95 


115 


422 


535 





405 


1.13 3043 


4316 


Feb. 9, "04 


122 


10 


17 


95 


85 


115 


460 


545 





420 


1.10 3313 


4613 


Feb. 23, "04 


121 


10 


17 


100 


105 


112 


350 


570 





408 


1.12 3260 


4497 


Mar. 8,104 
Mar. 22, W 


119 
125 


12 
12 


18 
19 


105 
105 


m 

94 


100 
105 


425 
375 


TOO 

BGO 



E 


410 

420 


1.12 3570 
1.13 3875 

jl 


4995 
5204 


Apr. 2. TO 


122 


13 


18 


115 


95 


100 


440 


910 





420 


1.13 3797 


5457 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IX NUTRITION 267 



STELTZ. 











- 












" 




s 


M j 1 L L 1. !l 


g| 


1^ I 




1 


i I t 


1 I 1 ! JJ 


"1 


|| | 1 


Oct. 1, '03 


116 


10 


6 


80 


85 


105 


300 400 D 


a o 


UJO 


1868 


2838 


Oct." 12, TO 


118 1 11 


5 


95 


78 


120 


310 ! 520 


D 


-.-,-, 


1.22 


1888 


2911 


Oct. 26, TO 


118 


1G 


10 


80 


80 


120 


320 ! 450 


F 


360 


1.12 


2962 4012 


NOT. 9/03 120 15 10 91 96 


127 


375 505 F 


345 


1J20 


3000 4194 


Nov. 23, '03 118 17 7 95 110 


115 


310 430 E 


375 


L20 


2844 3904 


Dec. 1, TO 119 10 8 93 85 


78 330 365 E 


4CO 


124 


2148 ; 3099 
















Dec. 15, TO 116 12 4 80 62 


11. 5 


380 335 E 


400 


1.15 


1984 2961 


Dec. 29, TO 


116 


15 


10 


75 


65 


95 


250 300' E 


380 


1.09 


2912 




Jan. 12, "04 


119 


11 


11 


85 


90 


115 


270 415 


E 


380 


1.10 


261b 3593 


Jan. 26/04 


118 13 7 


72 


82 


135 


365 440 E 


380 


1.07 


2370 3464 


Feb. 9, "04 118 17 11 100 1 80 


130 


360 500 E 


405 1.08 3304 


4474 


Feb. 23, "04 117 17 


8 


80 


95 


120 


370 360 E 


120 


08 

" 


2937 


3962 


Mar. 8, '04 116 [ 17 


:- 


90 


100 


95 


375 500 E 


400 


1.06 3016 


4176 






















Mar. 22, -04 


117 


K- 7 ;: 


90 


100 


300 320 


E 


400 


1.0813055 


3955 


Apr. 2, "04 116:19 10 100 90 135 410 490 E 


380 


1.06 3356 4581 









268 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



HENDERSON. 







1 


* 

a 


c. 
p 

1 


to 




Left Hand. 


o 


1 


! 


Vault and 
Ladder. 


4 


One-fourth 1 
Mile Run. 


Product. 


1 


Oct. 1, '03 


157 


8 


8 


103 


105 


130 


340 


560 


F 


465 


1.25 


1727 


2965 


Oct. 12, '03 


159 


6 


5 


115 


116 


135 


300 


500 


F 


485 


1.19 


1749 


2914 


Nov. 9, '03 


162 


g 


9 


105 


105 


140 


420 


700 


E 


525 


1.07 


2925 


4428 


Nov. 23, '03 
Dec. 15 '03 


157 


11 


9 


135 


115 


145 


500 


760 


E 


515 


1.07 


3140 


3145 


Dec. 29, '03 


153 


5 


4 


105 




125 


250 


365 


E 


620 


1.16 


1379 


2109 


Jan. 12, '04 


153 


5 


5 


85 


60 


136 


320 


595 


E 


630 


1.18 


1535 


2730 


Jan. 26, '04 


155 


5 


3 


100 


65 


105 


360 


460 


E 


640 


1.14 


1244 


2332 


Feb. 9, '04 


151 


5 


6 


85 


80 


115 


350 


400 


E 


465 


1.12 


1512 


2542 


Feb. 23, '04 


153 


9 


7 


110 


115 


125 


450 


610 


E 


635 


1.13 


2460 


8870 


Mar. 8, '04 


151 


8 


7 


130 


110 


120 


550 


875 


E 


640 


1.13 


2265 


4050 


Mar. 22, '04 


155 


9 


8 


122 


100 


125 


370 


570 


E 


560 


1.12 


2635 


3922 


Apr. 2, '04 


163 


9 


9 


135 


105 


135 


600 


865 


E 


555 


1.08 


2758 


4598 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 269 



LOEWENTHAL. 





tc 




1 





Right Hand. 1 


Left Hand. 


l 


1 


1 


Vault and 
Ladder. 


rf 

S| 

O 


One-fourth 1 
Mile Run. 1 


| 


1 


Oct. 1, '03 


133 


6 


6 


100 


95 


85 


260 


460 


D 


365 


1.20 


1463 


2463 


Oct. 12, '03 


133 


12 


6 


120 


115 


90 


340 


470 


F 


370 


1.11 


2403 


3538 


Oct. 26, '03 


134 


7 




125 


110 


105 


370 


490 


F 


360 


1.25 


938 


2138 


Nov. 9, '03 


135 





8 


126 


123 


120 


365 


555 


F 


365 


1.20 


1897 


3179 


Nov. 23, '03 


134 


7 


8 


110 


100 


120 


370 


420 


E 


365 


1.14 


2021 


3137 


Dec. 1, '03 


135 


18 


11 


126 


105 


85 


350 


390 


E 


380 




3240 


4195 


Dec. 15, '03 


130 


8 


4 


115 


105 


85 


345 


480 


E 


360 


1.15 


1560 


2690 


Dec. 29, '03 


130 


10 


6 


90 


80 


105 


230 


300 


E 


380 




2080 


2885 


Jan. 12, '04 
Jan. 26, '04 


130 

130 


12 





106 
60 


104 

108 


117 

80 


360 

410 


480 

465 


E 
E 


380 
385 


1.12 
1.15 


2740 


3908 


Feb. 9, '04 


130 


18 


8 


116 


120 


115 


465 


550 


E 


420 


1.09 


2730 


4085 


Feb. 23, '04 


133 


14 


6 


115 


105 


100 


430 


500 


E 


385 


1.08 


2670 


3920 


Mar. 8, '04 


130 


14 


9 


125 


120 


115 


450 


700 


E 


420 


1.14 


3007 


4517 


Mar. 22, '04 


132 


6 


11 


103 


113 


120 


370 


500 


E 


420 


1.10 


2244 


3450 


Apr. 2, '04 


130 


1G 


12 


130 


115 


115 


670 


700 


E 


425 


1.08 


3647 


5277 



270 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



SLINEY. 





i 


A 

s 


1 

1 


Right Hand. 1 


Left Hand. 


, 


1 


! 


Vault and 
Ladder. 


if 




One fourth 
Mile Run. 


*; 


1 


Oct. 12/03 


135 


8 


6 


125 


130 


100 


400 


600 


D 


380 


1.16 


1890 


3245 


Oct. 26, '03 


136 


8 


9 


140 


110 


100 


350 


370 


F 


370 


1.13 


2260 


3450 


Nov. 9, '03 


139 


12 


10 


150 


135 


105 


460 


560 


F 


420 


1.14 


3127 


4537 


Nov. 23, '03 


136 


7 


11 


130 


110 


95 


330 


570 


E 


365 


1.11 


2448 


3683 


Dec. 1,'03 


136 


11 


11 


135 


125 


110 


445 


620 


E 


400 


1.18 


3071 


4506 


Dec. 15, '03 


131 


6 


11 


130 


155 


95 


400 


590 


E 


400 


1.09 


2231 


3591 


Dec. 29, '03 


131 


14 


12 


130 


120 


130 


370 


555 


E 


420 


1.09 


3419 


4724 


Jan. 12, '04 


138 


11 


12 


140 


135 


115 


355 


690 


E 


410 


1.16 


3174 


4609 


Jan. 26, '04 


137 


10 


10 


140 


122 


100 


400 


745 


E 


140 


1.12 


2745 


4252 


Feb. 9, '04 


138 


11 


11 


138 


132 


105 


450 


575 


E 


405 


1.08 


3105 


4405 


Feb 23, '04 


139 


12 


10 


140 


145 


99 


430 


650 


E 


405 


1.08 


3063 


4527 


Mar. 8, '04 


135 


14 


13 


150 


130 


110 


525 


825 


E 


440 


1.08 


3651 


5391 


Mar. 22, '04 


139 


14 


9 


146 


138 


115 


340 


565 


E 


440 


1.07 


3197 


4500 


Apr. 2, '04 


133 


15 


12 


145 


135 


115 


508 


dOO 


E 


420 


1.08 


3604 


5307 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 271 



FRITZ. 





1 




1 


A 
1 


Right Hand. 


Left Hand. 





1 


! 


Vault and Ladder. | 


Lung Capacity. 


One-fourth 
Mile Run. 


Product. 


! 


Oct. 31, '03 


167 


4 


3 


121 


85 


120 


310 


615 


1) 


480 


2.40 


1252 


2504 


Nov. 23, '03 


168 


6 


4 


140 


90 


120 


370 


1050 


F 


480 


1.30 


1685 


3455 


Dec. 1, '03 


172 


10 


6 


130 


95 


124 


345 


565 


F 


480 


1.20 


2752 


4011 


Dec. 15, '03 


165 


7 


4 


135 


85 


120 


350 


720 


F 


485 


1.19 


1820 


3230 


Dec. 29, '03 


164 


8 


9 


110 


85 


90 


250 


415 


E 


500 


1.20 


2788 


3538 


Jan. 12, '04 


165 


6 


11 


118 


72 


115 


425 


560 


E 


525 


1.18 


2809 


4099 


Feb. 9, '04 


165 


11 


5 


142 


117 


125 


600 


880 


E 


510 


1.25 


2640 


4504 


Feb. 23, '04 


165 


12 


5 


130 


95 


120 


580 


960 


E 


520 


1.18 


2813 


4678 


Mar. 8, '04 


162 


11 


7 


125 


80 


110 


550 


875 


E 


500 


1.21 


2916 


4656 


Mar. 22, '04 


165 


10 


2* 


125 


85 


110 


600 


830 


E 


500 


1.16 


1986 


3736 


Apr. 2, '04 


161 


11 


8 


140 


110 


115 


720 


1030 


E 


495 


1.17 


3063 


5178 



* Sore arm. 



272 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



COHN. 





! 


* 

! 


A 

a 


1 


I 
S 


I 


I 


1 


Vault and 
Ladder. 


ft 

o 


One-fourth 1 
Mile Run. 1 


8 


| 


Nov. 13, '03 


142 


8 


6 


50 


76 


80 


245 


340 


D 


320 


2.30 


1420 


2188 


Nov. 23, '03 


144 


7. 


6 


105 


95 


87 


270 


430 


"tf. 


360 


1.38 


1802 


2687 


Dec. 1, '03 


145 


7 


8 


85 


70 


105 


310 


490 


i> 


350 


1.28 


2253 


3313 


Dec. 15, '08 


141 






89 


65 


80 


270 


370 


D 


360 


1.25 






Dec. 29, '03 


142 


6 


T 


80 


60 


87 


230 


380 


J> 


320 


1.33 


1846 


25*13 


Jan. 12, '04 


141 


1 


9 


70 


70 


80 


280 


370 


F. 


350 


1.20 


1410 


2290 


Jan. 26, '04 


140 


6 


6 


112 


78 


100 


300 


370 


F 


365 


1.18 


1542 


2497 


Feb. 9, '04 


142 


6 


10 


90 


,76 


90 


350 


475 


F. 


360 


1.19 


2280 


3360 


Feb. 23, '04 


143 


7 


11 


85 


HO 


100 


260 


450 


F. 


370 


1.16 


2583 


3568 


Mar. 22, '04 


142 


8 


10 


85 


99 


100 


260 


360 


E 


360 


1.16 


2556 


3460 


Apr. 1, '04 


138 


9 


11 


90 


90 


97 


370 


580 


E 


400 


1.14 


2775 


4002 




SLINEY 

Photograph taken at the close of the experiment. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 273 



BROYLES. 







to 

3 
E 


A 




3 
1 


o | Right Hand. | 


Left Hand. 


5 
90 


1 

340 


1 

560 


Vault and 
Ladder. 


f 


One-fourth 
Mile Run. 





, 


Nov. 13, '03 


130 


6 


4 


95 


D 


485 


1.45 


1370 


2560 


Nov. 23, '03 


127 


9 


10 


95 


100 


95 


370 


630 


F 


465 


1.17 


2422 


3007 


Dec. 1,'03 


130 


13 


11 


130 


120 


105 


420 


680 


F 


480 


1.14 


3126 


4581 


Dec. 15, '03 


129 


9 


13 


110 


110 


125 


370 


470 


F 


510 


1.12 


2843 


4023 


Dec. 29, '03 


123 


16 


11 


105 


90 


125 


300 


600 


E 


480 


1.14 


3204 


4424 


Jan. 12, '03 


126 


15 


12 


101 


95 


130 


370 


580 


E 


485 


1.14 


3415 


4691 


Jan. 26, '04 


130 


10 


8 


103 


95 


120 


470 


890 


E 


480 


1.15 


2345 


4022 


Feb. 9, '04 


130 


10 


10 


105 


105 


115 


610 


625 


E 


500 


1.15 


2615 


4075 


Feb. 23, '04 


134 


12 


6 


115 


100 


115 


550 


850 


E 


505 


1.15 


2425 


4155 


Mar. 8, '04 


132 


15 


8 


110 


110 


120 


525 


900 


E 


610 


1.17 


3047 


4812 


Mar. 22, '04 


138 


12 


12 


110 


110 


125 


470 


850 


E 


510 


1.14 


3320 


4989 


Apr. 2, '04 


133 


15 


13 


105 


110 


135 


560 


876 


E 


515 


1.16 


3745 


5530 



The main things in Dr. Anderson's report especially to be 
emphasized are (1) the gain in self-reliance and courage of 
the men under training, indicative as they are of the better 

physical condition of their bodies, and (2) the marked in- 

18 



274 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

crease in their strength as indicated by the steady improve- 
ment in the strength or dynamometer tests. Obviously, the 
daily training to which the men were subjected in the Gym- 
nasium is not to be overlooked as one factor in bringing 
about the gain in accuracy and skill, and indeed this factor 
must count for something in explaining the general gain 
in bodily strength, but increased skill alone will not ac- 
count for the great gain in muscular power. 

The results of these systematic tests make it very evident 
that the men were not being weakened by the lowered intake 
of proteid food. On the contrary, their ability to do muscular 
work was greatly increased ; a fact which cannot well be con- 
nected with anything other than the physiological economy 
which was being practised. There must be enough food to 
make good the daily waste of tissue, enough food to furnish 
the energy of muscular contraction, but any surolus over and 
above what is necessary to supply these needs is not only a 
waste, but may prove an incubus, retarding the smooth work- 
ing of the machinery and detracting from the power of the 
muscular mechanism to do its best work. 

The figures showing the total strength of the men in 
October, 1903, on their ordinary diet, and on the second day 
of April, 1904, when the experiment was neariug completion 
are certainly very impressive. 

TOTAL STRENGTH 

October April 

Henderson 2970 4598 

Oakman 3445 5055 

Morris 2543 4869 

Zooman 3070 5457 

Coffman 2835 6269 

Steltz 2838 4581 

Loeweuthal 2463 5277 

Sliney 3245 5307 

Fritz 2504 5178 

Cohn . .' 2210 4002 

Broyles 2560 5530 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 275 

Here we see gains in strength of 100 per cent in some 
cases, while Coffman shows an improvement so marked as to 
be almost marvellous. While there can be no question that 
a certain amount of this gain is to be attributed to the prac- 
tice incidental to these months of work in the Gymnasium, it 
is equally clear that a large part of the gain is due to the 
improved physical condition of the men's bodies, for which 
the change in diet must be considered as responsible. In any 
event, the change from the ordinary diet to a diet compara- 
tively poor in proteid has not resulted in any physical dete- 
rioration. On the contrary, there is every indication of a 
marked improvement in physical condition. In this connec- 
tion the following note from Dr. DeWitt, commanding the 
detachment, is of interest : 

832 TEMPLE STREET, NEW HAVEN, CONN., 
March 30, 1904. 

Professor RUSSELL H. CHITTENDEN, 
Director Sheffield Scientific School, 

NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

SIR, In compliance with your verbal request I have the honor 
to inform you that at this date the men of this detachment are all 
in good physical condition. 

Very respectfully, 

(Signed) WALLACE DE\VITT, 

1st Lieut, and Asst. Surgeon U. S. Army, 

Commdg. Del. H. C. 

Finally, attention may be called to the photographs of the 
men, taken just prior to the close of the experiment, from 
which may be gained some idea of their physical condition so 
far as it can be judged by external appearance. Certainly, 
there is no indication in these photographs of any lack of 
bodily vigor. On the contrary, there is good muscular 
development, without any undue amount of fat, and indeed 
every indication of a good bodily condition, coupled with that 
appearance of quickness and alertness that belongs to the well- 
developed man, in a state of physiological balance. The 



276 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

photographs scattered through this section of the book, show- 
ing the soldiers at work in the gymnasium, likewise give 
some idea of the lighter forms of exercise they followed each 
day in the training of bodily movements. 

What now is to be said regarding the nervous condition of 
the men ; i. e., their ability to respond to stimulation or, in 
other words, their mental quickness or reaction time? To 
study this question, the soldiers were sent with regularity to 
the Yale Psychological Laboratory, where their reaction time 
was studied with great care. The results of this investiga- 
tion are contained in the following report made by Dr. Charles 
H. Judd, in charge of the Yale Psychological Laboratory. 

REPORT ON REACTION TIME. 

In order to test the quickness of the members of the Hospital 
Corps Detachment, and to determine whether the changes in diet 
affected in any way their ability to respond promptly to sen- 
sory stimulation, each man was carried through a series of reac- 
tion experiments at the Yale Psychological Laboratory. The 
method of the experiments was that regularly employed in simple 
reaction time experiments. The person whose reaction time is to 
be measured is seated in a comfortable position with his finger press- 
ing on an electric key. He is told that he is to lift his finger from 
the key as quickly as possible when he hears a given sound-signal. 
The sounder which produces this signal and the electric key are 
placed in. a circuit with a standard time-measuring apparatus 
the Hipp Chronoscope. This chronoscope is arranged so that it 
begins to record the instant the sound is given and stops the in- 
stant the reactor lifts his finger. The dial of the chronoscope 
shows in thousandths of a second (hereafter designated by the 
technical term sigmas) the time that elapses between the sound to 
which the reactor is to respond and the movement of response. 
The chronoscope was tested at frequent intervals by means of a 
standard pendulum and errors in the record are well under two 
sigmas. 

The time which is measured by this method is occupied chiefly 
by nervous processes. The following factors may be specified: 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 277 

First, the auditory organ is aroused by the sound ; second, the 
afferent nerve transmits the stimulation to the central nervous 
system ; third, the central nervous system carries the energy to 
the motor nerves; fourth, the efferent motor nerves transmit the 
stimulus to the muscles; and finally, some time is required by the 
muscle for its contraction. It will be seen, accordingly, that 
the chief factors of a reaction are nervous processes, and since 
the external conditions of successive reactions are in all respects 
uniform, any variations in the time of a given person's reactions 
may be regarded as indicating variations in the nervous condition 
of the reactor. In view of the instability of nervous conditions, 
it is necessary to eliminate any slight or merely temporary fluctua- 
tions by taking each time a given reactor is tested a series of re- 
actions. For this reason, a series of ten reactions was taken with 
each of the men every two weeks during November, December, and 
January. After an interval of two months, namely, on March 30, 
31, and April 1, two final series were made with each man. 

The results are presented in tables 1 to 5. The dates in the 
first column indicate the day on which each individual set of ten 
reactions was taken. The second column presents the averages 
of each ten reactions in sigmas. The third column gives the mean 
variations of the various single reaction times from the average. 
The fourth column gives the variations of the day's average, re- 
corded in column 2, from the general average of that individual 
for all his experiments. These general averages are presented in 
table 6. At the bottom of each complete column of averages will 
be found the group average. This quantity is obtained by averag- 
ing the results from all the members of the squad for periods of, 
approximately, two weeks. 

The mean variations in the third column make it clear that the 
subjects did not settle down into what could be regarded as trained 
subjects. Trained subjects are expected to give mean variations 
which are consistently within the limits of 10 per cent of the 
average. While there are, of course, instances in which the mean 
variation falls within this limit, there is no consistent exhibition 
of the regularity indicative of thorough practice. This fact is fur- 
ther confirmed by a comparison of the results of March 30, 31, 
and April 1 with those of the earlier months. At the end of 
March, all effects of practice in November, December, and January, 



278 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

except the most general, may be regarded as having disappeared : 
and yet the averages and variations for the March and April dates 
resemble closely those of the month immediately preceding and 
also those of November. The effects of practice may, accordingly, 
be regarded as insignificant. 

This lack of special training accounts for the large variations 
which appear in some cases. As is usual in reaction experiments, 
the signal to which the reactors were to respond was in each case 
preceded by about two seconds by a bell signal to arouse atten- 
tion. Conditions were thus rendered as nearly uniform as pos- 
sible, but the variations indicate in three or four cases exceptional 
lapses of attention. Such exceptional cases can be eliminated 
without prejudicing the final validity of the results by substituting 
the median for the averages. In table 7, the medians are grouped 
together and show even more than the tables of average the ab- 
sence of any general variation during the period of the tests. 

The obvious conclusion from these tests is that the quickness of 
the members of the squad underwent no general change during 
the whole period covered by the test. Individual members showed 
variations from time to time, but these variations are clearly acci- 
dental in character, for they show no regular tendencies and are 
in no way related to the changes in the character and amount of 
the diet. 

(Signed) CHARLES H. JUDD. 
April 12, 1904. 

The following tables give all the data upon which the fore- 
going conclusions are based, being furnished by Dr. Judd and 
Mr. Warren M. Steele, Assistant in Psychology, by whom the 
observations were made. Dr. Cloyd N. McAllister, Instruc- 
tor in Psychology, was also associated in the making of these 
observations. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 279 
TABLE 1. OCTOBER, 1903. 











Var. 








Var. 


Name. 


Date. 


Avg. 


M. V. 


from 


Date. 


Avg. 


M. V. 


from 










G. A. 








G. A. 


I. Coffman . . . 


17 


207.4 


34.1 


8.7 










II. Henderson . . 


17 


179.9 


31.5 


21.2 


. 








III. Loewenthal . . 


17 


216.9 


43.5 


7.8 








. . 


IV Morris 


17 


2277 


198 


37 










V. Oakman . . . 


17 


222.7 


65.4 


4.8 


27 


223.5 


28.8 


6.6 


VI. Sliney .... 


22 


262.4 


33.1 


49.9 


29 


204.5 


46.2 


8.0 


VII. Steltz .... 


17 


167.7 


163 


20.4 


27 


195.0 


21.1 


6.9 


VIII. Zooman . . . 


17 


264.9 


32.1 


50.0 






. 




IX Fritz .... 


















X Broyles 


















XI. Cohn .... 








































2187 

































TABLE 2. NOVEMBER, 1903. 



Name. 


1 


? 

< 


> 
*j 


< 
d 

I 
1 


! 


1 




S 


Var. from G. A. 


1 


s? 

-< 


^ 
S 


<j 
d 

3 

> 


I. Coffman . 


ft 


303.7 


379 


876 


20 


215.9 


ffl!8 


05 










II. Henderson 
III. Loewenthal 


6 

I?, 


248.5 
190.1 


72.9 
237 


47.4 
34 ft 


19 
80 


198.2 
229.7 


22.0 
374 


2.9 
50 




... 




... 


IV. Morris . 










26 


248.6 


450 


17.2 










V. Oakman . 
VI Sliney 


10 

1 


185.9 
200 1 


13.9 
25 3 


32.0 
11 


24 

('i 


212.1 
2092 


21.9 
24 6 


6.8 
33 




... 




... 


VII. Steltz . . 


in 


203 2 


4B7 


151 


1 


1638 


3,4 


?43 










VIII. Zooman 


5 


192.0 


W9! 


?,?q 


10 


1838 


y,3 4 


81 1 










IX. Fritz . . 


2 


240.1 


17.3 


19.5 


17 

17 


204.8 
1847 


18.2 
?30 


15.8 
32 


:30 


223.8 


62.3 


3.2 


XI. Cohn . . 










28 


2791 


507 


703 




































Group average . 












211.8 









































280 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

TABLE 3. DECEMBER, 1903. 



Name. 


| 


bo 

5 


> 
8 


4 

6 

I 


1 


1 


^ 




j 
O 




l 


< 


> 

S 


< 
d 

s 

2 

i 




4 


2301 


225 


140 


18 


184 7 


fll 4 


31 4 




















81 


187 


100 


14 1 










Ill Loewenthal 


11 


2246 


33.0 


01 


"0 


2179 


105 


68 










IV Morris 


9 


237 7 


164 


6? 


28 


2766 


808 


452 












8 


233.5 


19.5 


156 


22 


2205 


175 


Vft 










VI Sliney 


10 


2183 


254 


*>8 


*>4 


197 1 


?41 


154 










VII Steltz . . 


8 


1783 


159 


08 


22 


201.7 


?OH 


136 










VIII. Zooman . . 
IX Fritz . . . 


3 

14 


292.7 
1874 


42.4 
16.1 


77.8 
33? 


17 
?,8 


248.1 
200.7 


71.1 
?'?4 


33.2 
199 


81 


206.9 


35.0 


8.0 


X Broyles 


1 


1803 


138 


76 


1 "i 


1880 


?58 


1 










XI. Cohn .... 


7 


243.3 


111.1 


34.5 


21 


177.0 


16.2 


31.8 










Group averages 




222.6 








209.0 















TABLE 4. JANUARY AND FEBRUARY, 1904. 




















6 








1 


Name. 


I 





> 




| 


to 


^ 







si 


> 


a 




5 


< 


g 





fi 


< 


8 


& 


& 


< 


a 













S 








1 








1 


I. Coffman . . 


1 


188.5 


22.4 


27.6 


15 


246.4 


60.5 


30.3 


29 


198.2 


14.2 


17.9 




















Feb. 








II. Henderson 


7 


206.8 


14.2 


5.7 


21 


180.9 


8.9 


20.2 


4 


172.1 


15.0 


29.0 


III. Loewenthal 


8 


208.0 


13.2 


167 


?> 


201.8 


16.5 


12.9 










IV. Morris . . 


6 


260.4 


39.9 


29.0 


20 


222.3 


36.0 


9.1 


3 


244.0 


15.6 


12.6 


V. Oakman 


6 


235.7 


33.4 


17.8 


19 


215.5 


17.8 


2.4 


2 


197.0 


19.8 


20.9 


VI. Sliney . . 


14 


186.6 


20.0 


25.9 


J8 


167.9 


11.3 


44.6 










VII. Steltz . . 


5 


211.5 


9.1 


23.4 


in 


200.4 


29.2 


12.3 


2 


169.9 


13.9 


18.2 


VIII. Zooman. . 


7 


237.6 


106.2 


22.7 


21 


197.0 


13.0 


17.9 


4 


164.5 


6.9 


50.4 


IX. Fritz . . . 


11 


240.5 


73.9 


19.9 


2~, 


183.9 


15.9 


36.7 


. 


. 






X. Broyles . . 


12 


211.6 


333 


23.7 


26 


203.6 


21.7 


15.7 










XI. Cohn . . . 


4 


187.1 


34.3 


21.7 


18 


195.8 


23.7 


13.0 


1 


195.4 


47.2 


13.4 


Group averages 




215.8 








202.3 




i 


i 



































PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 281 



TABLE 5. MARCH AND APRIL, 1904. 











<! 








aj 










6 








6 


Name. 








| 








| 




J_ 


1 


> 

% 


t 


1 


A 

< 


> 
A 


!J 

> 


I. Coffman . . . 


30 


191.9 


13.7 


24.2 


1 


194.4 


25.9 


21.7 


II. Henderson . . 


31 


195.2 


15.2 


5.9 


1 


241.3 


27.2 


40.2 


III. Loewenthal . . 


31 


231.9 


45.9 


7.2 


1 


291.0 


49.6 


66.3 


IV. Morris .... 


31 


174.4 


11.4 


67.0 


1 


190.7 


18.6 


4Q.7 


V. Oakman . . . 


31 


223.2 


47.2 


5.3 


1 


226.3 


52.0 


8.4 


VI. Sliney .... 


30 


239.3 


47.1 


16.8 


31 


239.6 


11.8 


17.1 


VII. Steltz .... 


30 


193.5 


34.0 


5.4 


1 


193.3 


29.3 


5.2 


VIII. Zooman . . . 


30 


196.6 


11.6 


18.3 


1 


179.8 


15.6 


35.1 


IX. Fritz .... 


31 


244.5 


48.9 


23.9 


1 


259.7 


39.3 


39.1 


X. Broyles . . . 


30 


180.0 


19.4 


0.1 


1 


182.6 


23.6 


5.3 


XL Cohn .... 


31 


210.8 


21.7 


2.0 


1 


181.7 


12.0 


27.1 


Group averages . . . 




207.4 








216.4 







TABLE 6. 





it 


g 
.-< 




|f 


"".< 




? 







"1 


f 


I. Coffman . . . 


216.1 


26.4 


VII. Steltz . . . 


188.1 


14.0 


II. Henderson 


201.1 


20.7 


VIII. Zooman . . 


214.9 


33.4 


III. Loewenthal . . 


224.7 


17.5 


IX. Fritz . . . 


220.6 


23.5 


IV. Morris .... 


231.4 


24.5 


X. Broyles. . . 


187.9 


8.8 


V. Oakman . . . 


217.9 


11.0 


XI. Cohn . . . 


208.8 


26.7 


VI. Sliney .... 


212.5 


19.7 








General group average . 


21 


1.6 





282 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



til 


- 





1 


q 


I 


q 


.0 o q 
o g * 




9,a 


: % 


'- 


5; 


* 


CO 


I *" co ^ 


4 


W. 


P 







s 


q 


q 

i 


<M . O 


& 


wi 


! '. 


-> 


S 


s 





: : s : *- 


-* 


*** 


. 

; | | 


to 

a> 




1 


q 


o 

35 


. O 

. r4 US 




9; a 


t- o 

r-, CO 


a 


00 
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^ 


CO 


si 


o 


q q q 


IO 

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5 


iq 

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o P <=>. 

' s s ; S 


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<wi 


s s 


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cd oa . O 
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9*Bd 


5 2 S 


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: N 8 : ^ 


el 


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poo 

s s i 




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8 


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d i 


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p q o 


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trei P 9 K 


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1 1 1 1 1 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 283 

CHARACTER OF THE BLOOD. 

One question that naturally arises in considering the possi- 
ble effects of a diminished proteid intake upon bodily health is 
whether a continued diminution of proteid food will have 
any influence upon the character and composition of the blood. 
It might be claimed, for example, that a lowering of the quan- 
tity of proteid food below the ordinarily accepted standards 
will eventually result in a deterioration in the character of 
the blood. Obviously, if such should prove to be the case, it 
would at once emphasize the necessity for higher standards of 
proteid feeding. Further, there might result marked changes 
in the haemoglobin-content of the blood in connection with 
a lowered proteid metabolism long continued. With these 
thoughts in mind, a careful study of the blood of the soldiers has 
been made from time to time, with special reference to deter- 
mining the number of erythrocytes and leucocytes in the fluid, 
attention also being paid to the percentage of haemoglobin. 

Four distinct observations were made, as a rule, upon each 
man, namely, in the months of October, December, January, 
and March. The results are tabulated in the accompanying 
tables. Examination of these results shows that, as a rule, the 
number of erythrocytes, or red blood corpuscles, was some- 
what increased during this period of lowered proteid feeding. 
We are not disposed, however, to lay very much stress upon 
this apparent increase, because it is not sufficiently marked to 
carry much weight, especially in view of the difficulties attend- 
ing the obtaining of great accuracy in blood counts in general. 
Regarding the leucocytes, the figures are less definite, but may 
be fairly interpreted as indicating practically no appreciable 
change in the number of white corpuscles. Similarly, the 
haemoglobin-content shows ao distinct alteration. Hence, the 
conclusion is that the physiological economy practised by 
the soldiers during their six months' stay in New Haven, and 
especially the marked diminution in the amount of proteid food 
consumed, did not result in any deterioration of the blood, 
so far as it can be measured by the number of contained ery- 
throcytes and leucocytes, and by the content of haemoglobin. 



284 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Date. 


Erythrocytes 

per num. 


Leucocytes 
per cmm. 


Hemoglobin 
per cent. 


OAKMAN. 








Oct. 23, 1903 


5,480,000 - 


7,300 


82 


Dec. 1, 1903 


6,000,000 


9,500 


82 


Jan. 26, 1904 


4,670,000 


12,500 


80-81 


Mar. 2-2, 1904 


6,560,000 


6,000 


84-85 


SLINEY. 








Oct. 22, 1903 


5,450,000 


11,500 


85 


Nov. 20, 1903 


6,070,000 


8,800 


84 


Jan 19 1904 


4,058,000 


11,100 


76 


Mar. 15, 1904 


6,208^000 


8,400 


82 


BATES. 








Oct. 13, 1903 


6,088,000 


12,000 


77 


Nov. 10, 1903 


7,344,000 


13,600 


96 


COFFMAN. 








Oct. 13, 1903 


6,024,000 


9,300 


84 


Nov. 10, 1903 


7,544,000 


8,600 . 


94 


Feb. 2, 1904 


3,160,000 


11,300 


78 


Mar. 18, 1904 


5,568,000 


10,000 


74 


COHN. 








Nov. 23, 1903 


5,952,000 


17,200 


94 


Feb. 2, 1904 


6,000,000 


13,600 


87-88 


Mar. 18, 1904 


7,000,000 


9,000 


85-86 


LOEWENTHAL. 








Oct. 16, 1903 


6,392,000 


5,900 


84 


Nov. 20, 1903 


6,780,000 


5,000 


85 


Jau 25 1904 


6,500,000 


11,200 


85 


Mar. 22, 1904 


7WOOO 


10/200 


86-87 


MORRIS. 








Oct. 14 1903 


6,728,000 


11,300 


84-85 


Nov. 10, 1903 


6,620,000 


8,100 


90-91 


Feb. 8 1904 


6,000,000 


9,600 


87-88 


Mar. 15, 1904 


5^000^000 


10,200 


85 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 285 



Date. 


Erythrocytes 
per cinm. 


Leucocytes 

per i 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 


Haemoglobin 
per cent. 


STELTZ. 
Oct 16 1903 


6,792,000 


12400 


85-86 


Nov. 20, 1903 
Feb 8 1904 . 


5,500,000 
5,000,000 


. 13,800 
14,700 


88 
86-87 


Mar. 15, 1904 


7,000,000 


14,800 


85 


BROTLES. 








Nov. 24, 1903 
Jan. 19, 1904 
Mar. 15, 1904 


5,310,000 
6,200,000 
6,600,000 


9,200 
6,100 
8,800 


89 
80 
85 


ZOOM AN. 








Oct. 22, 1903 
Nov 24 1903 


6,024,000 
5,136,000 


9,300 
6700 


91 
94 


Feb. 8,1904 
Mar. 22, 1904 


7,760,000 
4,800,000 


16,000 
13,600 


87-88 
88 


DAVIS. 








Oct. 13,1903 
Nov. 10 1903 


4,160,000 
6,860,000 


5,700 
9,200 


86-87 

88 


FRITZ. 








Nov. 2, 1903 
Dec 1 1903 


4,776,000 
6 048 000 


9,800 
9200 


87-88 
94 


Jan. 19, 1904 
Mar. 15, 1904 


5,848,000 
5,784,000 


10,000 
6,400 


84 
92 


HENDERSON. 








Oct. 16, 1903 
Nov. 20, 1903 
Jan. 25, 1904 
Mar. 18, 1904 


7,192,000 
6,760,000 
6,800,000 
8,144,000 


16,000 
10,200 
8,000 
15,000 


87 
84 

79-80 



GENERAL CONCLUSIONS. 

Careful consideration of the foregoing data, taken in their 
entirety, must lead the unbiassed thinker to admit the possi- 
bilities of physiological economy in nutrition. That there is 
no real need for a daily diet containing 118 grams of proteid 
food seems clearly indicated. The members of the soldier de- 
tachment lived without discomfort for a period of five months 
on amounts of proteid food not more than one-half that called 



286 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

for by the ordinary standard dietaries, and this without increas- 
ing the amount of non-nitrogenous food. Body-weight, nitro- 
gen equilibrium, physical strength and vigor, ability to respond 
to sensory stimulation, the composition and general condition 
of the blood, all remained unimpaired under a daily diet involv- 
ing the metabolism of only 7 to 8 grams of nitrogen per day 
'and with a fuel value of less than 2800 calories per day. 

Further, the practice of such economy led to marked im- 
provement in the working of the neuro-muscular machinery, 
sufficiently noticeable to attract the attention of the men 
themselves, apart from the records of the dynamometer, etc. 
Indeed, it has been the universal feeling among all the sub- 
jects of experiment that they were less conscious of fatigue 
than formerly, or that they could do more work without the 
feeling of fatigue that is usually so conspicuous after heavy 
work, or long-continued muscular strain. We thus have for 
consideration an added factor, viz., the possible improvement 
of the physical condition of the body under a lowered proteid 
intake. This question, however, we shall discuss more fully 
later on. It is enough for the present to simply emphasize 
the fact that with a greatly diminished proteid metabolism 
the body suffers no harm, the muscular machinery is as well 
able to perform its work as usual, and consequently there 
would seem to be no adequate reason why our daily dietary 
should be cumbered with such quantities of proteid matter 
as are generally considered necessary for health and strength. 

There is one point of great importance in this connection 
that should not be overlooked, viz., whether the power of re- 
sistance toward disease is diminished in any way by a con- 
tinued low proteid intake. This is surely a proper question, 
and one that must be carefully considered. Fortunately or 
unfortunately, we have no facts at our disposal. We have the 
belief, however, engendered by the results so far obtained, that 
there is no good ground for assuming the body to be any more 
susceptible to disease under conditions of low proteid metab- 
olism than when supplied with an excess of proteid food. 
Indeed, it has been somewhat remarkable how free from all 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 287 

troubles even during a very trying winter the subjects of 
this experiment have been. We believe that economy in the 
use of proteid food, curtailment of proteid metabolism to a 
degree commensurate with the real needs of the body, will 
prove helpful to health, but we have no convincing facts to 
present, only the simple statement that all the men have 
been well and remarkably free from colds and other minor ail- 
ments all through the experiment. 

It is a remarkable and suggestive fact that when a person 
has once practised physiological economy in his diet suffi- 
ciently long for it to have become in a measure a habit, he has 
no desire to return to a fuller dietary rich in proteid matter. 
This, it seems to the writer, is convincing proof that both body 
and mind are fully satisfied with the smaller amounts of food, 
and argues in favor of the latter being quite adequate for the 
physiological needs of the organism. In this connection, the 
writer presents a few lines received during the summer from 
one of the soldier detachment. Nine of these men, after com- 
pleting their work at New Haven early in April, 1904, were 
detailed for service at St. Louis, and the letter which is quoted 
was written simply to ask concerning some photographs that 
had been promised them. In the letter, however, occur two 
or three sentences which are interesting and suggestive. 

WORLD'S FAIR GROUNDS, ST. Louis, Mo., 

July 8, 1904. 
Professor RUSSELL H. CHITTENDEN: 

DEAR SIR, Oil behalf of the men that were undergoing the 
"Food Test " conducted by you last winter, I write these few 
lines asking whether we are entitled to any of the photographs 
that were taken of us in the Yale Gymnasium the last two days 
we were there. . . . The men are all in first-class condition 
as regards their physical condition, and are all very thankful to 
you. We eat very little meat now as a rule, and would willingly 
go on another test. Enclosed yon will find a list of the men as 
follows: Private 1st Class Jonah Broyles; Private 1st Class 
William E. Coffman ; Private 1st Class James D. Henderson; 
Private 1st Class Maurice D. Loewentha!; Private 1st Class 



288 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

William Morris; Private 1st Class William F. Sliney ; Private 1st 
Class John J. B. Steltz ; Private 1st Class Ben Zooman ; Private 
1st Class William Oakman. 

Trusting I may hear from you in the near future, I am, 
Very respectfully, 

(Signed) JOHN J. B. STELTZ. 
Medical Department Exhibit U. S. Army, 
World's Fair Station. 



DAILY DIETARY OF THE SOLDIER DETAIL FROM OCTOBER 
2, 1903, TO APRIL 4, 1904. 

For the first two weeks of their stay in New Haven, the 
soldiers were given their ordinary army ration, which is rich 
in meat and consequently had a high content of proteid or 
nitrogen. The detachment had their own cook and helper, 
and their food was prepared for them as they had always been 
accustomed to it. Further, they had at this time perfect 
freedom as to the quantity of food to be eaten, the figures 
given in the earlier days representing their own choice of 
quantity. Later, by the beginning of the third week, the diet 
was modified somewhat by the introduction of other articles 
in place of meat, especially at breakfast, so that the total 
nitrogen intake was diminished in some degree, but the men 
were still allowed freedom as to quantity. From November 
to the close of the experiment in April, both the character 
and quantity of the food for each meal were prescribed, but 
great care was exercised to see that the men were fully satis- 
fied. Changes were made gradually and no discomfort was 
felt, or at least no complaint was made, although the men 
were frequently questioned and encouraged to comment upon 
the dietary and to make suggestions. 

The dietary, however, speaks for itself, and a careful perusal 
of the daily record, with reference both to the character of the 
food and the quantities employed, will give clearer and more 
exact information as to the changes introduced than any 
verbal description. The only statement that need be made 
is that the heavier proteid foods were greatly reduced in 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 289 

amount, and replaced in a measure by the lighter carbohydrate 
foods. Finally, it may be said that while vegetable foods 
eventually predominated, there was at no time a complete 
change to a vegetable diet. 



Friday, October 2, 1903, 

Breakfast. Beefsteak 222 grams, fried potatoes 234 grams, onions 34 grams, 
gravy 68 grams, bread 144 grams, coffee 679 grains, sugar 18 grains. 

Dinner. Beef 171 grams, boiled potatoes 350 grams, onions 55 grams, bread 
234 grams, coffee 916 grams, sugar 27 grams. 

Supper. Corned beef 195 grams, potatoes 170 grams, onions 21 grams, bread 
158 grams, coffee 450 grams, sugar 21 grams, fruit jelly 107 grams. 



Saturday, October 3, 1903. 

Breakfast. Bacon 162 grams, fried cake 215 grams, bread 72 grams, sugar 

21 grams, coffee 550 grams. 
Dinner. Koast beef 250 grams, gravy 133 grams, bread 234 grams, sugar 21 

grains, coffee 667. 
Supper. Frankfurters 171 grams, bread 128 grams, milk 71 grams, sugar 21 

grams, coffee 450 grams. 



Sunday, October 4, 1903. 

Breakfast. Beefsteak 299 grams, onions 21 grams, gravy 175 grams, bread 

222 grams, milk 83 grams, sugar 21 grams, coffee 491 grams. 
Dinner. Roast beef 221 grams, potatoes 517 grams, gravy 154 grams, bread 

148 grams, pie 184 grams, sugar 18 grams, milk 46 grams, coffee 621 

grams. 
Supper. Uoast beef 96 grams, potatoes 260 prams, onions 32 grams, jam 92 

grams, bread 32 grams, coffee 360 grams, milk 65 grams, sugar 18 grams. 



Monday, October 5, 1903. 

Breakfast. Bacon 185 grains, fried potatoes 277 grams, gravy 93 grams, bread 

140 grams, coffee 538 grams, sugar 18 grams, milk 65 grams. 
Dinner. Cabbage 304 grams, corned beef 200 grams, potatoes 309 grams, bread 

145 grams, milk 55 grams, sugar 18 grams, coffee 457 grams. 
Supper. Cabbage 130 grams, potatoes 248 grams, onions 27 grams, bacon 35 

grams, bread 200 grams, butter 30 grains, milk 55 grams, coffee 500 

grams, sugar 20 grams, blackberry jam 135 grams. 



290 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Tuesday, October 6, 1903. 

Breakfast. Bologna sausage 150 grams, bread 230 grams, butter 25 grams, 

milk 55 grams, sugar 20 grams, coffee 334 grams. 
Dinner. Beans 130 grams, onions 27 grains, bacon 90 grams, bread 160 grams, 

milk 55 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 500 grams. 
Supper. Beans 70 grams, beef liver 160 grams, onions 100 grams, bread 132 

grams, milk 56 grams, sugar 20 grams, coffee 500 grams. 

Wednesday, October 7, 1903. 

Breakfast. Beefsteak 290 grams, gravy 116 grams, bread 142 grams, milk 55 

grams, sugar 20 grams, coffee 500 grams. 
Dinner. Roast beef 240 grams, onions 20 grams, gravy 166 grams, bread 170 

grams, milk 56 grams, sugar 20 grams, coffee 550 grams. 
Supper. Potatoes 280 grams, beef 110 grams, onions 32 grams, bread 185 

grams, pie 60 grams, milk 55 grams, butter 35 grams, sugar 20 grams* 

coffee 500 grams, blackberry jam 60 grams. 

Thursday, October 8, 1903. 

Breakfast. Meat 107 grams, eggs 120 grams, bread 117 grams, milk 55 grams, 

sugar 20 grams, coffee 500 grams. 
Dinner. Bacon 170 grams, cabbage 297 grams, potatoes 360 grams, bread 120 

grams, milk 40 grams, sugar 12 grams, coffee 300 grams. 
Supper. Peaches 100 grains, bread 347 grams, butter 35 grams, milk 55 grams, 

sugar 52 grams, coffee 416 grams. 

Friday, October 9, 1903. 

Breakfast. Beef 120 grams, potatoes 220 grams, onions 50 grams, butter 35 
grams, milk 55 grams, bread 175 grams, sugar 20 grams, coffee 600 grams. 

Dinner. Roast beef 203 grams, potatoes 143 grams, gravy 144 grams, bread 
108 grams, sugar 18 grams, milk 55 grams, coffee 451 grams. 

Supper. Beef liver 138 grams, onions 93 grams, bacon 86 grams, bread 154 
grams, butter 33 grams, sugar 19 grams, milk 55 grams, coffee 500 grams. 



Saturday, October 10, 1903. 

Breakfast. Eggs 86 grams, bacon 89 grams, potatoes 187 grams, bread 128 

grams, milk 55 grams, sugar 18 grams, coffee 500 grams. 
Dinner. Fish 233 grams, bacon 65 grams, onions 49 grams, potatoes 140 

grams, bread 226 grams, milk 55 grams, sugar 19 grams, coffee 465 

grams. 
Supper. Hamburg steak 224 grams, onions 23 grams, butter 28 grams, bread 

147 grams, pie 128 grams, milk 55 grams, sugar 18 grams, coffee 500 

grams. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 291 

Sunday, October 11, 1903. 

Breakfast. Beefsteak 243 grams, bread 105 grams, milk 55 grams, sugar 18 

grams, coffee 335 grams. 
Dinner. Roast pork 208 grams, turnips 159 grams, potatoes 201 grams, gravy 

133 grams, apple pie 168 grams, bread 89 grams, milk 55 grams, sugar 

18 grams, coffee 340 grams. 
Supper. Stewed peaches 2-'J5 grams, bread 291 grams, milk 55 grams, butter 

28 grams, sugar 18 grams, coffee 475 grams. 

Monday, October 12, 1903. 

Breakfast. Potatoes 275 grams, beef 131 grams, onions 37 grams, bread 135 
grams, milk 50 grams, sugar 18 grams, coffee 350 grams. 

Dinner. Beans 350 grams, bacon 70 grams, onions 39 grams, pickles 39 grams, 
bread 147 grams, milk 55 grams, sugar 18 grams, coffee 500 grams. 

Supper. Frankfurters 149 grams, butter 28 grams, bread 149 grams, black- 
berry jam 63 grams, milk 55 grams, sugar 18 grams, coffee 500 grams. 

Tuesday, October 13, 1903. 

Breakfast. Beef liver 149 grams, bacon 68 grams, bread 100 grams, milk 55 
grams, sugar 19 grams, coffee 375 grams. 

Dinner. Roast beef 187 grams, potatoes 131 grains, gravy 167 grams, toma- 
toes 151 grams, bread 112 grams, milk 55 grams, sugar 18 grams, coffee 
410 grams. 

Supper. Roast beef 140 grams, apple sauce 350 grams, bread 144 grams, butter 
33 grams, milk 55 grams, sugar 18 grams, coffee 600 grams. 

Wednesday, October 14, 1903. 

Breakfast. Bacon 93 grams, apple sauce 299 grains, syrup 58 grams, bread 

271 grams, milk 55 grams, sugar 35 grams, coffee 417 grams. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak 186 grams, potatoes 336 grams, gravy 100 grams, 

onions 37 grains, bread 187 grams, milk 55 grams, sugar 18 grams, coffee 

350 grains. 
Supper. Beef 224 grams, potatoes 242 grams, onions 28 grams, prunes 147 

grams, bread 135 grams, butter 28 grams, milk 55 grams, sugar 44 grams, 

coffee 500 grams. 

Thursday. October 15,, 1903. 

Breakfast. Beef liver 159 grams, bacon 72 grams, bread 138 grams, milk 55 

grams, sugar 18 grams, coffee 500 grams. 
Dinner. Cabbage 401 grains, bacon 156 grams, potatoes 201 grams, bread 121 

grams, milk 55 grams, sugar 19 grams, coffee 480 grams. 
Supper. Bologna sausage 154 grams, rice 110 grams, egs 13 grams, bread 

133 grams, butter 28 grams milk 55 grams, sugar 63 grams, coffee 500 

grams. 



292 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

Friday, October 16, 1903. 

Breakfast. Beefsteak 285 grams, bread 140 grams, milk 61 grams, sugar 20 

grams, coffee 545 grams. 
Dinner. Fish 226 grams, potatoes 287 grams, tomatoes 135 grams, bread 128 

grams, milk 55 grams, sugar 18 grams, coffee 500 grams. 
Supper. Pork sausage 244 grams, apple sauce 204 grams, bread 189 grams, 

butter 31 grams, milk 61 grams, sugar 20 grams, coffee 545 grams. 

Saturday, October 17, 1903. 

Breakfast. Ham 183 grams, potatoes 298 grams, bread 115 grams, sugar 20 

grams, milk 61 grams, coffee 545 grams. 
Dinner. Beef 204 grams, potatoes 290 grams, onions 13 grams, bread 145 

grams, milk 61 grams, sugar 20 grams, coffee 375 grams. 
Supper. Roast beef 142 grams, apple sauce 112 grams, butter 35 grams, bread 

183 grams, pie 104 grams, milk 61 grams, sugar 66 grams, coffee 545 

grams. 

Sunday, October 18, 1903. 

'Breakfast. Hamburg steak 234 grams, onions 31 grams, bread 155 grams, 

milk 61 grams, sugar 20 grams, coffee 455 grams. 
Dinner. Chicken 326 grams, dressing 142 grams, potatoes 290 grams, tomatoes 

453 grams, bread 122 grams, milk 61 grams, sugar 20 grams, coffee 545 

grams. 
Supper. Apple sauce 244 grams, syrup 100 grams, bread 518 grams, milk 61 

grams, sugar 20 grams, coffee 500 grams. 

Monday, October 19, 1903. 

Breakfast. Eggs 79 grams, bacon 43 grams, bread 127 grams, milk 61 grams, 

sugar 20 grams, coffee 514 grams. 
Dinner. Roast beef 214 grams, sweet potatoes 374 grams, tomatoes 305 grains, 

onions 23 grams, bread 140 grams, milk 61 grams, sugar 25 grams, coffee 

545 grams. 
Supper. Roast beef 173 grams, apple sauce 214 grams, bread 163 grams, 

butter 30 grams, milk 61 grams, sugar 25 grams, coffee 509 grams. 

Tuesday, October 20, 1903. 

Breakfast. Oatmeal 316 grams, bread 95 grams., butter 19 grams, bacon 95 

grams, coffee 600 grams, milk 245 grams, sugar 75 grams. 
Dinner. Roast beef 187 grams, boiled potatoes 366 grams, tomatoes 156 

grams, bread 79 grams, coffee 600 grams, milk 101 grams, sugar 36 

grams. 
Supper. Cold roast beef 176 grams, apple sauce 277 grams, bread 159 grams, 

butter 36 grams, coffee 370 grams, sugar 39 grams, milk 63 grams. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 2<J3 



Wednesday, October 21, 1903. 

Breakfast. Fried oatmeal 142 grams, syrup 36 grams, bacon 62 grams, biscuits 

155 grams, butter 35 grains, coffee 436 grams, milk 136 grams, sugar 46 

grams. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak 275 grams, potatoes 399 grams, onions 63 grams, 

gravy 145 grams, bread 84 grams, coffee 500 grams, milk 140 grams, 

sugar 46 grams. 
Supper. Baked beans 336 grams, bread 148 grams, butter 43 grams, stewed 

prunes 193 grams, coffee 518 grams, milk 173 grams, sugar 48 grams. 

Thursday, October 22, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 178 grams, French fried potatoes 168 grams, 

toasted bread 109 grains, butter 36 grams, coffee 473 grams, milk 163 

grams, sugar 53 grams. 
Dinner. Corned beef 149 grams, boiled cabbage 191 grams, potatoes 189 

grains, bread 87 grams, coffee 518 grams, sugar 51 grams, milk 76 grams. 
Supper. Bologna sausage 104 grams, Saratoga chips 69 grams, fried hominy 

214 grams, syrup 91 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 36 grams, coffee 500 

grams, sugar 40 grams, milk 91 grams. 

Friday, October 23, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice with sugar and milk 221 grams, biscuits 158 grams, 

butter 38 grams, coffee 536 grams, milk 182 grams, sugar 71 grams. 
Dinner. Fish 288 grams, potatoes 265 grams, tomatoes 193 grams, bread 107 

grams, coffee 545 grams, sugar 71 grams, milk 173 grams. 
Supper. Oyster stew with crackers 361 grams, apple sauce 102 grams, bread 

43 grams, butter 35 grams, coffee 409 grams, sugar 46 grams, milk 309 

grams. 

Saturday, October % 1903. 

Breakfast. Egg omelette 71 grams, with wheat flour 23 grams, bread 97 grams, 
butter 27 grams, coffee 545 grams, sugar 63 grams, milk 159 grains. 

Dinner. Hamburg steak made with bread 163 grams, fat 10 grams, and onions 
for flavor 90 grams, tomatoes 283 grams, bread 244 grams, butter 48 
grams, coffee 454 grams, milk 182 grams, sugar 48 grams. 

Supper. Bacon 79 grams, potato chips 170 grams, stewed prunes 61 grams, 
biscuits 173 grams, butter 42 grams, coffee 545 grams, milk 182 grams, 
sugar 69 grams. 

Sunday, October 25, 1903. 

Breakfast. Apple 125 grams, fried rice 242 grams, syrup 64 grams, biscuits 
127 grams, butter 33 grams, coffee 363 grams, milk 154 grams, sugar 31 
grams. 

Dinner. Roast pork 252 grams, apple sauce 145 grams, potatoes 234 grams, 



294 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

bread 66 grams, tapioca pudding 265 grams, coffee 363 grams, sugar 38 
grams, milk 164 grams. 

Supper. Toasted bread 75 grams, blackberry jam 81 grams, bread 75 grams 
butter 46 grams, coffee 363 grams, milk 160 grams, sugar 46 grams. 

Monday, October 26, 1903. 

Breakfast. Griddle cakes 305 grams, syrup 07 grams, bread 35 grams, coffee 

454 grams, milk 145 grams, butter 23 grams, sugar 41 grams. 
Dinner. Beef stew with potatoes, onions, and thickened witli corn starch 560 

grams, bread 94 grams, milk 154 grams, coffee 454 grams, sugar 41 grams. 
Supper. Macaroni with cheese 226 grams, stewed tomatoes 282 grams, bread 

114 grams, butter 41 grams, stewed prunes 127 grams, coffee 445 grams, 

milk 90 grams, sugar 20 grams. 

Tuesday, October 27, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice, milk, and sugar 311 grams, toasted bread 114 grams, 

butter 31 grams, coffee 545 grams, milk 190 grams, sugar 79 grams. 
Dinner. Codfish-balls 369 grams, mashed potatoes 269 grams, pickles 43 grams, 

bread 72 grams, apple pie 117 grams, coffee 545 grams, milk 91 grams, 

sugar 25 grams. 
Supper. Apple-rice pudding 397 grams, biscuit 252 grams, butter 48 grams, 

coffee 500 grams, milk 91 grams, sugar 25 grams. 



Wednesday, October 28, 1903. 

Breakfast. Apple 252 grams, fried hominy 168 grams, syrup 86 grams, bread 
79 grams, coffee 445 grams, milk 100 grams, sugar 25 grams. 

Dinner. Bean porridge with bread 415 grams, boiled onions 99 grams, coffee 
545 grams, milk 91 grams, sugar 25 grams, bread 63 grams, bread pud- 
ding 282 grams. 

Supper. Apple fritters 371 grams, syrup 67 grams, biscuit 87 grams, butter 
36 grams, pickles 23 grams, coffee 454 grams, milk 91 grams, sugar 25 
grams. 

Thursday, October 29, 1903. 

Breakfast. Fried rice cakes 201 grams, syrup 54 grams, coffee 545 grams. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak * with bread, fat, and onions 230 grams, boiled 

potatoes 211 grams, stewed tomatoes 257 grams, bread 61 grams, coffee 

363 grams. 
Supper. Apple sauce 277 grams, biscuits 293 grams, butter 56 grams, appU- 

pie 117 grains, tea 627 grams. 



* Hamburg steak contained 52 grams meat, 4 grams fat, 63 grams onions, 
111 grams bread, each man eating 230 grams. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 295 
Friday, October 30, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 364 grams, sugar 47 grams, milk 91 grams, coffee 

455 grams.* 
Dinner. Fish 219 grains, French fried potatoes 158 grams, boiled onions 58 

grams, bread pudding 833 grams, coffee 436 grams. 
Supper. Bacon 61 grams, Saratoga chips 119 grams, stewed prunes 206 grams, 

bread 155 grams, butter 53 grams, coffee 454 grams. 

Saturday, October 31, 1903. 

Breakfast. Steamed oatmeal (soft) 349 grams, sugar 76 grams, milk 182 
grams, biscuits 109 grams, butter 53 grams, coffee 409 grams. 

Dinner. Macaroni flavored with cheese 345 grams, stewed tomatoes 149 grams, 
bread 58 grams, apple pie 112 grams, coffee 416 grams. 

Supper. Boiled cabbage 273 grams, bologna sausage 159 grams, bread 79 
grams, rice pudding 224 grams, coffee 500 grams. 

Sunday, November 1, 1903. 

Breakfast. Apple 240 grams, rice croquettes 271 grams, syrup 67 grams, bread 

41 grams, coffee 417 grams. 
Dinner. Roast pork 294 grams, apple sauce 217 grams, potatoes 352 grams, 

tapioca pudding 116 grams, coffee 417 grams. 
Supper. Biscuits 415 grams, butter 58 grams, blackberry jam 133 grams, 

pickles 33 grams, tea 416 grams. 

Monday, November 2, 1903. 

Breakfast. Steamed oatmeal 448 grams, milk 208 grams, sugar 65 grams, 

bread 70 grams, coffee 375 grams. 
Dinner. Beef stew 187 grams, potatoes 261 grams, onions 51 grams, thickened 

with corn starch 14 grams, bread 140 grams, coffee 500 grams. 
Supper. Macaroni 149 grams, stewed tomatoes 271 grams, pickles 72 grams, 

apple pie 109 grams, bread 139 grams, butter 53 grams, coffee 616 grams. 

, November 3, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 303 grams, sugar 72 grams, milk 225 grams, bread 67 

grams, coffee 450 grams. 
Dinner. Baked bean porridge 326 grams, boiled onions 128 grams, potatoes 

287 grams, bread 105 grams, coffee 508 grams. 
Supper. Boiled cabbage 217 grams, Saratoga chips 53 grams, stewed prunes 

67 grams, fried rice 149 grams, syrup 58 grams, coffee 516 grams, bacon 

37 grams, potatoes 179 grams. 

* One cup, total weight 454 grams, but containing small portions of milk 
and sugar. 



296 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Wednesday, November 4, 1903. 

Breakfast. Apple 250 grams, fried hominy 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 
335 grams. 

Dinner. Hamburg steak with bread, fat, and onions 200 grams, boiled pota- 
toes 250 grams, stewed tomatoes 250 grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. Apple fritters 226 grams, syrup 50 grams, biscuit 95 grams, butter 
30 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Thursday, November 5, 1903. 

Breakfast. Banana 114 grams, boiled rice* 250 grams, with milk 181 grams, 

and sugar 76 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Macaroni and cheese 300 grams, bread 50 grams, apple sauce 200 

grams, custard pie 112 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Sausage 50 grams, potato chips 100 grams, stewed prunes 165 grams, 

bread 50 grams, butter 25 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Friday, November 6, 1903. 

Breakfast. Rice croquettes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Clam chowder with onions, tomatoes, and potatoes 350 grams, bread 

75 grams, coffee 1 cup, tapioca-peach pudding 125 grams. 
Supper. Bread 127 grams, butter 40 grams, jam 125 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Saturday, November 7, 1903. 

Breakfast. Soft oatmeal 300 grams, milk 150 grams, sugar 50 grams, bread 30 

grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Bean porridge with onions 294 grams, stewed prunes 66 grams, bread 

75 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Bread pudding 292 grams, stewed peaches 97 grams, crackers 50 

grams, butter 25 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Sunday, November 8, 1903. 

Breakfast. Apple 197 grams, stewed hominy 248 grams, milk 150 grams, 

sugar 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Beef stew thickened with corn starch, onions, and potatoes 405 

grams, bread 75 grams, apple sauce 125 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Pie 107 grams, chocolate 1 cup, biscuit 200 grams, butter 30 grams, 

stewed prunes 160 grams. 



* Rice or hominy on being moistened and cooked gains in weight 120 per 
cent; or rather, after the excess of moisture has evaporated and the rice is 
fried, it shows a gain of that amount. But for boiled rice or hominy, without 
drying or frying, there is an increase in weight of 230 per cent, as usually 
prepared. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 297 



" Monday, November 9, 1903. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 40 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Corned beef 125 grains, cabbage 200 grams, potatoes 175 grams, bread 

75 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Rice p'udding 150 grams, stewed peaches 100 grams, crackers 50 

grams, butter 25 grams, coffee 1 cup. 



Tuesday, November 10, 1903. 

Breakfast. Toasted bread 200 grams, butter 40 grams, boiled egg 50 grams, 

coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Macaroni baked with cheese 300 grams, bread 50 grams, apple sauce 

200 grams, custard pie 112 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Bread pudding 300 grams, stewed peaches 100 grams, crackers 50 

grams, butter 25 grams, coffee 1 cup. 



Wednesday, November 11, 1903, 

Breakfast. Apple 196 grams, boiled rice 247 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 50 

grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with bread, fat, and onions 200 grams, boiled 

potatoes 250 grams, stewed tomatoes 250 grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Supper. Fried rice 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, biscuit 173 grams, butter 30 

grams, tea 1 cup. 



Thursday, November 12, 1903. 

Breakfast, Banana 114 grams, toasted bread 179 grams, butter 50 grams, 

coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Sausage 96 grams, French fried potatoes 200 grams, pickles 50 

grams, bread 50 grams, apple and rice pudding 175 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Boiled hominy 200 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 47 grams, stewed 

prunes 109 grams, bread 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 



Friday, November 13, 1903. 

Breakfast. Fried hominy 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Clam chowder with onions, potatoes, and tomatoes 350 grams, bread 

75 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Biscuit 277 grams, butter 50 grams, jam 125 grams, sardines 85 

grams, coffee 1 cup. 



298 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

Saturday, November 14, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 250 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 60 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Dinner. Beef stew with onions, potatoes, thickened with corn starch 350 

grams, bread 75 grams, apple sauce 125 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Rice croquettes 125 grams, syrup 40 grams, biscuit 175 grams, butter 

25 grams, tea 1 cup, 



Sunday, November 15, 1903. 

Breakfast. Apple 224 grams, soft boiled oatmeal 200 grams, milk 100 grams, 

sugar 40 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Macaroni and cheese 300 grams, stewed tomatoes 150 grams, bread 

50 grams, pie 92 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Fried bacon 30 grams, fried egg 40 grams, potato chips 100 grams, 

bread 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 



Monday, November 16, 1903. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 150 grams, syrup 40 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Corned beef 75 grams, cabbage 200 grams, mashed potatoes 200 

grams, bread 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Hice pudding 150 grams, stewed peaches 100 grams, crackers 50 

grams, butter 20 grams, coffee 1 cup. 



Tuesday, November 17, 1903. 

Breakfast. Indian-meal pudding 200 grams, milk 125 grains, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Tomato soup with potatoes and onions boiled together 337 grams, 
bread 100 grams, sausage 44 grams, baked potato 200 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Fried Indian-meal pudding 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, butter 35 
grams, coffee 1 cup, apple sauce 100 grams, biscuit 150 grams. 



Wednesday, November IS, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Dinner. Bean soup (thick) 200 grams, pickles 35 grams, bread pudding 250 

grams, bread 75 grains, coffee 1 cup, stewed peaches 75 grams. 
Supper. Fried hominy 150 grams, butter 25 grams, syrup 60 grams, bread 

75 grams, stewed prunes 100 grams, coffee 1 cup. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 299 



Thursday, November 19, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 300 grams, milk 150 grams, sugar 50 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak made with plenty of chopped bread, fat, and onions 

200 grams, baked potato 250 grams, bread 75 grams, stewed tomatoes 

250 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Biscuit 275 grams, butter 50 grams, apple sauce 175 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Friday, November 20, 1903. 

Breakfast. Apple 200 grams, fried rice 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Dinner. Codfish-balls made with plenty of potatoes 200 grams, boiled onions 

200 grams, bread 75 grams, apple pie 105 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Banana fritters 200 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 50 grams, pickles 

30 grams, coffee 1 cup. 



Saturday, November <21, 1903. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, bread 50 grams, 
coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Split pea soup 200 grams, bread 75 grams, pickles 30 grams, tapioca- 
peach pudding 150 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. Biscuit 275 grams, stewed prunes 100 grams, butter 50 grams, tea 
1 cup. 



Sunday, November %% 1903. 

Breakfast. Apple 217 grams, Johnny cake made of corn meal 200 grams, 

butter 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Beef stew with onions, potatoes, and corn starch 350 grams, bread 

75 grams, coffee 1 cup, pie 118 grams. 
Supper. Chocolate 1 cup, bread 150 grams, milk 300 grams. 



Monday, November 23, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 300 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 50 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Dinner. Macaroni boiled 300 grams, stewed tomatoes 250 grams, bread 75 

grams, pie 114 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Fried rice 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, jam 75 grams, bread 75 grams, 

tea 1 cup. 



300 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

Tuesday, November 24, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 

1 cup, orange 200 grams. 
Dinner. Tomato soup with potatoes and onions boiled together 325 grains, 

bread 100 grams, fried sausage 50 grams, baked potato 200 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Supper. Fried hominy 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, biscuit 150 grams, butter 

35 grams, apple sauce 100 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Wednesday, November 25, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled Indian-meal 200 grams, milk 125 grams, coffee 1 cup, orange 

225 grams. 
Dinner. Split pea soup (thick) 200 grams, bread 75 grams, pickles 30 grams, 

apple pie 120 grains, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Bread pudding 250 grams, stewed peaches 100 grams, crackers 50 

grams, butter 25 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Thursday, November 26, 1903. 

Breakfast. Biscuit 250 grams, butter 50 grams, apple sauce 150 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Dinner. Roast turkey (sliced) 100 grams, cranberry sauce 150 grains, mashed 

potatoes 150 grams, bread crumb stuffing 100 grams, boiled onions 200 

grams, bread 75 grams, corn-starch pudding 125 grams, orange 200 grams, 

coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Crackers 50 grams, tea 1 cup, stewed prunes 150 grams, butter 50 

grams, wheat bread 100 grams. 

Friday, November 27, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 250 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 50 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Dinner. Clam chowder with onions, potatoes, and tomatoes 350 grams, bread 

75 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Biscuit 275 grains, butter 50 grams, jam 125 grams, sardine 60 grams, 

coffee 1 cup. 

Saturday, November 28, 1903. 

Breakfast. Fried rice 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple 200 

grams. 
Dinner. Boiled macaroni 200 grams, stewed tomatoes 250 prams, bread 50 

grams, apple pie 150 grams, coffee 1 cnp. 
Supper. Potato chips 100 grams, fried bacon 30 grams, bread 75 grams, jam 

75 grams, tea 1 cup. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 301 



Sunday, November 29, 1903. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Bean soup (thick) 200 grams, bread 75 grams, boiled potato 150 

grams, bread pudding 250 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Stewed peaches 100 grams, butter 35 grains, bread 75 grams, fried 

sausage 33 grams, coffee 1 cup. 



Monday, November 30, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled oatmeal 200 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Dinner. Corned beef 75 grams, cabbage 200 grams, mashed potatoes 200 

grams, bread 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Rice pudding 150 grams, stewed peaches 100 grams, crackers 50 

grams, butter 25 grams, coffee 1 cup. 



Tuesday, December 1, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Dinner. Tomato soup with potatoes and onions boiled together 325 grams, 

bread 100 grams, shaved dried beef 30 grams, baked potato 147 grams, 

coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Fried hominy 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, crackers 50 grams, butter 

30 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple sauce 100 grams. 



Wednesday, December 2, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled Indian- meal 200 grams, milk 125 grams, coffee 1 cup, 

orange 200 grams. 
Dinner. Split pea soup (thick) 200 grams, bread 75 grams, pickles 30 grams, 

apple pie 125 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Stewed peaches 100 grams, bread pudding 250 grams, crackers 50 

grams, butter 25 grams, coffee 1 cup. 



Thursday, December 3, 1903. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grains, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with bread, fat, and onions 150 grams, boiled pota- 
toes 250 grams, stewed tomatoes 200 grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Boiled rice 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 1 cup. 



302 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Friday, December 4, 1903. 

Breakfast. Fried rice 100 grams, syrup 60 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Clam chowder with onions, tomatoes, and potatoes 350 grams, bread 

75 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Biscuit 275 grams, butter 50 grams, coffee 1 cup, jam 125 grams, 

sardines 75 grams. 



Saturday, December 5, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled oatmeal 175 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Dinner. Boiled macaroni 200 grams, stewed tomatoes 250 grams, bread 50 

grams, pie 117 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Potato chips 100 grams, fried bacon 30 grams, corn-starch custard 

125 grams, bread 40 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Sunday, December 6, 1903. 

Breakfast. Banana 125 grams, toasted bread 150 grams, butter 50 grams, 

coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Sausage 50 grams, French fried potatoes 200 grams, pickles 30 grams, 

apple-rice pudding 200 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Stewed prunes 150 grams, crackers 75 grams, butter 40 grams, coffee 

1 cup.. 



Monday, December 7, 1903. 

Breakfast. Corn-meal Johnny-cake 200 grams, butter 50 grains, cofTee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Bean soup (thick) 200 grams, boiled potatoes 200 grams, bread 75 

grams, pie 146 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Crackers 80 grams, milk 200 grams, stewed peaches 150 grams, 

coffee 1 cup. 



Tuesday, December 8, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 1 

cup. 
Dinner. Meat pie (made with a little meat, flour, etc.) 150 grams, mashed 

potato 250 grams, stewed prunes 100 grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 

cup. 
Supper. Fried rice 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, bread 100 grams, cocoa 1 cup. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 303 



Wednesday, December 9, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled oatmeal 175 grams, milk 100 grams, sugar 25 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Dinner. Boiled macaroni without cheese 200 grams, stewed tomatoes 250 

grams, bread 75 grains, pie 110 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Bread 200 grams, milk 200 grams, stewed peaches 150 grams, cocoa 

1 cup. 

Thursday, December 10, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 125 grams, milk 100 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Dinner. Roast beef 50 grams, boiled potato 200 grams, bread 75 grams, boiled 

onions 100 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Suet pudding 150 grams, stewed prunes 150 grams, crackers 50 grams, 

cocoa 1 cup. 

Friday, December 11, 1903. 

Breakfast. Fried hominy 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Clam chowder with onions, potatoes and tomatoes 350 grams, bread 

100 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Biscuit 275 grams, butter 50 grams, sardine 50 grams, jam 125 grams, 

cocoa 1 cup. 

Saturday, December 12, 1903. 

Breakfast. Griddle cakes (with egg) 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Cold roast beef 50 grams, French fried potatoes 200 grams, apple- 
rice pudding 200 grams, pickles 30 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. Bread 100 grams, butter 50 grams, stewed prunes 150 grams, cocoa 
1 cup. 

Sunday, December 13, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled Indian-meal 200 grams, milk 100 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Tomato soup with potatoes and onions boiled together 325 grams, 

bread 100 grams, shaved dried beef 12 grams, baked potato 110 grams, 

coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Bread 150 grama, butter 50 grams, apple sauce 175 grams, cocoa 1 

cup. 

Monday, December 14, 1903. 

Breakfast. Fried Indian-meal 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Split-pea soup (thick) 175 grams, bread 75 grams, boiled onions 100 

grams, mashed potato 150 grams, apple pie 121 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Bread 100 grams, milk 200 grams, stewed peaches 150 grams, cocoa 

1 cup. 



304 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

Tuesday December 15, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 1 

cup. 
Dinner. Baked macaroni with a little cheese 200 grams, stewed tomatoes 200 

grams, bread 50 grams, pie 115 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Bread pudding 250 grams, stewed peaches 100 grams, crackers 50 

grams, butter 15 grams, coffee 1 cup. 



Wednesday, December 16, 1903. 

Breakfast. Fried rice 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Hamburg steak with bread, fat, and onions 150 grams, boi'ed potatoes 

200 grams, apple sauce 200 grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Biscuits 160 grams, butter 20 grams, stewed prunes 150 grams, tea 

1 cup. 



Thursday, December 17, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Dinner. Vegetable soup (thickened with flour) containing potatoes, onions, 

and tomatoes 300 grams, bread 75 grams, apple-rice pudding 150 grams, 

coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Fried bacon 30 grams, baked potato 150 grams, bread 50 grams, 

butter 15 grams, coffee 1 cup. 



Friday, December 18, 1903. 

Breakfast. Fried hominy 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Clam chowder with onions, potatoes, and tomatoes 350 grams, bread 

75 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Shaved dried beef 30 grams, biscuit 150 grams, butter 20 grams, 

apple sauce 150 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Saturday, December 19, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled Indian-meal 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, 

bread 35 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Corned beef 75 grams, cabbage 200 grams, boiled potatoes 175 grams, 

bread 40 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Rice pudding with raisins 150 grams, stewed peaches 100 grams, 

crackers 50 grams, butter 15 grams, tea 1 cup. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 305 



Sunday, December 20, 1903. 

Breakfast. Apple 150 grams, fried Indian-meal 100 grams, bread 35 grams, 

syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Split-pea soup (thick) 150 grams, bread 40 grams, boiled carrots 100 

grains, mashed potato 150 grams, apple pie 125 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Sausage 50 grams, French fried potatoes 100 grams, bread 50 grams, 

butter 15 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Monday, December &/, 1903. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 150 grams, syrup 40 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Beef stew (with onions and potatoes, thickened with corn starch) 350 

grams, bread 75 grams, stewed prunes 125 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Suet pudding 150 grams, apple sauce 125 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Tuesday, December %2, 1903. 

Breakfast. Apple 150 grams, boiled rice 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 

grams, bread 30 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Baked macaroni with cheese 200 grams, stewed tomatoes 200 grams, 

bread 50 grams, pie 110 grains, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Bread pudding 250 grams, stewed peaches 100 grams, crackers 60 

grams, butter 15 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Wednesday, December 23, 1903. 

Breakfast. Fried rice 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, crackers 30 grams, butter 
10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner Bean soup (thick) 200 grams, bread 75 grams, pickles 30 grams, tapi- 
oca-peach pudding 150 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. Apple fritters 200 grams, stewed prunes 125 grams, bread 50 grams, 
butter 15 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Thursday, December 24, 1903. 

Breakfast. Apple 200 grams, boiled hominy 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 

30 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner Tomato soup with potatoes and onions boiled together 325 grams, 

fried sausage 40 grams, bread 75 grams, baked potato 150 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 

Supper Biscuit 175 grams, butter 30 grams, jam 125 grams, tea 1 cup. 

20 



306 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Friday, December 25, 1903. 

Breakfast. Apple 200 grams, fried hominy 130 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Dinner. Roast turkey 100 grams, bread-crumb stuffing 100 grams, cranberry 

sauce 160 grams, boiled onions 200 grams, mashed potatoes 150 grams, 

bread 75 grams, orange 200 grams, corn-starch custard 125 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Supper. Bread 100 grams, crackers 25 grams, stewed prunes 150 grams, butter 

40 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Saturday, December 26, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 200 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 1 

cup. 
Dinner. Clam chowder with onions, potatoes, and tomatoes 350 grams, bread 

75 grams, pickles 35 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Potato chips 100 grams, fried bacon 25 grams, bread 75 grams, jam 

75 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Sunday, December 27, 1903. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup, 

apple 200 grams. 
Dinner. Split-pea soup (thick) 200 grams, bread 75 grams, stewed tomatoes 

150 grams, pie 115 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Suet pudding (plum duff) 150 grams, apple sauce 125 grams, tea 

1 cup. 

Monday, December 28, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled Indian-meal 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, apple 200 grams. 
Dinner. Corned beef 75 grams, cabbage 200 grams, mashed potatoes 200 

grams, bread 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Rice pudding 150 grams, stewed peaches 100 grams, crackers 40 grams, 

butter 15 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Tuesday, December 29, 1903. 

Breakfast. Fried Indian-meal 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple 

210 grams. 
Dinner. Boiled macaroni 200 grams, stewed tomatoes 250 grams, bread 50 

grams, apple pie 140 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Potato chips 100 grams, fried bacon 35 grams, bread 75 grams, jam 

75 grams, tea 1 cup. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 307 



Wednesday, December 30, 1903. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 1 

cup, apple 150 grams, baked potato 100 grams. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with bread, fat, and onions 150 grams, boiled potatoes 

200 grams, apple sauce 200 grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Biscuit 150 grams, butter 20 grams, stewed prunes 150 grams, tea 1 

cup. 



Thursday, December 31, 1903. 

Breakfast. Apple 175 grams, fried rice 100 grams, syrup 56 grams, coffee 1 

cup, baked potato 90 grams. 
Dinner. Split-pea soup (thick) 200 grams, bread 75 grams, pickles 30 grams, 

boiled potato 100 grams, coffee 1 cup, pie 115 grams. 
Supper. Bread pudding 250 grams, stewed peaches 100 grams, crackers 20 

grams, butter 10 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Friday, January 1, 190$.. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, apple 175 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, baked potato 100 grams. 
Dinner. Clam chowder with onions, potatoes, and tomatoes 350 grams, bread 

75 grams, ice cream 200 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Suet pudding 150 grams, apple sauce 125 grams, crackers 25 grams, 

tea 1 cup. 



Saturday, January 2, 1904- 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 1 

cup, apple 190 grams, baked potato 100 grams. 
Dinner. Baked macaroni with small amount of cheese 200 grams, stewed 

tomatoes 200 grams, bread 50 grams, pie 115 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Biscuit 125 grams, butter 20 grams, fried bacon 30 grams, baked 

potato 150 grams, stewed prunes 150 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Sunday, January 3, 1904' 

Breakfast. Apple 190 grams, fried rice 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked 

potato 90 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Baked potato 150 grams, dried beef 60 grams, stewed with milk 

50 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 20 grams, coffee 1 cup, pickles 20 grams, 

tapioca-peach pudding 125 grams. 
Supper. Apple fritters 200 grams, stewed prunes 125 grams, bread 50 grams, 

butter 15 grams, tea 1 cup. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Monday, January If, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled Indian-meal 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, 

bread 35 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Tomato soup with potatoes and onions boiled together 325 grams, 

bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup, bread pudding 150 grams. 
Supper. Biscuit 175 grams, butter 30 grams, jam 125 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Tuesday, January 5, 1904- 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, baked 

potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Split-pea soup (thick) 300 grams, bread 75 grams, pickles 30 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, pie 100 grams. 
Supper. Fried bacon 30 grams, potato chips 100 grams, bread 75 grams, jam 

60 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Wednesday, January 6, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried hominy 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple 200 

grams. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with plenty of bread, fat, and onions 150 grams, boiled 

potatoes 200 grams, apple sauce 200 grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Biscuit 150 grams, butter 20 grams, stewed prunes 150 grams, tea 

1 cup. 

Thursday, January 7, 190%. 

Breakfast. Apple 190 grams, boiled rice 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 

grams, coffee 1 cup, baked potato 100 grams. 
Dinner. Baked macaroni with small amount of cheese 200 grams, stewed 

tomatoes 200 grams, bread 50 grams, coffee 1 cup, pie 130 grams. 
Supper. Suet pudding 150 grams, apple sauce 125 grams, crackers 25 grams, 

tea 1 cup. 

Friday, January 8, 1904. 

Breakfast. Apple 150 grams, wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, 

coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Fish-balls with creamed potatoes 150 grams, stewed tomatoes 200 

grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup, tapioca-peach pudding 125 grams. 
Supper. Biscuit 150 grams, butter 20 grams, stewed peaches 150 grams, tea 1 

cup, baked potato 100 grams. 

Saturday, January 9, 1904. 

Breakfast. Apple 200 grams, boiled rice 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 
grams, butter 10 grams, baked potato 100 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Baked potato 150 grams, dried beef 50 grams, stewed with milk 20 
grams, bread 75 grams, butter 20 grams, pickles 20 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. Apple fritters 200 grams, stewed prunes 125 grams, bread 50 grams, 
butter 15 grams, tea 1 cup. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 309 

Sunday, January 10, 1904- 

Breakfast. Fried rice 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple 250 

grams. 
Dinner. Tomato soup with potatoes and onions boiled together 325 grams, 

bread 75 grams, bread pudding 150 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Toasted bread 100 grams, butter 20 grams, sardine 25 grams, stewed 

prunes 150 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Monday, January 11, 1904- 

Breakfast. Boiled Indian-meal 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, 
bread 35 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Boiled fresh beef 75 grains, boiled cabbage 200 grams, mashed pota- 
toes 200 grams, bread 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. Rice pudding 150 grams, stewed peaches 100 grams, crackers 30 
grams, butter 10 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Tuesday, January 12, 1904-. 

Breakfast. Fried Indian-meal 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup = 350 

grams or 867 cc., bread 50 grams, butter 15 grams. 
Dinner. Boiled macaroni 250 grams, stewed tomatoes 250 grams, bread 75 

grams, coffee 1 cup, 367 grams. 
Supper. Potato chips 100 grams, fried bacon 25 grams, bread 75 grams, jam 

75 grams, tea 1 cup = 350 cc. 

Total nitrogen, 7.793 grams. Fuel value, 2404 calories. 

Wednesday, January 13, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 150 grams, milk 130 cc. 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, 

butter 10 grams, bread 30 grains, coffee 1 cup = 350 cc. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with plenty of bread, fat, and onions chopped together 

150 grams, boiled potatoes 200 grams, apple sauce 200 grams, bread 75 

grams, coffee 1 cup = 350 cc. 
Supper. Fried rice 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, tea 350 cc., bread 50 grams, 

butter 15 grams. 
Total nitrogen, 9.992 grams. Fuel value, 2133 calories. 

Thursday, January 14, 1904- 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, butter 

10 grams, bread 30 grams, coffee 1 cup = 350 cc. 
Dinner. Split-pea soup (thick) 200 grams, bread 75 grams, mashed potatoes 

100 grams, pickles 30 grams, coffee 1 cup = 350 cc., pie 120 grams. 
Supper. Suet pudding 150 grams, apple sauce 125 grams, crackers 25 grams, 

tea 1 cup = 350 cc. 

Total nitrogen, 7.412 grams. Fuel value, 2000 calories. 



310 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

Friday, January 15, 1904. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup = 

350 cc. 
Dinner. Codfish-balls (4 parts potato, 1 part fish, fried in pork fat) 158 grams, 

stewed tomatoes 200 grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup = 350 cc., apple 

pie 95 grams. 
Supper. Apple fritters 200 grams, stewed prunes (stones not included) 125 

grams, bread 50 grams, butter 15 grams, tea 1 cup = 350 cc. 

Total nitrogen, 8.560 grams. Fuel value, 2030 calories. 

Saturday, January 16, 1904- 

Breakfast. Soft oatmeal 150 grams, milk 100 grams, sugar 30 grams, bread 30 

grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup 350 cc. 
Dinner. Baked macaroni 'with a little cheese 200 grams, stewed tomatoes 200 

grams, bread 50 grams, tapioca-peacli pudding 150 grams, coffee 1 cup 

= 350 cc. 
Supper. French fried potatoes 100 grams, fried bacon 20 grams, bread 75 

grams, jam 75 grams, tea 1 cup = 350 cc. 
Total nitrogen, 7.282 grams. Fuel value, 1824 calories. 

Sunday, January 17, 190 4. 

Breakfast. Boiled Indian meal 125 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, 
butter 10 grams, bread 30 grams, coffee 1 cup 350 cc. 

Dinner. Bean soup (thick) 200 grams, bread 75 grams, mashed potato 100 
grams, pickles 25 grams, coffee 1 cup = 350 cc., custard pie 105 grams. 

Supper. Crackers 50 grams, butter 15 grams, stewed prunes (without stones) 
125 grams, sponge cake 100 grams, tea 350 cc. 

Total nitrogen, 8.349 grams. Fuel value, 2081 calories. 

Monday, January 18, 1904- 

Breakfast. Apple 150 grams, fried Indian-meal 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, 
baked potato 90 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Beef stow with potatoes and onions thickened with corn starch 300 
grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. Bread pudding 250 grams, stewed peaches 100 grams, crackers 25 
grams, butter 10 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Tuesday, January 19, 1904. 

Breakfast. Apple 180 grams, boiled rice 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 

grams, baked potato 100 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Tomato soup with potatoes and onions boiled together 350 grams, 

bread 75 grams, mashed potatoes 150 grams, pickles 30 grams, coffee 1 

cup, pie 129 grams. 
Supper. Biscuit 125 grams, butter 20 grams, apple sauce 175 grams, crackers 

16 grams, tea 1 cup. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 311 

Wednesday, January 20, 1904. 

Breakfast. Apple 150 grams, fried rice 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, biscuit 50 

grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Baked beans witli a little salt pork 150 grams, bread 75 grams, boiled 

onions 100 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. French fried potatoes 100 grams, fried bacon 20 grams, bread 50 
grams, butter 10 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Thursday, January 81, 1904. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, butter 10 grams, 

bread 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Mashed potatoes 200 grams, fried egg 33 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 

15 grams, apple pie 117 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Crackers 50 grams, butter 10 grams, stewed prunes 125 grams, tea 

1 cup, sponge cake 50 grams. 



Friday, January 22, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled Indian-meal 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, 
coffee 1 cup, baked potato 100 grams, butter 10 grams. 

Dinner. Clam chowder with onions, potatoes, and tomatoes 200 grams, bread 
75 grams, mashed potato 100 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. Apple fritters 200 grams, jam 75 grams, tea 1 cup, gingerbread 30 
grams. 



Saturday, January 23, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 

1 cup, butter 10 grams, baked potato 150 grams. 
Dinner. Boiled macaroni 250 grams, stewed tomatoes 250 grams, bread 75 

grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. French fried potatoes 125 grams, fried bacon 30 grams, bread 100 

grams, jam 75 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Sunday, January 24, 1904' 

Breakfast. Fried rice 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 125 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, apple 150 grams. 
Dinner. Split-pea soup 200 grams, bread 100 grams, pickles 30 grams, mashed 

potatoes 200 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple pie 100 grams. 
Supper. Baked apple with sugar 150 grams, crackers 50 grams, butter 20 

grams, tea 1 cup, potato chips 50 grams. 



312 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Monday, January 86, 1904- 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 150 grams, milk 126 grams, sugar 30 grams, coffee 

1 cup, baked potato 100 grams, butter 10 grams. 
Dinner. Meat pie 200 grams (with 30 grams meat), boiled cabbage 200 grains, 

mashed potatoes 200 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Sponge cake 100 grams, stewed peaches 100 grams, crackers 26 

grams, butter 10 grams, tea 1 cup, baked potato 115 grams. 



Tuesday, January 26, 1904. 

Breakfast. Apple 140 grams, wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, bread 50 grams, butter 10 grains. 
Dinner. Baked beans with a little salt pork 150 grams, boiled onions 100 

grams, bread 75 grams, bread pudding 150 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Biscuit 175 grams, butter 20 grams, apple sauce 125 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Wednesday, January 27, 1904. 

Breakfast. French fried potatoes 150 grams, fried bacon 20 grams, bread 75 
grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple 170 grams. 

Dinner. Split-pea soup (thick) 200 grams, bread 75 grams, mashed potatoes 
100 grams, boiled onions 150 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. Kice pudding with raisins 200 grams, apple sauce 150 grams, crackers 
25 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Thursday, January 28, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried rice 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, bread 50 grams, coffee 

1 cup, banana 75 grams. 
Dinner. Baked potato 170 grams, dried beef 40 grams, stewed with milk 30 

grams, bread 75 grams, butter 20 grams, pickles 20 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Apple fritters 200 grams, stewed prunes 125 grams, bread 50 grams, 

butter 15 grams, peach pie 120 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Friday, January 29, 1904- 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup, 

French fried potatoes 50 grams. 
Dinner. Oyster soup* 300 grams, crackers 50 grams, bread 100 grams, coffee 

1 cup, salad made of lettuce leaves, chopped apple, and celery with oil, 

salt, and pepper 75 grams. 
Supper. Biscuit 175 grams, butter 20 grams, jam 125 grams, tea 1 cup, apple 

175 grams. 



* In each bowl of soup were 90 grams of oysters, 20 grams of butter, and 190 
grams of milk. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 313 



Saturday, January 30, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled oatmeal 125 grams, milk 100 grams, sugar 25 grains, coffee 

1 cup, baked potato 50 grams, butter 10 grams. 
Dinner. French fried potatoes 200 grams, cold roast beef 40 grams, bread 

75 grams, pickles 30 grams, carrots 125 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Apple-rice pudding 200 grams, stewed prunes 150 grams, bread 100 

grams, butter 30 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Sunday, January 31, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled Indian-meal 200 grams, milk 100 grams, sugar 25 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, bread 50 grams. 
Dinner. Tomato soup with potatoes and onions boiled together 325 grams, 

bread 100 grams, fried egg 30 grams, baked potato 140 grams, coffee 

1 cup. 
Supper. Lettuce-apple-celery salad 100 grams, bread 100 grams, butter 20 

grams, stewed peaches 150 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Monday, February 1, 190 J^. 

Breakfast. Fried Indian-meal 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, bread 50 grams, 

butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Baked beans 120 grams, with salt pork 30 grams, boiled onions 100 

grams, mashed potatoes 200 grams, bread 75 grams, apple pie 120 grams, 

coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Apple fritters 200 grams, stewed prunes 125 grams, crackers 32 

grams, butter 15 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Tuesday, February 2, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried hominy 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, apple 160 grams, bread 

50 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Boiled macaroni 250 grams, stewed tomatoes 250 grams, bread 76 

grams, pie 120 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Biscuit 175 grams, butter 20 grams, crackers 25 grams, stewed 

prunes 125 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Wednesday, February 3, 1904. 

Breakfast. French fried potatoes 150 grams, fried bacon 20 grams, bread 50 

grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Corned beef 40 grams, cabbage 200 grams, mashed potatoes 200 grams, 

bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup, boiled rice 200 grains, syrup 50 grams. 
Supper. Lettuce-apple-celery salad 150 grams, bread 100 grams, butter 20 

grams, jam 75 grams, tea 1 cup. 



314 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Thursday, February 4, 1904. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, coffee 1 cup, 
baked potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams. 

Dinner. Barley broth with potatoes and onions 250 grams, wheat flour 
dumplings 150 grams, boiled turnips 200 grams, bread 75 grams, tapioca- 
peach pudding 200 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. Suet pudding 150 grams, baked apple with sugar 150 grams, crackers 
25 grams, stewed prunes 150 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Friday, February 5, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana 100 grams, French fried potatoes 200 grams, biscuit 175 

grams, butter 20 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Boiled codfish 60 grams, mashed potatoes 250 grams, boiled onions 

200 grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Bread pudding with raisins 250 grams, stewed peaches 150 grams, 

crackers 25 grams, butter 10 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Saturday, February 6, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 175 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, coffee 

1 cup, banana 90 grams. 
Dinner. Baked beans 70 grams, with salt pork 30 grams, bread 75 grams, 

boiled sweet potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple pie 

100 grains. 
Supper. French fried potatoes 125 grams, celery-lettuce-apple salad 150 grams, 

bread 100 grams, butter 20 grams, jam 75 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Sunday, February 7, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried rice 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 140 grams, 

butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with much bread, fat, and onions 150 grams, boiled 

potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Tapioca-peach pudding 250 grams, sponge cake 75 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Monday, February 8, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, bread 

60 grams, stewed prunes 150 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Baked spaghetti with a little grated cheese 200 grams, mashed potato 

200 grams, bread 75 grams, boiled tomato 150 grams, pickles 20 grams, 

fruit pie, 130 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Biscuit 175 grams, fried bacon 20 grams, French fried potatoes 150 

grams, butter 20 grams, tea 1 cup. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 315 



Tuesday, February 9, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried hominy 125 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 150 grams, 

butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Boiled sweet potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams, bread 75 grams, 

thick pea soup 200 grams, boiled onions 150 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple 

pie 150 grams. 
Supper. Celery -lettuce-apple salad 150 grams, crackers 32 grams, cheese 

(American) 20 grams, Saratoga chips 75 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Wednesday, February 10, 1904. 

Breakfast. "Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, butter 10 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, banana 90 grams. 
Dinner. Boiled salt mackerel 25 grams, boiled potatoes 200 grams, boiled 

turnips 200 grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple 140 grams. 
Supper. Chocolate cake 150 grams, cranberry sauce 100 grams, chopped 

fresh cabbage with salt, pepper, and vinegar 100 grams, bread 75 grams, 

butter 20 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Thursday, February 11, 1904. 

Breakfast. Breakfast food 40 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, baked 
potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple 130 grams. 

Dinner. Baked beans 70 grams, salt pork 30 grams, bread 75 grams, boiled 
cabbage 200 grams, boiled potato 150 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. Tapioca-peach pudding 250 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 20 grams, 
tea 1 cup, cranberry sauce 100 grams. 



Friday, February 12, 1904. 

Breakfast. Breakfast food 40 grams, milk 125 grams, banana 90 grams, 

French fried potatoes 200 grams, sugar 25 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Clam chowder with onions, potatoes, and tomatoes 200 grams, bread 

75 grams, mashed potato 200 grams, boiled turnips 150 grams, pie 125 

grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Apple fritters 200 grams, jam 75 grams, tea 1 cup, gingerbread 30 

grams. 

Saturday, February 13, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 150 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, coffee 1 

cup, baked potato 100 grams, butter 10 grams. 
Dinner. Meat pie with meat, potatoes, and onions 200 grams, boiled cabbage 

200 grams, boiled potatoes 200 grams, bread 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Lettuce-apple-celery salad 150 grams, biscuit 150 grams, butter 20 

grams, tea 1 cup, stewed prunes 125 grams. 



316 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Sunday, February 14, 1904. 

Breakfast. Apple 140 grams, fried rice 125 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked 
sweet potato 142 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Tomato soup with potatoes and onions boiled together, thickened 
with corn starch 350 grams, bread 75 grams, canned string beans 100 
grams, baked apple with sugar 140 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. Small fried sausage 50 grams, French.fried potatoes 200 grams, bread 
50 grams, butter 10 grams, stewed prunes 100 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Monday, February 15, 1904- 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, Johnny cake 50 

grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak, with bread, fat, and onions 150 grams, boiled potato 

200 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup, pickles 25 grams. 
Supper. Boiled Lima beans thoroughly cooked 75 grams, mashed potato 150 

grams, bread 75 grams, butter 10 grams, tea 1 cup, stewed peaches 

125 grams. 

Tuesday, February 16, 1904. 

Breakfast. Brown bread 50 grams, baked potato 230 grams, butter 20 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, apple 140 grams. 
Dinner. Boiled macaroni 250 grams, stewed tomatoes 250 grams, French fried 

potatoes 150 grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup, pie 130 grams. 
Supper. Fried bacon 25 grams, potatoes stewed in cream 250 grams, rice 

pudding 200 grams, bread 50 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Wednesday, February 17, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried rice 125 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked sweet potato 190 
grams, butter 10 grams, bread 50 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Corned beef 40 grams, cabbage 200 grams, mashed potato 200 grams, 
bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup, tapioca-peach pudding 200 grams. 

Supper. Lettuce-apple-celery salad 150 grams, bread 100 grams, butter 20 
grams, cranberry sauce 125 grams, tea 1 cup, baked potato 100 grams. 



Thursday, February 18, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 175 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, coffee 

1 cup, banana 110 grams. 
Dinner. Split-pea soup (thick) 200 grams, bread 100 grams, mashed potatoes 

200 grams, boiled onions 200 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Corned-beef hash (mostly potato) 125 grams, bread 50 grams, fried 

sweet potato 150 grams, butter 20 grams, tea 1 cup, jam 75 grams. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 317 



Friday, February, 19, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried hominy 125 grams, syrup 60 grams, baked potato 150 grams, 

butter 10 grams, pple 140 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Boiled salt mackerel 25 grams, boiled potatoes 250 grains, boiled 

turnips 200 grams, broad 75 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple pie 100 grains. 
Supper. Chocolate cake 150 grams, cranberry sauce 125 grams, chopped fresh 

cabbage with salt, pepper, and vinegar 100 grams, bread 75 grains, 

butter 20 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Saturday, February 20, 1904. 

Breakfast. Breakfast food 40 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, French 
fried potatoes 200 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Barley broth with potatoes and onions 250 grams, wheat flour dump- 
lings 150 grams, boiled carrots 150 grams, bread 75 grams, boiled sweet 
potato 180 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. Suet pudding 150 grams, baked apple with sugar 150 grams, crackers 
25 grams, stewed prunes 150 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Sunday, February 21, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled oatmeal (thin) 125 grams, milk 100 grains, sugar 25 grams, 
baked potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Roast beef 40 grams, mashed potato 250 grams, bread 75 grams, apple 
sauce 150 grams, stewed tomatoes 150 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. Bread pudding 200 grams, cranberry sauce 200 grams, potato chips 
100 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Monday, February ##, 1904. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, butter 10 grams, 

baked potato 130 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Boiled macaroni 200 grams, stewed tomatoes 250 grams, French fried 

potatoes 200 grams, bread 35 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple sauce 150 grams. 
Supper. Lettuce-apple-celery salad 150 grams, biscuit 150 grams, butter 20 

grams, stewed prunes 125 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Tuesday, February 23, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 175 grams, milk 100 grams, sugar 25 grams, coffee 

1 cup, banana 90 grams. 
Dinner. Bean soup (thick) 200 grams, mashed potato 250 grams, bread 35 

grams, butter 10 grams, boiled onions 150 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple pie 

100 grams. 
Supper. French fried potatoes 100 grams, crackers 25 grams, butter 15 grams, 

tea 1 cup, stewed peaches 150 grams. 



318 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Wednesday, February 24, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried rice 125 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 150 grams, 

butter 10 grams, bread 35 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Boiled codfish 50 grams, mashed potato 250 grams, boiled carrots 150 

grams, bread 60 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Bread pudding with raisins 250 grams, jam 75 grams, crackers 25 

grams, butter 15 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Thursday, February 25, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 175 grams, milk 100 grams, sugar 25 grams, coffee 

1 cup, baked sweet potato 125 grams, butter 10 grams. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with much bread, fat, and onions 150 grams, boileil 

potatoes 200 grams, butter 15 grams, bread 50 grams, coffee 1 cup, pickles 

35 grams. 
Supper. Tapioca-apple pudding 250 grams, sponge cake 75 grams, cranberry 

sauce 100 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Friday, February 26, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried hominy 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, bread 50 grams, butter 

10 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple 150 grams. 
Dinner. Oyster chowder with tomatoes, potatoes, and onions 200 grams, bread 

75 grams, string beans 150 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Suet pudding with plums 125 grams, apple sauce 150 grams, baked 

sweet potato 200 grams, crackers 25 grams, butter 10 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Saturday, February 27, 1904. 

Breakfast. Soft boiled oatmeal 125 grams, milk 100 grams, sugar 25 grams, 
coffee 1 cup, butter 10 grams, baked potato 140 grams. 

Dinner. Lyonnaise potato 175 grams, bacon 25 grams, boiled turnips 200 grams, 
coffee 1 cup, rice pudding 160 grams. 

Supper. Banana fritters 200 grams, stewed prunes 150 grams, crackers 25 
grams, butter 10 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Sunday, February 28, 1904. 

Breakfast. Stewed peaches 150 grams, wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 
50 grams, coffee 1 cup, baked potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams. 

Dinner. Barley broth witli potatoes and onions 250 grams, wheat flour dump- 
lings 150 grams, French fried potatoes 150 grams, bread 35 grams, coffee 
1 cup, ice cream 100 grams. 

Supper. Saratoga chips 75 grams, fried sausage 40 grams, butter 15 grams, 
bread 50 grams, tea 1 cup. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 319 



Monday, February 29, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 175 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, baked 

potato 150 grams, coffee 1 cup, 350 grains, butter 10 grams. 
Dinner. Baked spaghetti 250 grams, mashed potato 250 grams, bread 75 

grams, boiled tomatoes 150 grams, apple pie 112 grams, coffee 1 cup, 350 

grams. 
Supper. Biscuit 175 grams, fried bacon 20 grams, fried sweet potatoes 150 

grams, butter 20 grams, tea 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Total nitrogen, 10.466 grams. Fuel value, 2670 calories. 



Tuesday, March 1, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried rice 150 grams, syrup 60 grams, baked potato 150 grams, 
butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup, 350 grams. 

Dinner. Thick pea-soup 250 grams, boiled onions 150 grams, boiled sweet 
potato 150 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 20 grams, coffee 1 cup, 350 
grams. 

Supper. Celery -lettuce-apple salad 120 grams, crackers 32 grams, American 
cheese 20 grams, Saratoga chips 79 grams, tea 1 cup, 350 grams, rice cus- 
tard 100 grams. 
Total nitrogen, 7.825 grams. Fuel value, 2279 calories. 



Wednesday, March 2, 190 4. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, butter 10 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, 350 grams, banana 75 grams. 
Dinner. Boiled salt mackerel 25 grams, boiled potatoes 250 grams, boiled 

turnips 150 grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup, 350 grams, apple sauce 

150 grams. 
Supper. Chopped fresh cabbage with salt, pepper, and vinegar, 100 grams, 

bread 75 grams, butter 20 grams, chocolate cake 150 grams, cranberry 

sauce 100 grams, tea 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Total nitrogen, 8.487 grams. Fuel value, 2391 calories. 



Thursday, March 3, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 175 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, baked 

potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with much bread, fat and onions 150 grams, boiled 

potato 250 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 10 grains, coffee 1 cup, 350 

grams. 
Supper. Tapioca-peach pudding 250 grams, bread 75 grams, jam 75 grams, 

butter 20 grams, tea 1 cup, 350 grams. 

Total nitrogen, 8.750 grams. Fuel value, 2375 calories. 



820 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Friday, March 4, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried hominy 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 150 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, 350 grams, butter 10 grams. 
Dinner. Codfish-balls (1 part fish 4 parts potato) fried in pork fat 150 grams, 

stewed tomatoes 200 grams, stewed potatoes 150 grams, bread 75 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, 350 grams, apple pie 130 grams. 
Supper. French fried potatoes 200 grams, fried sausage 50 grams, butter 10 

grams, stewed prunes 125 grams, sponge cake 35 grams, bread 60 grams, 

tea 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Total nitrogen, 10.427 grams. Fuel value, 2374 calories. 



Saturday, March 5, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled Indian-meal 200 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, 350 grams, fried sweet potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams. 
Dinner. Tomato soup thick, with potatoes and onions boiled together 325 

grams, bread 100 grams, scrambled egg 50 grams, mashed potato 150 

grams, coffee 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Supper. Bread pudding with raisins 250 grams, stewed peaches 150 grams, 

bacon 20 grams, French fried potatoes 150 grams, bread 50 grams, butter 

10 grams, tea 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Total nitrogen, 10.483 grams. Fuel value, 2302 calories. 



Sunday, March 6, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried Indian-meal 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, sliced banana 100 

grams, baked potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Dinner. Corned beef 50 grams, boiled cabbage 200 grams, mashed potato 250 

grams, bread 75 grams, fried rice 100 grams, jam 75 grams, coffee 1 cup, 

350 grams. 
Supper. Sponge cake 150 grams, apple sauce 150 grams, crackers 32 grams, 

butter 10 grams, sardine 14 grams, tea 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Total Nitrogen, 10.265 grams. Fuel value, 3173 calories. 



Monday, March 7, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 175 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, baked 

potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
j)i nner . Baked spaghetti 300 grams, mashed potato 250 grams, bread 75 

grams, boiled tomatoes 200 grams, apple pie 125 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Biscuit 175 grams, fried bacon 30 grams, fried sweet potato 200 

grams, butter 20 grams, tea 1 cup. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 321 
Tuesday, March 8, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried rice 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 200 grams, 

butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Thick pea-soup 300 grams, boiled sweet potato 250 grams, boiled 

onions 150 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 20 grams, pickles 30 grams, 

coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. French fried potatoes 150 grams, fried bacon 20 grams, crackers 32 

grams, apple sauce 200 grams, rice custard 100 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Wednesday, March 9, 1904. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, butter 10 grams, 

banana 90 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Boiled salt mackerel 25 grams, boiled potato 250 grams, boiled 

turnips 200 grams, bread 75 grams, apple sauce 200 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Chopped fresh cabbage with salt, pepper and vinegar, 75 grams, 

bread 75 grams, butter 20 grams, chocolate cake 150 grams, cranberry 

sauce 100 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Thursday, March 10, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 175 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, baked 

potato 250 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with much bread, fat, and onions 150 grams, boiled 

potato, 250 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup, pickles 

30 grams. 
Supper. Tapioca-peach pudding 250 grams, bread 75 grams, jam 100 grams, 

butter 20 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Friday, March 11, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried hominy 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 250 grams, 

butter 10 grams, apple sauce 150 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Codfish-balls (1 part fish, 4 parts potato, fried in pork fat) 150 grams, 

stewed tomatoes 200 grams, stewed potatoes 250 grams, bread 75 grams, 

apple pie 130 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. French fried potatoes 200 grams, fried sausage 50 grams, bread 50 

grams, butter 10 grams, stewed prunes 125 grams, sponge cake 35 grams, 

tea 1 cup. 

Saturday, March 12, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled Indian-meal 200 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, fried sweet potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams. 
Dinner. Tomato soup thick, with potatoes and onions 325 grams, bread 100 

grams, fried egg 30 grams, mashed potato 250 grams, coffee 1 cup, 

pickles 30 grams. 
Supper. Fried bacon 20 grams, French fried potatoes 150 grams, bread 50 

grams, butter 10 grams, bread pudding with raisins 250 grams, stewed 

peaches 200 grams, tea 1 cup. 

21 



322 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Sunday, March 13, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried Indian-meal 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, apple sauce 200 

grams, baked potato 250 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with much bread, fat, and onions 150 grams, boiled 

cabbage 200 grams, boiled potatoes 250 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 10 

grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Suet pudding 150 grams, stewed peaches 200 grams, crackers 32 

grams, butter 10 grams, sardine 30 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Monday, March 14, 1904. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, butter 10 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, banana 80 grams. 
Dinner. Baked spaghetti 300 grams, mashed potato 250 grams, bread 75 

grams, stewed tomatoes 200 grams, coffee 1 cup, baked apple with sugar 

150 grams. 
Supper. Biscuit 175 grams, fried bacon 20 grams, fried sweet potato 200 

grams, butter 20 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Tuesday, March 15, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 176 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, baked 

potato 200 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Thick pea-soup 300 grams, boiled potatoes 250 grams, boiled onions 

150 grams, pickles 30 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 20 grams, coffee 1 

cup, rice custard 100 grams. 
Supper. Fried bacon 20 grams, French fried potatoes 200 grams, bread 50 

grams, apple sauce 200 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Wednesday, March 16, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried rice 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 200 grams, 

butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Codfish-balls (1 part fish, 4 parts potato, fried in pork fat) 150 grams, 

stewed potatoes 250 grams, stewed tomatoes 200 grams, bread 75 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, apple pie 125 grams. 
Supper. Apple-lettuce-celery salad 100 grams, bread 100 grams, butter 20 

grams, stewed peaches 200 grams, tea 1 cup, sponge cake 50 grams. 

Thursday, March 17, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 175 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, baked 

potato 250 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with much bread, fat, and onions 150 grams, mashed 

potato 250 grams, pickles 30 grams, bread 50 grams, butter 10 grams, 

boiled turnips 150 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Tapioca-peach pudding 250 grams, bread 75 grams, jam 100 grams, 

butter 20 grams, tea 1 cup. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 323 



Friday, March 18, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried hominy 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 250 

grams, butter 10 grams, apple sauce 160 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Clam chowder with much potato, tomato and onions 250 grams, 

bread 75 grams, mashed potato 150 grams, boiled sweet potato 150 

grams, coffee 1 cup, pickles 30 grams. 
Supper. Bread pudding with raisins 250 grams, stewed peaches 200 grams, 

fried bacon 20 grams, French fried potatoes 150 grams, crackers 24 

grams, butter 10 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Saturday, March 19, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled Indian-meal 200 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, 
fried sweet potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Tomato soup thick, with potatoes and onions 325 grams, bread 100 
grams, mashed potato 250 grams, coffee 1 cup, pickles 30 grams. 

Supper. Fried egg 30 grams, baked potato 250 grams, butter 20 grams, 
biscuit 175 grams, tea 1 cup, stewed prunes 125 grams. 

Sunday, March 20, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried Indian-meal 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 250 

grams, butter 20 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple 150 grams. 
Dinner. Roast beef 50 grams, mashed potato 250 grams, boiled carrots 100 

grams, bread 50 grams, apple pie 130 grams, coffee 1 cup, pickles 30 

grams. 
Supper. Apple fritters 200 grams, cranberry sauce 150 grams, gingerbread 

30 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Monday, March 21, 1904. 

Breakfast. Wheat griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, butter 10 grams, 
baked potato 200 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Baked spaghetti 250 grams, mashed potato 250 grams, stewed toma- 
toes 150 grams, bread 75 grams, apple pie 125 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Supper. Biscuit 150 grams, fried bacon 20 grams, fried sweet potatoes 150 
grams, butter 20 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Tuesday, March 22, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled rice 175 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, baked 

potatoes 150 grams, coffee 1 cup, butter 10 grams. 
Dinner. Thick pea-soup 250 grams, boiled onions 150 grams, boiled sweet 

potato 150 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 20 grams, coffee 1 cup, pickles 

25 grams. 
Supper. Banana with sugar 75 grams, crackers 32 grams, American cheese 

20 grams, Saratoga chips 75 grains, tea 1 cup, rice custard 100 grams. 



324 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Wednesday, March 23, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried rice 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 150 grams, 
butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple 150 grams. 

Dinner. Boiled salt mackerel 25 grams, boiled potato 250 grams, boiled tur- 
nips 150 grams, pickle 20 grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple 
sauce 100 grams. 

Supper. Chopped fresh cabbage with salt, pepper, and vinegar 100 grams, 
bread 75 grams, butter 20 grams, chocolate cake 100 grams, cranberry 
sauce 100 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Thursday, March % 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 175 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, baked 

potato 150 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with much bread, fat, and onions 150 grams, boiled 

potatoes 250 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Tapioca-peach pudding 250 grams, bread 75 grams, jam 75 grams, 

butter 20 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Friday, March 25, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried hominy 160 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 150 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, apple 150 grams. 
Dinner. Codfish-balls (1 part fish, 4 parts potato, fried in pork fat) 150 grams, 

stewed tomatoes 200 grams, stewed potatoes 150 grams, bread 75 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, apple pie 130 grams. 
Supper. French fried potatoes 200 grams, fried bacon 20 grams, butter 10 

grams, bread 50 grams, stewed prunes 125 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Saturday, March 26, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled Indian-meal 175 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 grams, 

butter 10 grams, fried sweet potato 150 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Tomato soup with potato and onions boiled together 325 grams, bread 

100 grams, fried egg 40 grams, mashed potato 150 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Saratoga chips 50 grams, fried bacon 20 grams, bread 50 grams, 

butter 10 grams, bread pudding with raisins 250 grams, stewed peaches 

160 grams, tea 1 cup. 

Sunday, March 27, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried Indian-meal 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 150 

grams, coffee 1 cup, butter 10 grams, banana 90 grams. 
Dinner. Corned beef 40 grams, boiled cabbage 200 grams, mashed potato 250 

grams, bread 75 grams, coffee 1 cup, squash pie 130 grams. 
Supper. Suet pudding 150 grams, apple sauce 150 grams, crackers 32 grams, 

butter 10 grams, chopped cabbage with salt, pepper, and vinegar 60 

grams, tea 1 cup. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 320 



Monday, March 28, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried rice 150 grams, syrup 75 grams, baked potato 250 grams, 

butter 20 grams, coffee, 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Dinner. Thick pea-soup 200 grams, boiled onions 100 grams, boiled sweet 

potato 250 grams, bread 50 grams, mashed potato 200 grams, butter 20 

grams, coffee 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Supper. Biscuit 125 grams, fried bacon 20 grams, French fried potatoes 200 

grams, butter 25 grams, banana 150 grams, tea 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Total nitrogen, 9.027 grams. Fuel value, 2935 calories. 



Tuesday, March 29, 1904. 

Breakfast. Boiled hominy 175 grams, milk 75 grams, sugar 25 grams, baked 

potato 250 grams, butter 20 grams, coffee 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak with much bread, fat, and onions 125 grams, boiled 

potatoes 300 grams, butter 10 grams, bread 35 grams, boiled carrots 125 

grams, coffee 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Supper. Tapioca-peach pudding 300 grams, bread 35 grams, Saratoga chips 

75 grams, butter 20 grams, jam 75 grams, tea 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Total nitrogen, 8.972 grams. Fuel value, 2840 calories. 



Wednesday, March 30, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried hominy 150 grams, syrup 75 grams, butter 10 grams, banana 

250 grams, coffee 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Dinner. Codfish-balls ( 1 part fish, 5 parts potato, fried in pork fat) 125 grams, 

bread 35 grams, mashed potatoes 250 grams, stewed tomatoes 200 grams, 

apple sauce 200 grams, coffee 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Supper. Chopped fresh cabbage with salt, pepper, and vinegar, 75 grams, 

bread 50 grams, butter 20 grams, fried sweet potato 250 grams, cranberry 

sauce 200 grams, sponge cake 50 grams, tea 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Total nitrogen, 9.356 grams. Fuel value, 2657 calories. 



Thursday, March 31, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried Indian-meal 100 grams, syrup 75 grams, baked potato 250 

grams, butter 20 grams, coffee, 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Dinner. Tomato soup thick, with potato and onions boiled together 300 grams 

mashed potato 200 grams, scrambled egg 50 grams, bread 50 grams, 

butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Supper. Fried bacon 20 grams, boiled potato 200 grams, butter 10 grams, 

bread pudding 150 grams, banana 200 grams, tea 1 cup, 350 grains. 
Total nitrogen, 8.420 grams. Fuel value, 2466 caloriea 



326 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Friday, April 1, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried hominy 150 grams, syrup 75 grams, baked potato 200 grams, 

butter 20 grams, coffee 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Dinner. Baked spaghetti 250 grams, mashed potato 250 grams, boiled turnips 

150 grams, bread 35 grams, butter 10 grams, apple sauce 200 grams, 

coffee 1 cup, 350 grams. 
Supper. Fried sweet potato 200 grams, butter 20 grams, jam 100 grams, fried 

bacon 25 grams, bread 35 grams, apple-tapioca pudding 300 grams, tea 1 

cup, 350 grams. 

Total nitrogen, 7.342 grams. Fuel value, 3248 calories. 



Saturday, April 2, 1904. 

Breakfast. Griddle cakes 200 grams, syrup 50 grams, baked potato 200 grams, 

butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup, apple 140 grams. 
Dinner. Boiled mackerel 25 grams, boiled potato 250 grams, boiled turnips 

150 grams, pickles 35 grams, bread 50 grams, pie 130 grams, butter 10 

grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Supper. Suet pudding 125 grams, cranberry sauce 150 grams, baked sweet 

potato 200 grams, crackers 25 grams, butter 10 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Sunday April 3, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana 90 grams, boiled rice 175 grams, milk 125 grams, sugar 25 

grams, baked potato 200 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 
Dinner. Corned beef 40 grams, boiled cabbage 200 grams, boiled potatoes 

200 grams, bread 75 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup, stewed prunes 

150 grams. 
Supper. Apple-tapioca pudding 250 grams, jam 75 grams, crackers 25 grams, 

butter 10 grams, pickles 25 grams, tea 1 cup. 



Monday, April 4, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fried rice 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, apple 130 grams, baked 
sweet potato 200 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 1 cup. 

Dinner. Lyonnaise potatoes 175 grams, bacon 25 grams, boiled turnips 200 
grams, pie 130 grams, coffee 1 cup, bread 75 grams. 

Supper. Biscuit 175 grams, butter 25 grams, egg 40 grams, stewed apples 150 
grams, tea 1 cup. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 327 



III. EXPERIMENTS WITH UNIVERSITY STUDENTS, 
TRAINED IN ATHLETICS. 

Men in training for athletic events deem it necessary to 
consume large amounts of proteid food. Great muscular 
activity, it is true, calls for the expenditure of corresponding 
amounts of energy, but it is by no means clear that the energy 
so liberated comes from the breaking down of proteid material. 
Indeed, there is more reason for believing that the energy of 
muscular contraction comes primarily from the oxidation 
of non-nitrogenous matter. Nevertheless, custom and long 
experience sanction a high proteid diet, composed largely of 
meat or of other foodstuffs rich in nitrogen, for the develop- 
ment of that vigor and strength that go to make the accom- 
plished athlete. For the development of new muscle tissue, 
to make two muscle fibres where before only one existed, to 
increase the number of available fibres, thereby adding to the 
bulk of the active tissue, a certain amount of proteid food 
is absolutely necessary, just as it is for all active tissues and 
organs of the body. But that this fact constitutes a satis- 
factory reason for the daily use of such quantities of proteid 
food as usually enter into the diet of the average athlete is 
very questionable. 

As an illustration of the character of the diet frequently 
made use of by men doing prolonged muscular work, I may 
quote a few figures from an article by Professor W. O. Atwater * 
and H. C. Sherman on " The effect of severe and prolonged 
muscular work upon Food consumption, Digestion, and Metab- 
olism," in which are recorded observations made upon several 
professional bicycle riders during a six-day race. On one 
day subject " M " rode 334.1 miles, consuming for food on 



* U. S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations, 
Bulletin 98. 

See also "Investigations on the Nutrition of Man in the United States." 
By C. F. Langworthy and R. D. Milner. U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Office of Experiment Stations. Washington, 1904, p. 14. 



328 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

that day meat extract, 311 grams; milk, 4937 grams; bread, 
35 grams ; boiled cereals, 877 grams ; pastry, 142 grams ; 
sugar, 53 grams; fruit, 2003 grams. His urine for the day 
contained 46.2 grams of nitrogen, corresponding to the metab- 
olism of 288.7 grams of proteid matter. Subject "A" on 
one day rode 352.7 miles, taking as food, meat, 149 grams ; 
meat extract, 24 grams ; broth, 283 grams ; eggs, 369 grams ; 
butter, 78 grams ; milk, 142 grams ; malted milk, 78 grams ; 
jelly, 213 grams; soup, 191 grams; bread, 361 grams; boiled 
cereal, 532 grams ; sugar, about 400 grams ; fruit, 933 grams ; 
cocoa wine, 198 grams. His day's urine contained 39.0 grams 
of nitrogen, corresponding to the metabolism of 243.7 grams 
of proteid material. 

Obviously, if such high proteid metabolism as these figures 
imply is a necessary concomitant of vigorous or excessive 
muscular activity, then a rich proteid diet is needed to make 
good the loss of nitrogen to the body ; but we are more in- 
clined to believe that the large quantity of nitrogen excreted 
was the result chiefly of the high proteid ration, and only in 
small measure connected with the work done. With a suffi- 
ciency of non-nitrogenous food, the energy of muscular con- 
traction does not come in any large degree from the breaking 
down of proteid matter, and there would seem to be no 
adequate reason for assuming a necessity for such rich and 
excessive proteid diet as athletes in training ordinarily adopt. 
Yet the contrary view is almost universally held and followed. 
As a prominent trainer said to the writer not long ago, "if 
the men are not fed on a rich meat diet and plenty of it, they 
will grow soft and lose their strength." 

With a view to testing some of these points and thereby 
broaden the scope of the investigation and enhance the value 
of the study, a group of eight students in the University, all 
trained athletes, was secured. These men volunteered to aid 
in the study, and at considerable self-sacrifice gave intelligent 
and hearty co-operation in all ways possible. The men were 
under observation from January 15, 1904, to the middle of 
June, 1904, a period of five months. From January 15 the 




STAPLETON 

Photograph taken in the middle of the experiment, in April. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 329 

urine was collected daily, and for a period of ten days the 
regular diet of the men was adhered to without any deviation 
whatever, with a view to ascertaining the extent of the pro- 
teid metabolism characteristic of each individual. No re- 
strictions whatever in diet were suggested, but the ordinary 
food that the men were accustomed to eat while in training 
was taken. After this period the men were instructed to 
diminish somewhat the intake of proteid food, and in follow- 
ing out this plan most of the men diminished quite appre- 
ciably the quantity of food consumed at breakfast time, and 
in some cases stopped taking food of any kind at breakfast 
other than a cereal, with possibly coffee. No specific diet was 
imposed, but the men, being willing collaborators in the ex- 
periment, gradually cut down the intake of proteid food, 
diminishing likewise in considerable measure the total volume 
of food for the twenty- four hours. 

The following brief description of the men, taken from Dr. 
Anderson's report of their physical condition, to be referred to 
later, will suffice to make clear the characteristics (as athletes) 
of these subjects of study : 

Mr. G. W. Anderson is a foot-ball, base-ball, and basket-ball 
player, as well as a crew man (not Varsity). Well built and 
an all round athlete. 26.5 years of age. 

Mr. W. L. Anderson, a " Y " athlete (hurdler), the captain 
of the Yale Gymnastic Team, University Gymnastic Champion, 
and American Collegiate Gymnastic Champion. 21.5 years 
of age. 

Mr. H. S. Bellis, a member of the Y. G. A., a gymnast 
and acrobat and in constant training. 26 years of age. 

Dr. W. H. Callahan, Medical Assistant at the Gymnasium, 
in daily practice in the gymnasium ; bowling, hand-ball, and 
running. 27 years of age. 

Mr. M. Donahue, a very muscular and versatile athlete, a 
foot-ball player and a Varsity basket-ball player. 25 years of 
age. 

Mr. C. S. Jacobus, a " Y" athlete, a noted long-distance man, 
and one of the best University runners. 22.3 years of age. 



330 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

Mr. H. R. Schenker, an active member of the Y. G. A., a 
point winner and intercollegiate competitor in gymnastics. 
22 years of age. 

Mr. John Stapleton, a wrestler and gymnast. A profes- 
sional, a man of large body and great strength. 24 years of 
age. 

The results of the daily study of the twenty-four hours' 
urine of each man for the entire period of five months are to 
be found in the accompanying tables. By a careful inspec- 
tion of these data many interesting facts are brought to light. 
First it is to be observed, in harmony with what has already 
been stated regarding athletes, that the men, as a rule, were 
accustomed to the taking of large amounts of proteid food 
daily. Thus, during the preliminary period of ten days, Dr. 
Callahan excreted through the kidneys 22.79 grams of nitro- 
gen as the daily average, corresponding to the metabolism of 
142 grams of proteid matter per day, while on one day the 
nitrogen excretion reached the high figure of 31.99 grams, 
corresponding practically to the metabolism of 200 grams of 
proteid material. 

G. W. Anderson, during the preliminary period of ten days 
on his ordinary diet showed an average daily excretion 
of 17.18 grams of nitrogen. W. L. Anderson in this same 
period excreted on an average 18.22 grams of nitrogen per day, 
while on one day the excretion reached 23.42 grams of nitrogen. 
Bellis showed an average daily excretion of 17.64 grams of 
nitrogen during this same fore period, while Stapleton excreted 
nitrogen at an average rate of 19.7 grams per day, thus in- 
dicating an average daily metabolism of 123 grams of proteid 
matter on his ordinary diet. With such data before us it is 
quite clear that we have here, as expected, a group of sturdy 
men accustomed to the taking of large amounts of proteid 
food daily ; men who clearly believed that their strength and 
bodily vigor depended in large measure upon the ingestion 
and utilization of these quantities of proteid food. 

After the termination of this preliminary period, the men 
began to diminish the amount of albuminons food. In doing 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 331 

this they were at first given perfect freedom, each man follow- 
ing his own preferences, and making such alterations in his 
diet as he saw fit. The men were instructed as to the chemical 
composition of the various foodstuffs, so that they had a gen- 
eral idea of what foods were rich in nitrogen and could act 
accordingly. Some of the men cut down their intake of pro- 
teid food very rapidly, others made more gradual reduction. 
Some soon eliminated breakfast almost entirely. Others re- 
duced the amount of food at each meal. Some of the men elim- 
inated meat almost completely from their diet, and increased 
largely the intake of vegetable food. They were all advised, 
however, not to make too sudden a change in their diet, but 
to adopt a gradual reduction in the daily food as being less 
liable to disturb their physiological equilibrium. Naturally, 
the men knew exactly how much of a reduction in proteid food 
they were accomplishing each week, from the results of the 
chemical analysis of the urine. Further, the record of body- 
weight furnished evidence of how far the changes in diet were 
affecting body equilibrium, while their own feelings and abil- 
ity to do their daily work constituted a check upon a too radi- 
cal change in living. Careful perusal of the tables will show 
how far body-weight was changed, and to how great an extent 
proteid metabolism was reduced during the five months of the 
experiment. 



332 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
ANDERSON, G. W. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA- 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Jan. 16 


75.0 


1300 


1022 


18.02 


0.470 




17 




1300 


1027 


18.88 


1.360 




18 




1600 


1025 


17.95 


1.008 




19 




1085 


1030 


16.27 


1.139 




20 




890 


1031 


17.19 


1.008 




21 




1080 


1030 


17.69 


0.940 




22 


75.0 


1340 


1027 


16.32 


0.814 




23 


75.0 


1210 


1028 


17.42 


1.020 


. 


24 


75.0 


990 


1031 


14.85 


0.850 




25 


75.0 


1020 


1028 








26 




1035 


1029 








27 




865 


1029 








28 


. . . 


800 


1029 


14.19 


0.768 


2.70 


29 




690 


1026 


daily 


daily 


daily 


30 


. . . 


765 


1026 


average 


average 


average 


31 




800 


1024 








Feb. 1 


75.0 


970 


1022 








2 




1070 


1024 








3 




740 


1029 








4 




870 


1027 


11.85 


0.633 


1.77 


5 




2660 


1010 








6 




860 


1025 








7 




865 


1027 








8 


75.0 


890 


1027 








9 


75.0 


780 


1028 








10 


75.0 


1025 


1025 








11 


75.0 


1240 


1024 


10.90 


0.820 


1.76 


12 


75.0 


815 


1027 








13 


75.0 


940 


1027 








14 


75.0 


1300 


1017 








15 


. . . 


945 


1025 








16 


73.5 


1090 


1029 








17 


73.0 


720 


1031 








18 


73.0 


1000 


1028 


10.38 


0.792 




19 


73.0 


1000 


1028 








20 




1300 


1024 








21 


. 


1110 


1025 








22 




780 


1026 


1 






23 


73.0 


730 


1030 


f 10.00 


0.699 


1.7* 


24 




730 


1031 


1 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 333 

ANDERSON, G. W. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grains 


gram 


grama 


Feb. 25 




910 


1028 








26 




780 


1030 


10.00 


0.699 


1.72 


27 


73.0 


1470 


1025 


daily 


daily 


daily 


28 




1010 


1021 


average 


average 


average 


29 


72.0 


910 


1029 


1 






Mar. 1 




775 


1031 








2 




1655 


1018 








3 




885 


1028 


- 11.70 


0.749 


1.84 


4 




1060 


1029 








6 




910 


1029 








7 




770 


1030 








8 


72.0 


850 


1029 








!) 




730 


1030 








10 




740 


1029 


11.11 


0.705 




11 


72.0 


770 


1030 








12 




920 


1028 








13 


. 


1265 


1018 








14 




745 


1027 








15 


. 


645 


1028 








16 


71.8 


700 


1029 








17 




660 


1028 


7.34 


0.630 




18 




640 


1029 








19 


72.0 


885 


1023 








20 




886 


1027 








21 




1180 


1022 








22 




660 


1029 








23 


71.0 


720 


1026 








24 




840 


1027 


7.41 


0.628 




25 


. 


870 


1025 








26 




770 


1029 








27 




800 


1031 








28 




800 


1028 


1 






29 




810 


1030 








30 


71.0 


820 


1031 








31 




780 


1032 


9.66 


0.597 




Apr. 1 




630 


1034 








2 




730 


1031 








3 




625 


1033 


j 






4 
5 




700 
740 


1021 

1031 


9.75 


0.637 


1.68 



334 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
ANDERSON, G. W. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 S . 


1904 


kilos. 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Apr. 6 




695 


1033 








7 




1220 


1020 








8 




670 


1034 


9.75 


0.637 


1.68 


9 




590 


1034 


daily av. 


daily av. 


daily av. 


10 




510 


1030 








11 


71.0 


560 


1033 








12 




640 


1030 


9.23 






13 




530 


1030 


8.11 






14 




1195 


1019 


10.32 


0.671 




15 




1005 


1024 


9.48 






16 




1140 


1021 


10.60 






17 




1050 


1023 


9.58 






18 


71.0 


870 


1026 


9.03 






19 




1110 


1025 


11.12 






20 




1170 


1023 


9.80 






21 




810 


1030 


7.15 


0.580 




22 




870 


1029 


9.55 






23 




660 


1029 


8.84 






24 


700 


765 


1029 


8.49 


1 




25 




640 


1028 


8.06 






20 




950 


1026 


9.80 






'27 




1120 


1023 


9.34 






28 




1150 


1021 


9.04 


h 0.522 


. 


29 




860 


1027 


8.93 






30 


71.0 


870 


1028 


9.71 






May 1 




930 


1025 


10.16 






2 


70.0 


925 


1021 


8.88 






3 


70.0 


935 


1023 


9.20 






4 




1140 


1024 


9.10 






5 




990 


1026 


8.32 


0.451 


. 


6 




960 


1026 


8.06 






7 


. 


585 


1031 


7.55 






8 




620 


1031 


7.48 






9 


. . . 


660 


1029 


820 






10 




740 


1024 


8.66 






11 


70.0 


1000 


1023 


8.10 






12 


70.0 


725 


1025 


8.09 


0.530 




13 


71.0 


650 


1029 


7.83 






14 




780 


1031 


9.73 






15 




670 


1028 


7.40 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 335 
ANDERSON, G. W. 







Urine. 


Date. 


Body- 
weight. 




Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 6 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


May 16 


. . 


730 


1030 


8.60 


. 




17 




1025 


1025 


8.98 






18 




930 


1028 


8.87 


} 




19 


71.1 


865 


1026 


8.36 






20 


71.0 


1030 


1027 


9.95 






21 


70.2 


735 


1030 


8.51 


0.523 




22 


70.0 


570 


1029 


6.50 


daily 




23 




625 


1026 


6.90 


average 




24 


70.5 


870 


1027 


8.45 






25 




665 


1026 


10.25 






26 


70.0 


640 


1028 


6.84 






27 
28 


70.5 
70.0 


780 
660 


1024 
1032 


7.58 
7.53 


- 0.586 




29 




650 


1027 


6.91 






30 


70.0 


700 


1028 


6.97 


J 




June 1 




940 


1026 


8.40 






2 




726 


1028 


7.49 






3 


70.9 


980 


1020 


8.65 






4 


. . . 


946 


1026 


8.80 






5 




582 


1029 


6.32 




. . 


6 


70.5 


718 


1027 


7.67 




. 


7 




670 


1028 


8.40 






8 




1160 


1021 


10.44 




. 


9 




1010 


1025 


9.09 






10 


70.2 


1510 


1020 


11.33 






11 




725 


1029 


9.70 


. 


. 


12 




1020 


1023 


10.10 






13 




920 


1024 


10.82 


. 




14 


70.0 


740 


1030 


10.53 






15 


70.9 


1425 


1023 


13.34 






Daily average from 












Feb. 1 


879 


1027 


. . . 


0.632 


1.75 


Daily average from 












Feb. 1 to Apr. 12 






9.94 






Daily average from 












Apr. 13 to June 15 






8.81 







336 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

ANDERSON, W. L. 



Date. 


Bodv- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P,0 5 . 


1004. 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Jan. 15 


63.1 


1240 


1026 


16.44 


0.733 




16 


63.1 


1720 


1020 


18.68 


0.755 




17 


63.1 


1470 


1025 


18.36 


1.523 




18 


61.3 


1940 


1018 


19.09 


0.866 




19 


63.1 


1850 


1020 


23.42 


0.784 




20 


63.1 


600 


1026 


1 16.85 






21 


63.1 


1720 


1021 


j daily av. 






22 


62.7 


1470 


1017 


13.41 


0.584 


. . . 


23 




1210 


1026 


19.53 


0.858 




24 


63.0 


1130 


1025 




0.598 


. 


25 


62.9 


1060 


1022 


1 






26 


63.1 


1025 


1024 








27 


63.1 


1560 


1014 








28 


63.6 


890 


1024 


12.47 


0.497 


1.95 


29 


63.6 


1350 


1019 




daily 


daily 


80 


63.6 


1070 


1020 




average 


average 


31 


63.3 


1410 


1018 








Feb. 1 


63.3 


1425 


1019 








2 


62.8 


940 


1023 








3 


62.0 


865 


1019 








4 


62.2 


1280 


1020 


10.65 


0.493 


1.99 


5 


62.2 


1120 


1017 








6 


62.3 


1390 


1020 








7 


62.3 


1050 


1019 








8 


62.3 


1150 


1021 


I 






9 


62.3 


1430 


1018 








10 


60.0 


910 


1021 








11 


60.0 


1095 


1018 


10.82 


0.505 


2.07 


12 


60.0 


865 


1023 








13 


62.1 


865 


1014 








14 


62.1 


1580 


1015 








15 


62.2 


1270 


1025 








16 


61.2 


690 


1027 








17 




1070 


1020 








18 


61.9 


990 


1025 


12.58 


0.507 




19 




1480 


1019 








20 


60.9 


1450 


1019 








21 


62.0 


2582 


1011 








22 
23 


62.0 
62.2 


1311 
1460 


1026 
1013 


\ 11.70 


0.846 


2.40 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 337 
ANDERSON, W. L. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Feb. 24 


60.0 


1085 


1022 








25 


60.0 


1215 


1020 








26 


62.2 


835 


1020 


11.70 


0.846 


2.40 


27 


62.2 


1590 


1021 


daily 


daily 


daily 


28 


62.2 


1790 


1012 


average 


average 


average 


29 


62.3 


820 


1025 








Mar. 1 


61.1 


770 


1029 








2 


62.2 


670 


1029 








3 


62.2 


1295 


1023 


12.91 


0.669 


2.32 


4 




1530 


1020 








5 


62.2 


1260 , 


1017 








6 


62.3 


1340 


1024 








7 


62.3 


920 


1025 








8 


62.3 


1200 


1013 








9 
11 




880 
1670 


1024 
1019 


9.21 


0.475 




12 


62.0 


1865 


1022 








13 




1640 


1030 








14 


62.2 


790 


1026 








15 


62.2 


715 


1023 








16 


62.2 


1350 


1016 








17 


62.2 


1140 


1012 


9.66 


0.475 




18 


61.4 


980 


1021 








19 


62.9 


1050 


1024 








20 




1012 


1023 








21 


62.0 


910 


1026 








22 




1460 


1021 








23 


61.9 


1310 


1020 








24 


61.2 


1050 


1022 


12.26 


0.713 




25 


62.0 


860 


1031 








26 


61.0 


975 


1028 








27 




1080 


1024 








28 




1120 


1022 


1 






29 


... 


1690 


1020 








30 
Apr. 1 


62.3 


1580 
1325 


1017 
1018 


}- 11.19 


0.551 




2 


62.9 


1075 


1018 








3 


62.9 


1500 


1016 








4 
5 


63.1 
62.9 


800 
1000 


1025 
1022 


| 10.21 


0.625 


1.92 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
ANDERSON, W. L. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P,0 g . 


1904 


kiloa 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Apr. 7 


62.3 


750 


1027 


1 






8 
9 
10 


62.3 
62.3 
62.3 


600 
500 
830 


1026 
1028 
1023 


I 10.21 
j daily av. 


0.625 
daily av. 


1.92 
daily av. 


11 


61.3 


600 


1024 


1 , 






12 


62.2 


950 


1023 


| 7.47 






13 




800 


1028 


6.77 






14 




1090 


1018 


8.83 


- 0.454 




15 


. 


1250 


1025 


6.58 






16 




1480 


1014 


7.81 






17 


61.3 


1130 


1024 


10.98 






18 




590 


1021 


5.56 






19 




840 


1024 


9.63 






20 




980 


1024 


12.24 






21 




1220 


1022 


10.69 


0.431 




22 




1190 


1019 


9.50 






23 




1390 


1020 


10.43 






24 


62.2 


1160 


1017 


7.62 






25 




1010 


1014 


5.94 






26 


. 


1200 


1019 


10.14 






27 




1660 


1015 


9.66 






28 


61.8 


1085 


1021 


8.59 


0.459 


. 


29 


61.8 


1020 


1022 


10.83 






30 




1130 


1022 


10.28 






May 1 


. 


1695 


1016 


9.65 






2 




1530 


1013 


6.98 






3 


. . 


1230 


1023 


9.67 






4 


. . . 


1200 


1020 


8.60 






5 




1000 


1024 


9.30 


0.237 




6 




1390 


1022 


11.08 






7 




1026 


1017 


6.46 






8 


. . . 


1520 


1017 


8.66 






9 


62.3 


970 


1017 


6.40 






10 


61.5 


. . 










11 




1140 


1022 


10.33 






12 


60.9 


746 


1017 


6.39 


0.451 




13 




850 


1022 


8.31 






14 


. . 


1140 


1022 


10.12 






16 




1365 


1017 


8.76 






16 




1120 


1017 


6.58 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 339 

ANDERSON, W. L. 







Urine. 


Date. 


Body- 






weight. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


May 17 




1940 


1014 


10.83 


. . . 




18 




1370 


1021 


10.03 


] 




19 


61.3 


1120 


1022 


10.15 






20 




1170 


1018 


8.64 






21 


. . . 


1530 


1015 


8.46 


f 0.439 




22 




890 


1024 


7.96 


daily 




23 




1200 


1017 


7.49 


average 




24 


61.1 


770 


1024 


6.60 


j 




25 




690 


1024 


7.04 






26 


60.2 


745 


1025 


8.09 






27 




970 


1023 


10.40 






28 


. 


1160 


1022 


10.37 


0.448 




29 








. . 






30 




920 


1025 


8.94 






31 














June 1 




1400 


1012 


5.54 






2 


59.5 


1070 


1020 


8.48 






3 




1190 


1018 


8.78 






4 


69.7 


1020 


1022 


9.00 






5 




870 


1023 


8.67 






6 




870 


1025 


8.72 






7 




1350 


1017 


9.31 


. 




8 


60.4 


1380 


1017 


11.55 






9 


60.4 


1520 


1017 


9.58 






10 




1590 


1013 


7.35 






11 


60.4 


1425 


1017 


7.74 






12 




870 


1021 


7.67 


. . 


. . . 


13 




1410 


1017 


10.32 




. . . 


14 




1180 


1022 


10.84 


. . . 


. . . 


15 


61.0 


875 


1019 


5.67 






Daily average from 












Feb. 1 


1156 


1020 


. . . 


0.516 


2.14 


Daily average from 












Feb. 1 to April 12 




. . . 


10.78 




. . . 


Daily average from 












April 13 to June 












15 






10.05 







340 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

BELLIS. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 5 0, 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


grams 


grams 


Jan. 15 


81.8 


1180 


1026 


13.24 


0.778 




16 


82.2 


1915 


1019 


16.09 


0.862 


. 


17 


82.2 


1740 


1024 


16.18 


0.881 


. 


18 


82.2 


2030 


1021 


20.10 


0.868 


. . 


19 


82.2 


1700 


1026 


17.34 


0.771 




20 


82.2 


1800 


1022 


17.82 


0.650 


. . . 


21 


82.2 


1665 


1027 


26.18 


1.020 




22 


82.2 


1436 


1026 


22.64 


1.010 


. . . 


23 


82.2 


1285 


1017 


10.49 


0.467 




24 




1070 


1026 


16.37 


0.786 


. . . 


25 


80.7 


590 


1029 









26 


81.4 


1300 


1020 








27 


82.1 


1020 


1026 








28 


81.2 


1190 


1027 


13.35 


0.693 


2.32 


29 
30 
31 


81.2 
81.3 
81.2 


1440 
1450 
1000 


1018 
1023 
1026 


daily 
average 


daily 
average 


daily 
average 


Feb. 1 
2 


81.2 
81.2 


1230 
1145 


1025 
1024 


"j 






3 


81.2 


1000 


1030 








4 


81.2 


910 


1030 


12.98 


0.674 


2.29 


6 


81.2 


1360 


1023 








6 


81.2 


1160 


1022 








7 


81.2 


1210 


1027 








8 


81.2 


1375 


1016 


,. 






9 


81.2 


920 


1031 








10 


81.2 


1776 


1016 








11 


81.2 


1130 


1026 


13.03 


0.659 


2.44 


12 


81.2 


1075 


1026 








13 


81.2 


1405 


1021 








14 


81.2 


1055 


1024 








15 


81.0 


1470 


1025 








16 


81.1 


920 


1029 








17 


81.1 


1530 


1019 








18 


81.1 


1330 


1023 


14.15 


0.760 


. . . 


19 


81.1 


1680 


1020 








20 


81.1 


950 


1029 








21 


81.1 


2050 


1018 








22 
23 


81.1 
81.1 


1450 
1540 


1030 

1027 


1 14.79 


0.850 


2.60 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 341 
BELLIS. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Feb. 24 


79.4 


800 


1030 








25 


80.0 


785 


1033 








26 


80.4 


1420 


1018 


14.79 


0.860 


2.60 


27 


80.1 


1250 


1026 


daily av. 


daily av. 


daily av. 


28 


80.1 


1070 


1025 








29 


80.1 


1270 


1024 








Mar. 1 


800 


1150 


1024 








2 


80.0 


1530 


1018 








3 


80.0 


1320 


1018 


10.77 


0.550 


2.34 


4 


80.0 


1635 


1018 








6 


80.0 


1220 


1026 








6 


80.1 


1550 


1016 








7 


80.0 


1170 


1020 








8 


800 


1120 


1017 








9 


80.0 


1220 


1020 








10 


80.0 


1210 


1020 


10.29 


0.628 




11 


80.0 


1650 


1019 








12 


80.0 


1355 


1026 








13 


80.0 


1040 


1025 








14 


80.0 


670 


1027 








15 


80.0 


1330 


1017 








16 


80.0 


915 


1024 








17 


80.0 


1600 


1016 


10.05 


0.622 




18 


80.0 


1510 


1018 








19 


80.0 


1490 


1018 








20 


79.9 


920 


1026 








21 


79.8 


710 


1029 








22 


79.8 


800 


1026 








23 


79.3 


800 


1030 








24 


79.3 


1100 


1025 


10.15 


0.728 


. . . 


25 


79.4 


1060 


1017 








26 


79.4 


1580 


1020 








27 


79.2 


1040 


1028 








28 


79.3 


1360 


1019 


j 






29 


79.2 


1335 


1017 








30 




1030 


1017 








31 




905 


1019 


8.52 


. . . 




Apr. 1 




870 










2 




810 


1029 








3 


78.6 


785 


1028 









342 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
BELLIS. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA- 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grama 


Apr. 4 




720 


1029 


1 






5 




730 


1019 








6 




790 


1022 








7 




880 


1026 


} 7.27 


0.665 


1.62 


8 




790 


1025 


daily 


daily 


daily 


9 




860 


1027 


average 


average 


average 


10 




890 


1025 


J 






11 




890 


1025 








12 




590 


1025 


8.18 
J 






13 


77.2 


960 


1025 


7.95 






14 




930 


1019 


6.59 


- 0.496 




15 




1090 


1018 


6.82 






16 




1250 


1022 


10.35 






17 




650 


1025 


6.97 






18 




970 


1020 


7.92 






19 




1040 


1020 


6.55 






20 




1150 


1019 


8.49 






21 




1225 


1019 


8.76 


0.522 




22 


78.0 


1380 


1026 


10.60 






23 




1150 


1022 


10.21 






24 




1130 


1018 


9.28 






25 




1170 


1021 


11.30 






26 




1080 


1023 


11.79 






27 


. 


1460 


1017 


10.60 






28 




1360 


1019 


10.53 


0.495 




29 




1360 


1015 


10.28 






30 


. 


1450 


1014 


9.87 






May 1 


. . . 


985 


1020 


8.76 






2 




1200 


1022 


8.86 






3 




1476 


1016 


8.88 






4 


77.9 


1150 


1023 


7.73 






6 




1400 


1018 


9.67 


0.271 


. . . 


6 


. 


1340 


1020 


7.64 






7 




1040 


1021 


8.73 






8 


78.1 


895 


1026 


6.39 






9 




1480 


1024 


6.13 


\ 




10 




1125 


1020 


7.60 






11 




1290 


1018 


8.59 


I 0.401 




12 


78.1 


845 


1023 


8.67 






13 




1170 


1022 


8.92 


J 





PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 343 
BELLIS. 







Urine. 




Body- 




Date. 


weight. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P,0, 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


May 14 




1005 


1020 


6.09 


] 




15 


77.1 


855 


1023 


7.75 


L n Af\i 




16 
17 




1210 
1520 


1014 
1014 


5.81 
7.93 


r U.4U1 

daily av. 




18 




1150 


1023 


8.35 


^ 




19 


77.2 


1905 


1015 


9.60 






20 


77.2 


1210 


1020 


10.67 






21 


76.3 


815 


1027 


8.46 


I 0.461 


. 


22 


76.5 


1020 


1019 


7.71 






23 


76.8 


890 


1023 


6.98 






24 


77.1 


1030 


1022 


6.61 






Daily average from 












Feb. 28 


1127 


1021 




0.531 


1.98 


Daily average from 












Feb. 28 to April 12 


. . . 




9.30 




. . . 


Daily average from 












April 13 to May 24 






8.45 







344 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
CALLAHAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P Z 3 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Jan. 15 


92.2 


1665 


1023 


19.48 


1.008 




16 


92.7 


1800 


1024 


22.90 


1.235 




17 


92.7 


1500 


1028 


18.81 


0.996 




18 


92.8 


1490 


1027 


19.58 


1.393 




19 


93.6 


1600 


1029 


22.18 


1.070 




20 


94.0 


1610 


1024 


23.76 


0.710 




21 


94.0 


1870 


1025 


24.68 


1.040 




22 


95.0 


1730 


1025 


22.73 


1.160 


. 


23 


95.0 


2150 


1025 


31.99 


1.470 




24 


95.0 


1450 




21.84 


0.952 


. . . 


25 


94.0 


1220 


1028 








26 


94.0 


1310 


1027 








27 


93.0 


1310 


1025 








28 


94.0 


1400 


1027 


17.90 


0.988 


3.26 


29 


94.0 


1220 


1027 


daily 


daily 


daily 


30 


93.0 


1115 


1030 


average 


average 


average 


31 


93.0 


870 


1030 








Feb. 1 


93.0 


1170 


1028 








2 


93.0 


1080 


1029 








3 


93.0 


1350 


1027 








4 


92.0 


1150 


1028 


16.92 


0.976 


2.86 


5 


92.0 


950 


1029 








6 


92.0 


1160 


1027 








7 


92.0 


1100 


1030 








8 


91.0 


850 


1027 








9 


91.0 


995 


1023 








10 


90.0 


670 


1027 








11 


89.6 


615 


1029 


- 12.28 


0.780 


2.14 


12 


89.5 


865 


1028 








13 


89.5 


740 


1031 








14 


90.0 


1020 


1024 








15 


90.0 


980 


1027 


1 






16 


89.5 


715 


1029 








17 


89.0 


665 


1030 








18 


89.0 


635 


1031 


- 9.83 


0.755 


. . 


19 


89.0 


640 


1034 








20 


89.5 


880 


1027 








21 


89.0 


1170 


1025 








22 
23 


89.0 
88.0 


820 
610 


1030 
1031 


I 10.26 


0.641 


. 1.52 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 345 
CALLAHAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P*0 S . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Feb. 24 


87.0 


520 


1034 








25 


88.0 


1160 


1017 








26 


87.5 


385 


1033 


10.26 


0.641 


1.52 


27 


88.0 


610 


1031 


daily 


daily 


daily 


28 


87.0 


610 


1030 


J average 


average 


average 


29 


86.0 


1095 


1026 








Mar. 1 


86.0 


780 


1027 








2 


86.0 


725 


1027 








3 


85.0 


630 


1026 


11.07 


0.796 


1.74 


4 


85.0 


850 


1030 








5 


85.0 


780 


1031 








6 


85.6 


925 


1028 








7 


85.0 


610 


1029 








8 


85.0 


720 


1027 








9 


85.0 


565 


1032 








10 


84.5 


520 


1032 


7.27 


0.593 




11 


84.0 


570 


1032 








12 


84.0 


510 


1033 








13 


84.0 


450 


1031 








14 


83.5 


470 


1025 








15 


84.0 


1030 


1022 








16 


84.0 


825 


1026 








17 


84.0 


690 


1026 


8.09 


0.645 




18 


84.0 


1160 


1025 








19 


83.5 


1820 


1010 








20 


84.0 


695 


1029 








21 


83.5 


760 


1027 








22 


83.0 


610 


1029 








23 


83.0 


1180 


1020 








24 


83.0 


620 


1032 


8.18 


0.711 




25 


83.0 


560 


1032 








26 


83.0 


820 


1020 








27 


83.0 


1000 


1027 








28 


82.0 


485 


1033 








29 


82.0 


590 


1029 








30 


82.0 


1300 


1020 








31 


82.5 


1590 


1020 


7.60 


0.587 




Apr. 1 


82.0 


1600 


1018 








2 


82.0 


610 


1026 








3 


81.5 


430 


1026 









346 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
CALL A HAN. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P,0 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Apr. 4 


81.0 


290 


1030 








5 


82.0 


550 


1033 








6 


82.0 


860 


1023 








7 


82.0 


880 


1021 


6.04 


0.458 


1.55 


8 


82.0 


820 


1015 


daily 


daily 


daily 


9 


82.0 


720 


1028 


average 


average 


average 


10 


82.0 


490 


1030 








11 


82.0 


540 


1022 


1 






12 


82.0 


680 


1026 


^ 4.98 






13 


82.0 


670 


1030 


8.64 






14 


82.0 


755 


1026 


10.24 


0.528 


. . . 


15 


82.0 


555 


1026 


6.29 






16 


82.0 


1790 


1017 


14.18 






17 


83.0 


870 


1029 


9.97 






18 


83.0 


990 


1020 


6.95 






19 


83.0 


735 


1022 


7.32 






20 


83.0 


930 


1023 


8.31 






21 


83.0 


700 


1032 


10.16 


0.685 




22 


83.0 


1220 


1024 


11.13 






23 


83.0 


860 


1027 


7.89 






24 


83.0 


1140 


1015 


7.59 






25 


83.0 


520 


1026 


8.02 


1 0.544 




26 


83.5 


670 


1028 


8.08 






27 


83.0 


1200 


1019 


7.92 






28 


83.0 


1340 


1020 


8.84 






29 


83.5 


900 


1032 


13.23 






30 


83.5 


1250 


1022 


13.50 






May 1 


84.0 


1160 


1030 


16.77 






2 


84.0 


1080 


1026 


11.73 






3 


84.0 


960 


10*9 


16.13 


0.463 




4 


83.5 


1140 


1035 


19.36 






5 


83.5 


1290 


1031 


18.35 






6 




780 


1040 


16.43 






7 


83.0 


870 


1033 


14.67 






8 


83.0 


930 


1030 


14.68 






9 


83.0 


1050 


1022 


11.86 






10 


83.0 


960 


1021 


8.18 






11 


83.0 


1020 


1024 


9.21 






12 


83.0 


840 


1024 


9.08 


0.666 





13 


83.5 


930 


1025 


10.05 






14 


83.5 


1200 


1016 


5.55 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 347 
CALLAHAN. 







Urine. 




Body- 




Date. 


weight. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


May 15 


83.5 


1110 


1018 


8.99 






16 


83.5 


1050 


1018 


9.64 






17 


84.0 


900 


1024 


8.37 






18 


83.5 


1020 


1018 


8.20 






19 


84.0 


945 


1022 


9.88 


0.666 


. . . 


20 


84.0 


870 


1023 


8.72 


daily 




21 


83.0 


1160 


1014 


7.24 


average 




22 


82.0 


420 


1017 


5.72 


j 




23 


82.5 


480 


1026 


7.78 




. . . 


24 


82.5 


720 


1024 


10.07 






25 


82.0 


360 


1030 


5.64 


. . . 




26 


82.0 


510 


1029 


7.68 






27 


82.0 


576 


1028 


6.60 






28 


81.5 


900 


1016 


6.69 






29 


81.5 


570 


1023 


6.60 






30 


81.0 


945 


1022 


6.47 






31 


81.5 


870 


1026 


10.44 


. 




June 1 


81.5 


840 


1024 


9.02 






2 


81.5 


810 


1021 


7.78 


. . . 




3 


82.0 


540 


1021 


5.67 






4 


82.0 


450 


1025 


6.10 


. . . 




5 


82.0 


480 


1034 


8.21 


. 




6 


82.5 


480 


1030 


6.91 






7 


82.5 


570 


1029 


9.51 


. . . 




8 


83.0 


650 


1028 


10.49 




. . . 


9 


83.0 


570 


1024 


7.46 


. . . 




10 


83.0 


620 


1026 


8.40 




. 


11 


83.0 


690 


1027 


9.11 


. . . 




12 


83.0 


590 


1025 


7.90 






13 


83.0 


840 


1025 


10.74 


. 


. . 


14 


83.5 


780 


1021 


7.86 






15 


83.0 


650 


1029 


10.37 






Daily average from 












Feb. 8 


809 


1026 


. . . 


0.624 


1.74 


Daily average from 












Feb. 8 to April 12 






8.56 






Daily average from 












April 13 to June 15 







9.52 





. . . 



348 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

DONAHUE. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Jan. 19 


64.5 


1500 


1017 


17.46 


0.872 




20 




1060 


1027 


14.88 


0.756 




21 


64.5 


910 


1033 


14.41 


0.525 




22 




1150 


1028 


1325 


0.599 




23 


. 


810 


1026 


11.76 


0.428 




24 




790 


1030 


17.91 


0.672 




25 




820 


1028 








26 




960 


1024 








27 




800 


1026 








28 




870 


1025 


10.67 


0.498 


1.90 


29 




740 


1025 


daily 


daily 


daily 


30 


63.5 


655 


1029 


average 


average 


average 


31 




790 


1026 








Feb. 1 




570 


1029 








2 




730 


1027 








3 




760 


1029 








4 


. . . 


680 


1030 


10.34 


0.458 


1.81 


5 




930 


1025 








6 




820 


1026 








7 


. 


600 


1029 








8 


63.0 


740 


1025 








9 




565 


1030 








10 




710 


1027 








11 


. . . 


870 


1025 


9.24 


0.470 


1.76 


12 




705 


1025 








13 


. . 


740 


1026 








14 




595 


1027 








15 


. . . 


860 


1026 








16 


63.2 


830 


1024 








17 




780 


1026 








18 
19 




735 

720 


1026 
1028 


. 7.47 


0.465 




20 


63.0 


690 


1027 








21 




900 


1025 








22 


62.7 


775 


1027 








23 


. 


600 


1028 








24 




920 


1027 








25 




700 


1027 


7.33 


0.552 


1.56 


26 




1040 


1023 








27 




600 


1031 









PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 349 
DONAHUE. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA. 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Feb. 28 




710 


1024 


7.33 


0.552 


1.56 


2!) 




850 


1026 








Mar. 1 


. 


910 


1028 








2 


62.0 


740 


1027 








3 




710 


1027 


- 7.79 


0.448 


1.91 


4 




910 


1027 


daily 


daily 


daily 


5 




725 




average 


average 


average 


6 


. . . 


940 


1025 


[ 






7 


62.7 


700 


1025 








8 




720 


1024 








9 




1020 


1022 








10 




700 


1026 


6.72 


0.363 


. 


11 




1130 


1021 








12 




730 


1022 








13 




940 


1018 


J 






14 




930 


1018 








15 


62.7 


985 


1018 








. 16 




875 


1019 








17 




515 


1024 


6.33 


0.504 


. 


18 


. 


960 


1019 








19 




880 


1022 








20 


62.7 


720 


1025 








21 




730 


1023 


^ 






22 


. . . 


920 


1024 








23 
24 




850 
720 


1020 
1026 


6.61 


0.363 




26 


62.7 


730 


1024 








27 




970 


1026 








28 




860 


1021 








29 




990 


1022 








30 


62.8 


1250 


1023 








31 




990 


1020 


7.17 


0.408 


1.90 


Apr. 1 




910 


1022 








2 




930 


1028 








3 


62.8 


870 


1026 








4 


62.8 


1080 


1025 








5 




740 


1028 








6 




850 


1027 


9.91 


0.693 


1.79 


7 




740 


1028 








8 




1010 


1028 









350 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
DONAHUE. 



Date. 


Body- 
Weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA- 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grama 


gram 


grama 


Apr. 9 




700 


1029 


1 9.91 


0.593 


1.79 


10 




' 900 


1025 


j daily av. 


daily av. 


daily av. 


11 




1150 


1020 


! f\ ef\ 


1 




12 




1230 


1021 


> y.oy 






13 




1000 


1021 


7.38 






14 




710 


1025 


6.18 


0.343 




15 




920 


1022 


8.78 






16 


63.0 


700 


1025 


6.89 






17 




775 


1024 


8.28 






18 




1050 


1020 


7.69 






19 




910 


1021 


6.55 






20 


. 


1140 


1020 


6.64 






21 




1055 


1022 


6.71 


0.399 




22 


. 


1020 


1020 


6.79 






23 




700 


1025 


6.34 






24 




825 


1022 


7.13 






25 




850 


1022 


6.27 






26 




1010 


1021 


7.09 






27 




1160 


1021 


7.31 






28 




950 


1021 


6.38 


0.411 




29 


. 


960 


1023 


8.61 






30 




625 


1028 


6.96 






May 1 


63.0 


750 


1022 


7.65 






2 




775 


1022 


6.88 






3 




710 


1022 


6.01 






4 




1075 


1021 


7.22 






5 




700 


1021 


5.34 


0.120 




6 




960 


1024 


7.41 






7 




950 


1023 


6.72 






8 




745 


1024 


6.90 






9 




910 


1020 


6.61 






10 




720 


1023 


6.91 






11 


63.0 


750 


1024 


7.11 






12 


63.0 


700 


1022 


6.61 


0.365 




13 




710 


1024 


6.94 






14 




825 


1025 


8.68 






15 




1100 


1020 


7.79 






16 




1000 


1021 


6.12 






17 




1010 


1020 


5.94 






18 




950 


1020 


6.75 


0.343 





PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 351 
DONAHUE. 





Body- 


Urine. 


Date. 


weight. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA. 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


May 19 




1025 


1020 


6.64 






20 




1100 


1020 


8.45 






21 




900 


1027 


8.64 






22 




760 


1025 


8.53 


- 0.343 




23 




750 


1022 


7.69 


daily 




24 




920 


1023 


7.34 


average 




25 




750 


1022 


10.22 






26 


62.2 


775 


1021 


6.51 






27 




880 


1023 


8.18 






28 




800 


1023 


7.06 


0.406 




29 




790 


1023 


8.49 






30 


. 


850 


1022 


7.91 






31 




1030 


1021 


7.60 


. . . 





June 1 




800 


1022 


6.53 


. 


. 


2 




1000 


1021 


8.16 


. . . 




3 




850 


1022 


7.40 


. 


. 


4 














5 


62.8 


650 


1027 


8.49 






6 




850 


1023 


7.33 






7 




910 


1022 


7.43 






8 




770 


1022 


8.37 






9 




910 


1025 


9.50 






10 




850 


1025 


8.01 






11 




650 


1025 


7.72 






12 


. 


700 


1025 


8.36 






13 




930 


1022 


9.15 






14 




800 


1026 


8.45 




. 


15 


62.2 


700 


1027 


7.90 






Daily average from 












Feb. 14 


857 


1023 




0.395 


1.79 


Daily average from 












Feb. 14 to Apr. 12 


. . . 




7.55 




. . . 


Daily average from 












Apr. 13 to June 15 






7.39 







352 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
JACOBUS. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P,0 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Jan. 15 


57.3 


630 


1032 


10.70 


0.542 


. . 


16 




810 


1024 


11.76 


0.960 




17 




880 


1029 


11.09 


0.780 




18 




780 


1030 


10.67 


0.600 




19 


. . . 


810 


1029 


12.94 


0.595 


. . 


20 




670 


1030 


11.98 


0.553 




21 


. . . 


730 


1029 


10.91 


0.586 


. 


22 




990 


1025 


12.12 


0.594 




23 


58.7 


825 


1021 


9.55 


0.436 




24 


. 


680 


1027 


9.10 


0.449 




25 


. 


1260 


1018 








26 


. 


875 


1022 








27 


. 


680 


1028 








28 


57.0 


850 


1022 


9.58 


0.442 


1.72 


29 


68.0 


760 


1020 


daily 


daily 


daily 


30 


57.7 


560 


1029 


average 


average 


average 


31 




660 


1028 








Feb. 1 


. . . 


700 


1023 








2 


67.2 


567 


1030 








3 


. 


600 


1030 








4 


67.5 


582 


1026 


8.30 


0.548 


1.60 


5 


. . . 


740 


1024 








6 


56.8 


470 


1028 








7 


. . . 


405 


1032 








8 


66.0 


675 


1028 








9 


67.2 


540 


1028 








10 


56.6 


620 


1029 








11 


67.0 


1000 


1020 


7.73 


0.460 


1.74 


12 


. . . 


920 


1015 








13 




845 


1020 








14 




480 


1028 








15 


. 


750 


1025 








16 


66.8 


810 


1022 








17 


56.4 


760 


1020 








18 




1100 


1017 


6.27 


0.399 




19 


66.6 


950 


1020 








20 


56.3 


620 


1025 








21 




680 


1027 








22 
23 


67.3 
56.7 


770 
795 


1020 
1024 


1 6.96 


0.521 


1.47 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION ,353 
JACOBUS. 



Date. 


Body- 

weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 6 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Feb. 24 


56.6 


890 


1016 








25 


56.7 


880 


1022 








26 


56.8 


690 


1027 


6.96 


0.521 


1.47 


27 




885 


1024 


daily 


daily 


daily 


28 




970 


1019 


average 


average 


average 


29 


56.8 


815 


1024 








Mar. 1 


57.0 


760 


1027 








2 


57.0 


690 


1025 








3 


66.8 


1720 


1012 


8.43 


0.315 


1.75 


4 




1010 


1019 








5 




790 










6 




440 


1033 








7 


56.6 


970 


1019 








8 




1130 


1018 








9 




440 


1031 








10 




1480 


1016 


7.88 


0.535 




11 




1300 


1015 








12 




1165 


1013 








13 




1580 


1011 








14 


56.8 


1200 


1015 








15 




1330 


1010 








16 




3065 


1015 








17 


56.8 


1170 


1013 


5.98 


0.454 


. . . 


18 




1030 


1018 








19 


56.8 


1445 


1012 








20 


56.8 


975 


1020 








21 


. 


870 


1018 








22 




1400 


1014 








23 
24 


57.3 


840 
1020 


1020 
1021 


8.30 


0.418 




25 


. 


690 


1024 








26 




1195 


1017 








28 




1170 


1015 








29 


57.3 


1030 


1023 








30 




1225 


1021 








31 




1175 


1020 


9.59 


0.471 




Apr. 1 




1330 


1016 








2 




775 


1023 








3 




615 


1026 








4 




695 


1029 


8.71 


0.310 


1.82 



2:) 



354 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

JACOBUS. 



Date. 


weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


8p. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 S . 


1904 


kiloa 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Apr. 5 


. . . 


830 


1026 








6 




762 


1019 








7 
8 
9 


57.0 


1205 
1180 
1035 


1026 
1015 
1017 


8.71 
daily 


0.310 
daily 


1.82 

, daily 


10 


. . . 


1300 


1016 


average 


average 


average 


11 


. . . 


1045 


1026 


1 7R8 






12 


. . . 


610 


1024 


f 7.OO 






13 


. . . 


410 


1027 


6.81 






14 


. . . 


600 


1025 


6.84 


0.460 




15 




1160 


1017 


8.49 






16 


56.8 


820 


1021 


7.72 






17 




665 


1029 


6.96 






18 


. . . 


610 


1026 


7.36 






19 




615 


1028 


6.67 






20 




710 


1023 


7.71 






21 




480 


1026 


6.94 


0.441 


. 


22 


55.0 


565 


1026 


7.19 






23 




460 


1031 


7.16 






24 


. . . 


560 


1027 


6.27 






25 




750 


1020 


6.30 






26 


. 


1170 


1017 


7.93 






28 
29 




1010 
1110 


1019 
1018 


6.06 
8.59 


0.607 




30 




1050 


1020 


8.44 






May 1 


. . . 


715 


1030 


9.44 






2 


66.6 


1460 


1014 


10.50 






3 


. . . 


1185 


1019 


9.45 






4 




1270 


1019 


10.52 






5 


66.6 


1010 


1019 


9.70 


0.382 


. 


6 


. 


1090 


1021 


9.94 






7 


. . . 


1100 


1016 


8.65 






8 




765 


1024 


9.78 






10 


. . . 


555 


1026 


7.96 


1 




11 


. 


640 


1027 


6.60 






12 
13 




1160 
665 


1016 
1025 


7.03 
7.66 


0.296 




14 


. 


1240 


1014 


6.61 






15 


56.6 


595 


1027 


7.89 







16 




1460 


1012 


7.45 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 355 
JACOBUS. 







Urine. 


Date. 


Body- 
weight. 




Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 6 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


May 17 


. . . 


1620 


1012 


6.80 






18 


. . . 


2010 


1012 


6.75 






19 




2050 


1010 


6.27 






20 




1180 


1018 


7.29 






21 




880 


1020 


7.07 


{ 0.376 




22 




730 


1025 


7.62 


daily 




23 


. . 


450 


1029 


6.48 


average 




24 


. 


540 


1028 


7.64 






25 




950 


1017 


7.63 






26 


56.8 


555 


1023 


6.83 






27 




1080 


1014 


7.25 






28 




1020 


1019 


6.37 


0.303 


. 


29 




690 


1022 


6.34 






30 


. 


590 


1025 


6.69 






31 


. 


1290 


1015 


8.36 






June 1 




1635 


1010 


7.85 




. . . 


2 


. . . 


1475 


1012 


8.23 




. . . 


3 




400 


1024 


5.21 


. . . 


. . 


4 




705 


1019 


6.73 






5 




1010 


1013 


6.30 


. . 




6 




600 


1024 


6.69 




. . . 


7 


. 


925 


1016 


6.72 


. . . 




8 




1015 


1014 


7.30 




. . . 


9 




925 


1019 


6.05 






10 


57.0 


1285 


1012 


6.26 






13 




855 


1018 


8.36 


. 




14 




735 


1019 


6.97 






15 


57.0 


495 


1028 


8.32 






Daily average from 












Feb. 1 


916 


1021 


. . 


0.423 


1.67 


Daily average from 












Feb. 1 to April 12 






7.74 


. . . 




Daily average from 












April 13 to June 15 






7.43 







356 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

SCHENKER. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P Z 6 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grama 


Jan. 16 


73.5 


1140 


1026 


16.21 


0.688 




17 




2180 


1020 


18.44 


0.990 




18 


. 


1155 


1024 


14.97 


0.745 




20 




1090 


1027 


19.82 


0.797 




21 




1516 


1027 


20.63 


0.966 




22 




1675 


1019 


15.38 


0.653 




23 


71.7 


1100 


1022 


13.40 


0.631 




24 


* . . 


1390 


1021 


14.18 


0.719 




25 


. . 


1410 


1019 








26 


. . . 


840 


1027 








27 




925 










28 


. 


1140 


1023 


13.23 


0.693 


2.03 


29 


72.3 


1025 


1024 


daily 


daily 


daily 


30 




1900 


1015 


average 


average 


average 


31 




1105 










Feb. 1 




1320 


1023 








2 


71.6 


885 


1029 








3 




1260 


1023 








4 




1480 


1020 


13.86 


0.693 


2.16 


5 




970 


1027 








6 


71.4 


1150 


1026 








7 




1270 


1022 


J 






8 


71.5 


1270 


1022 








9 


71.2 


940 


1028 








10 




930 


1027 








11 


71.4 


845 


1029 


12.84 


0.654 


2.00 


12 




800 


1027 








13 




620 


1031 








14 




890 


1025 








15 


70.9 


1020 


1029 








16 




1490 


1019 








17 




1180 


1024 








18 




1230 


1022 


- 6.34 


0.633 




19 




950 


1029 








20 




1510 


1024 








21 


. 


1325 


1026 








23 




510 


1030 








24 
25 


71.9 


1140 
1730 


1024 
1016 


8.85 


0.624 


2.17 


26 




1145 


1022 









PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 357 

SCHENKER. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Feb. 27 




2015 ' 


1018 


I 8.85 


0.624 


2.17 


28 




1150 


1023 


j daily av. 


daily av. 


daily av. 


29 




1230 


1028 








Mar. 1 


71.8 


1245 


1026 








2 




770 


1030 








3 


70.8 


1480 


1016 


11.49 


0.799 


2.43 


4 




1325 


1028 








5 




1960 


1014 








6 




1230 


1021 


J 






7 




1900 


1016 


j 






8 


72.4 


1760 


1016 








9 




910 


1026 








10 


. 


2050 


1015 


10.11 


0.734 




11 


72.5 


940 


1020 








12 




2200 


1002 








13 




2790 


1011 








14 




1880 


1014 








15 


72.3 


1630 


1012 








16 




1070 


1022 








17 




2040 


1012 


- 11.08 


0.797 




18 




1655 


1021 








19 




1485 


1014 








20 




2550 


1013 ' 








21 


71.9 


2000 


1014 


1 






22 
23 




2170 
1670 


1012 
1014 


j- 10.14 


0.551 




24 


72.3 


2020 


1015 


j 






26 




875 




. 






27 




1520 


1018 








28 




1675 


1017 








29 


. . 


1175 


1025 








30 


. 


1110 


1021 


10.85 


0.660 


. . . 


31 




2340 


1012 








Apr. 1 


. . . 


1440 


1021 








2 




1200 


1021 








4 


. '. '. 


1110 


1022 








5 




785 


. . . 


11.64 


0.782 




6 


. 


1130 


1023 








7 


74.1 


945 


1027 









358 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

SCHENKER. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


{Trams 


Apr. 8 




1050 


1024 


} 






9 


. . . 


925 


1022 


Y 11.64 


0.782 




10 




1555 


1020 


J daily av. 


daily av. 




11 


73.8 


1440 


1015 


8.44 






13 




1260 


1023 


12.23 






14 




1330 


1026 


10.06 






15 




1880 


1018 


12.41 


0.620 




16 


. . 


2440 


1013 


11.27 






17 




1680 


1018 


10.78 






18 


73.3 


1640 


1018 


11.22 






19 




1420 


1020 


12.95 






20 


74.2 


1440 


1019 


9.85 






21 




1670 


1018 


10.22 


0.746 


. 


22 




1220 


1019 


9.52 






23 


73.3 


1640 


1021 


9.05 






24 


. . . 


2200 


1016 


9.60 


j 




25 


. 


1400 


1020 


9.07 






26 




1400 


1020 


8.15 






27 




1710 


1017 


9.13 






28 




2220 


1011 


9.69 


0.594 




29 


73.4 


1940 


1015 


11.29 






30 




980 


1025 


10.76 






May 1 


. . . 


1625 


1015 


10.05 






2 




1950 


1014 


8.89 






3 


. . . 


1795 


1014 


8.62 






4 


. . . 


2400 


1010 


8.60 






5 




1895 


1019 


11.03 


> 0.298 




6 


73.7 


1920 


1019 


11.75 






7 




2300 


1014 


11.87 






8 


. 


1380 


1018 


11.51 






9 




2095 


1014 


11.46 






10 


. . 


1360 


1016 


9.96 






11 


. 


1040 


1022 


8.74 


0.229 


. 


12 


. . . 


1250 


1024 


11.02 






15 


. 


1215 


1020 


8.68 






16 




1460 


1018 


8.96 




. 


17 


. . . 


1725 


1014 


8.29 


. 


. 


18 




1420 


1018 


8.77 






19 


72.7 


990 


1020 


8.73 


0.427 


. 


20 




2390 


1014 


12.48 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 359 

SCHENKER. 





Body- 


Urine. 




weight. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P20 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


grams 


grams 


May 21 


72.7 


1000 


1025 


8.76 


] 




22 




1570 


1018 


9.98 






23 
24 




1780 
1210 


1015 
1018 


10.04 

8.71 


n 

f 0.427 
I daily av. 





25 




1390 


1016 


9.09 






26 


72.5 


1380 


1015 


9.11 






27 


72.1 


1920 


1018 


9.56 






28 




1870 


1016 


11.22 


0.842 


. . . 


29 




1635 


1015 


8.83 






30 


. . 


1670 


1017 


8.52 






31 




2190 


1013 


9.46 


. . . 


. 


June 1 


. . 


1140 


1016 


6.02 






2 




1520 


1018 


8.94 




. 


3 




1610 


1017 


8.50 


. 


. 


4 


72.2 


1380 


1020 


8.94 






5 




795 


1022 


8.11 


. 


. . . 


6 


. 


1590 


1018 


9.83 






7 


. 


2000 


1012 


9.48 




. 


8 


. . . 


1800 


1016 


12.10 






9 


71.9 


1500 


1018 


9.63 






Daily average from 












Feb. 8 


1500 


1019 




0.624 


2.20 


Daily average from 












Feb. 8 to April 10 


. . . 




10.37 


. . . 


. . . 


Daily average from 












April 11 to June 9 






9.82 







360 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
STAPLETON. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P&- 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Jan. 15 


77.2 


1350 


1026 


16.20 


0.941 


. . . 


16 


77.2 


2200 


1020 


20.33 


1.163 




17 


77.2 


2000 


1025 


21.00 


1.095 


. . . 


18 


78.1 


1650 


1026 


21.78 


0.897 




19 


77.1 


1585 


1029 


20.64 


1.139 




20 


77.0 


1390 


1028 


19.26 


0.480 


. 


21 


77.1 


1660 


1026 


20.31 


0.971 




22 


77.1 


1620 


1023 


18.37 


0.735 




23 


78.0 


1810 


1025 


21.72 


0.624 


. 


24 


77.0 


1430 


1024 


17.42 


0.890 


. 


25 


76.0 


990 


1029 








26 


76.0 


1280 


1026 








27 


77.0 


885 


1030 








28 


77.1 


1660 


1021 


14.95. 


0.841 


2.83 


29 


76.1 


1005 


1029 


daily 


daily 


daily 


30 


77.1 


1310 


1027 


average 


average 


average 


31 


76.1 


800 


1031 








Feb. 1 


76.1 


1090 


1028 








2 


76.1 


1175 


1025 








3 


76.0 


1120 


1030 








4 


76.0 


950 


1031 


13.48 


0.743 


2.34 


5 


76.0 


1160 


1023 








6 


76.0 


1165 


1029 








7 


76.0 


770 


1033 








8 


76.0 


825 


1030 








9 


76.0 


1160 


1026 








10 


76.0 


1140 


1023 








11 


76.0 


1160 


1023 


12.72 


0.712 


2.74 


12 


76.0 


970 


1026 








13 


76.0 


1115 


1024 








14 


76.0 


1360 


1023 








15 


76.0 


1040 


1026 








16 


76.0 


1020 


1023 








17 


76.0 


1380 


1021 








18 


76.0 


880 


1029 


12.36 


0.755 


. 


19 


76.0 


945 


1030 








20 


76.0 


1940 


1017 








21 


76.0 


2670 


1016 








22 
23 


76.0 
76.0 


1590 
1870 


1023 


1 13.03 


0.967 


2.56 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 361 



STAPLETON. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


PA- 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Feb. 24 


76.0 


870 


1026 








25 


76.0 


1275 


1024 








26 


76.0 


1140 


1025 


13.03 


0.967 


2.56 


27 


76.0 


1930 


1018 


daily 


daily 


daily 


28 


76.0 


1120 


1026 


average 


average 


average 


29 


76.0 


1140 


1028 








Mar. 1 


76.0 


1300 


1022 








2 


76.0 


1295 


1023 








3 


77.0 


825 


1030 


12.91 


0.803 


2.59 


4 


76.0 


1860 


1021 








5 


76.0 


1230 


1026 








6 


76.0 


1155 


1029 








7 


76.0 


830 


1031 


1 






8 


76.0 


860 


1031 








9 


76.0 


940 


1029 








10 


76.0 


550 


1034 


11.02 


0.707 




1] 


76.0 


780 


1028 








12 


77.0 


790 


1026 








13 


76.0 


700 


1030 


j 






14 


76.0 


830 


1027 








15 


76.0 


1650 


1014 








16 


76.0 


1120 


1019 








17 


76.0 


690 


1027 


10.26 


0.757 


. . . 


18 


76.0 


1170 


1024 








19 


76.0 


2230 


1010 








20 


77.2 


1180 


1025 








21 


76.0 


540 


1032 








22 


76.0 


880 


1030 








23 


76.0 


990 


1028 








24 


76.0 


1130 


1024 


11.55 


0.794 




25 


76.0 


1470 


1025 








26 


76.0 


1280 


1025 








27 


76.0 


1240 


1021 








28 


76.0 


1020 


1023 








29 


77.0 


1440 


1018 








30 


76.0 


1595 


1018 








31 


76.0 


1210 


1017 


- 11.14 


0.667 




Apr. 1 


76.0 


1940 


1018 








2 


76.0 


1110 


1028 








3 




1185 


1026 


- 







52 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 
STAPLETON. 



Date. 


Body- 
weight. 


Urine. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Bp. Or. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P*0 5 . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


Apr. 4 




1420 


1027 








5 




1260 


1029 








6 

7 




1095 
1315 


1026 
1030 


17.56 


0.929 


2.77 


8 




1180 


1029 


daily 


daily 


daily 


9 




1140 


1030 


average 


average 


average 


11 


75.0 


1285 


1031 


1 






12 




940 


1023 


| 16.43 






13 




750 


1027 


9.59 






14 




720 


1026 


10.45 






15 




910 


1028 


10.70 


0.550 




16 




815 


1021 


6.32 






17 




1110 


1012 


5.33 






18 




820 


1024 


4.58 






19 




750 


1025 


7.38 






20 


74.0 


880 


1024 


7.13 






21 




1005 


1026 


9.17 


0.418 


. . . 


22 




1090 


1027 


9.74 






23 




1085 


1019 


8.17 






24 




990 


1020 


8.26 






25 




1150 


1021 


9.21 


1 




26 




980 


1025 


9.23 






27 


75.0 


1570 


1019 


8.29 






28 




1040 


1025 


9.05 


f 0.599 


. . . 


29 




1020 


1022 


9.98 






30 




1000 


1026 


9.40 






May 1 




1025 


1025 


10.56 


. 




2 




1070 


1027 


11.25 






3 




1585 


1018 


10.37 






4 


75.0 


1805 


1023 


8.70 






5 




1350 


1022 


9.88 


0.377 


. . . 


6 




920 


1024 


7.84 






7 




900 


1025 


9.23 






8 




930 


1025 


11.50 






9 


. 


875 


1027 


11.81 






10 


" . . . 


1010 


102*2 


8.85 






11 


. 


1010 


1023 


9.26 






12 


74.0 


600 


1030 


9.29 


0.625 




13 




940 


1028 


10.60 






14 




975 


1023 


7.37 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 363 
STAPLETON. 







Urine. 




Body- 




Date. 


weight. 


Volume. 
24 hours. 


Sp. Gr. 


Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


P 2 S . 


1904 


kilos 


c.c. 




grams 


gram 


grams 


May 15 




800 


1025 


6.63 


0.625 




16 




1200 


1019 


8.14 






17 




515 


1030 


6.58 


. . . 


. 


18 




790 


1029 


9.67 






19 


74.1 


745 


1029 


8.58 






20 


74.1 


880 


1022 


9.51 






21 


74.1 


1100 


1027 


9.64 


0.691 


. 


22 




890 


1028 


9.56 


daily 




23 




690 


1020 


8.03 


verage 




24 


76.0 


905 


1025 


9.04 






25 




665 


1031 


8.46 






26 


74.5 


630 


1026 


7.45 






27 




950 


1024 


8.83 


\ 0.663 


2.27 


28 


73.0 


850 


1027 


10.60 


J 


daily av. 


30 




1060 


1020 


10.88 


. 




31 




1640 


1015 


8.56 






June 1 




1230 


1013 


9.37 






2 




1180 


1019 


10.34 






3 




620 


1024 


6.96 




. 


4 




910 


1020 


1147 






5 


. . . 


880 


1019 


11.09 






6 




855 


1025 


11.14 






7 




1250 


1017 


8.78 






8 


. 


885 


1025 


11.10 


. 




9 


74.0 


730 


1020 


6.35 






10 




1540 


1017 


8.87 






11 




750 


1015 


5.85 






12 


73.4 


1265 


1015 


9.71 






Daily average from 












Jan. 25 


1094 


1024 




0.699 


2.64 


Daily average from 












Jan. 25 to April 12 




. . . 


13.12 






Daily average from 












April 13 to June 12 






9.00 







364 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

It is plain from the foregoing results, that all the men of 
this group, like the members of the professional group, expe- 
rienced no difficulty in reducing in large measure their rate 
of proteid metabolism. The intake of proteid food was 
steadily diminished, with a corresponding diminution in the 
extent of nitrogen metabolism. Take as an illustration the 
average daily output of nitrogen from April 13 to June 15, 
a period of sixty-three consecutive days: 

AVERAGE DAILY EXCRETION OF METABOLIZED NITROGEN 
FOR THE LAST TWO MONTHS OF THE EXPERIMENT. 

G. W. Anderson . . 8.81 ' 

W. L. Anderson . . 10.07 

H.S.Belli S . . . . 8.45* 

W.H.Callahan . . 9.52 = ^ 

M. Donahue. . . . 7.39 * 

C. S. Jacobus . . . 7.43 

H. R. Schenker . . 9.82 

John Staple ton. . . 9.00 

An excretion of 8.81 grams of nitrogen through the kid- 
neys corresponds to the metabolism of 55 grams of proteid 
matter. Compare this average amount of proteid matter 
metabolized ea&h day with the figures obtained during the 
preliminary period of ten days, when the men were living on 
their ordinary diet. Then, many of the men were excreting 
nitrogen at the rate of 17 to 22 grams per day. In a general 
way, we may safely say that all these men during the last two 
months of the experiment were living on about one-half the 
proteid food they were formerly accustomed to take. 

Further, the average daily excretion of nitrogen for the pre- 
ceding seventy-three days, i. e., from February 1 to April 13, 
was in most instances nearly, if not quite, as low as during 
the last two months of the experiment, so that we are cer- 
tainly justified in the statement that these men trained 

* This average covers the period from April 13 to May 24 only, as Mr. 
Bellis was compelled to withdraw from the experiment on the latter date, 
owing to an accident in the gymnasium. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 365 

athletes, doing athletic work more or less strenuous were 
able to practise during this long period marked physiological 
economy in the use of proteid food, equal approximately at 
least to a saving of full fifty per cent in proteid matter. 

The individual tables must be carefully studied, however, 
in order to trace out the changes in detail in the rate of nitro- 
gen metabolism, and in so doing much information will be 
obtained regarding modification in the excretion of uric acid, 
a matter to be discussed in another connection, later on. Fur- 
ther, it is interesting to note in the tables the changes in body- 
weight of the men. Some of the men, like Dr. Callahan, who 
were abundantly supplied with adipose tissue, lost very con- 
siderably in body-weight, but eventually came to a standstill, 
with establishment of body equilibrium, under the changed 
dietary habits. Some of the men reached this condition of 
equilibrium much more quickly than others. Dr. Callahan 
who suffered a large loss in body-weight to his great gain, 
as he expressed it dropped from 92.2 kilos to 83 kilos in 
two months, but from March 22 to June 15 his body- 
weight, while naturally showing fluctuation, did not fall 
again permanently. 

What now was the amount of metabolized nitrogen per 
kilo of body-weight in these men toward the close of the 
experiment ? Taking the average daily nitrogen excretion 
for the period from April 13 to June 15, and the body- 
weights of the men at this same period, as indicated in the 
accompanying table, we have the following figures : 

Rn(1v _ Average daily Metabolized Nitro- 
gen per kilo of 
body-weight. 

gram 
0.108 
0.114 

0.119 
0.120 
0.124 
0.132 
0.134 
0.165 





weight. 


ninugeii 

excreted. 




kilos 


grams 


Bellis .... 


78 


8.45 


Callahan 


83 


9.52 


Donahue . 


62 


7.39 


Stapleton .... 


. 75 


9.00 


Anderson, G. W. 


. 71 


8.81 


Jacobus 


. 56 


7.43 


Schenker 


73 


9.82 


Anderson, W. L. . . 


. 61 


10.07 



366 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

These figures, with one exception, show as low a proteid 
metabolism per kilo of body- weight as was obtained with the 
soldiers on a prescribed diet, yet these men were athletes 
accustomed to vigorous muscular exercise, and likewise 
accustomed to the eating of relatively large amounts of 
proteid food. Theoretically, it might not be expected that 
these men would drop to as low a level as men who were not 
addicted to the consumption of excessive amounts of proteid 
foods, yet for two months, and practically for a period of 
four months, these University students easily maintained 
themselves at this lower level of nitrogen metabolism. 

From April 26 to June 13, at the request of the students 
themselves, the daily diet was prescribed ; not, however, as 
regards the quantity of food to be eaten, but merely as to its 
character. The men ate at the University Dining Hall, and 
it was a simple matter to have their table supplied with a 
special dietary. The following dietary was therefore pre- 
pared for their use. 

It is not to be understood that the men took all that the 
daily list provided, but they made their selections from the 
menu, and in quantity took what they deemed necessary, or 
what satisfied their appetites. It may be added that the men 
were all well content with the variety provided and expressed 
themselves, many times, as better pleased with a simple dietary 
of this kind than with the heavier proteid foods of earlier days. 
It should be added that Dr. Callahan was compelled to be 
absent from New Haven during a large portion of the period 
covered by this dietary, hence his nitrogen excretions do 
not correspond in quantity with the nitrogen of the above 
rations. 



Tuesday, April 26, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, boiled hominy with sugar and cream, coffee, rolls, butter. 
Lunch. Spaghetti, Mewed tomatoes, potatoes, boiled onions, bread, butter, 

coffee, fried homin/ with syrup. 
Dinner. Split-pea soup, fried bacon with French fried potato, spinach, bread, 

butter, stewed prunes, lettuce-celery-apple salad, cream puffs, coffee. 




STAPLETON 

Photograph taken in the middle of the experiment, in April. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 367 



Wednesday, April 27, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fruit, farina with cream, coffee, rolls, butter, baked potato. 
Lunch. Fried oysters, mashed potato, bread, butter, coffee, string beans, 

sliced banana with cream. 
Dinner. Cream of celery soup, codfish-cakes, boiled potato, boiled lima beans 

lettuce-orange salad, ice cream, coffee. 

Thursday, April 28, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, coffee, rolls, cream, butter, fried hominy and syrup. 
Lunch. Fried sweet potato, cold tongue, baked potato, bread, butter, coffee, 

baked apple with cream. 
Dinner. Vegetable soup, Hamburg steak made with plenty of bread, etc., 

Lyonnaise potato, baked potato, spinach, pie, coffee. 



Friday, April 29, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fruit, Indian meal, boiled, with sugar and cream, baked potato, 

rolls, coffee. 
Lunch. Clam chowder with crackers, farina croquettes, stewed tomato, griddle 

cakes with syrup, coffee, bread, butter. 
Dinner. Soup, fish, mashed potato, radishes, string beans, cranberry sauce, 

bread, butter, lettuce salad, lemon pie, coffee. 



Saturday, April 30, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, fried Indian-meal, syrup, baked potato, coffee, rolls. 

Lunch. Tomato puree, baked macaroni, baked potato, sliced ham, baked 
apple and cream, bread, butter, coffee. 

Dinner. Soup, small sausage fried, mashed potato, boiled sweet potato, spin- 
ach, stewed tomato, strawberry short cake, coffee. 

Sunday, May 1, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fruit, boiled rice, sugar, cream, coffee, rolls, butter. 

Dinner. Vegetable soup, stewed chicken, cranberry sauce, boiled potato, 

boiled onion, stewed corn, water ice, coffee, bread, butter. 
Supper. French fried potato, bacon, Waldorf-salad, bread, butter, pie. 



Monday, May 2, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, malto-rice, cream, coffee, rolls. 

Lunch. Baked beans, catsup, baked potato, stewed prunes, apple pudding. 
Dinner. Barley soup, string beans, boiled onion, mashed potato, fried bacon, 
cranberry sauce, bread, butter, sliced banana, cream, coffee. 



368 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Tuesday, May 3, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fruit, boiled Indian-meal, sugar, cream, baked potato, butter, rolls, 

coffee 
Lunch. Baked macaroni, French fried potato, boiled spinach, stewed prunes, 

coffee, bread, butter, fried rice with syrup. 
Dinner. Split-pea soup, fried sausage with Lyonnaise potato, boiled sweet 

potato, butter, lettuce-orange salad, baked apple with cream, coffee. 



Wednesday May 4, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, farina with sugar and cream, baked potato, coffee, rolls, 
butter. 

Lunch. One egg on toast, string beans, boiled potato, bread, butter, coffee, pie. 

Dinner. Tomato puree, codfish-cakes, baked potato, boiled lima beans, lettuce- 
apple salad, bread, butter, cream puffs, coffee. 



Thursday, May 5, 190%. 

Breakfast. Fruit, boiled hominy, sugar, cream, coffee, rolls, butter. 

Lunch. Cold ham, fried sweet potato, baked potato, cream, butter, coffee, 

cabinet pudding, vanilla sauce. 
Dinner. Scotch broth, one lamb chop, mashed potato, fried sweet potato, 

spinach, bread and butter, baked apple and cream, coffee. 



Friday, May 6, 1904. 

Breakfast. One apple, fried hominy with syrup, baked potato, rolls, butter, 

coffee. 
Lunch. Clam chowder with crackers, potato croquettes, sliced tomatoes, bread, 

butter, griddle cakes and syrup, coffee. 
Dinner. Bean soup aux croutons, boiled halibut, mashed potato, boiled onions 

with cream, radishes, cranberry sauce, lettuce salad, bread, butter, coffee, 

one orange. 



Saturday, May 7, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, boiled rice, sugar, cream, baked potato, coffee, rolls, 

butter. 
Lunch. Consomme, spaghetti a Pitalienne, boiled sweet potato, bread, butter, 

cakes, preserves, coffee. 
Dinner. Split-pea soup, roast beef, mashed potato, boiled spinach, boiled 

sweet potato, bread and butter, strawberries and cream, coffee. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 369 



Sunday, May 8, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, fried rice, syrup, coffee, corn bread and butter, baked 

potato. 
Dinner. Vegetable soup, stewed chicken, cranberry sauce, string beans, boiled 

or mashed potato, water ice, bread and butter, cakes, coffee. 
Supper. French fried potato, bacon, lettuce-orange salad, bread and butter, 

cake, preserves, and coffee. 

Monday, May 9, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fruit, boiled Indian-meal, sugar and cream, coffee, rolls, butter. 
Lunch. Calf's liver, baked potato, stewed prunes, boiled onion, bread and 

butter, coffee, apple pudding. 

Dinner. Consomme, baked macaroni, fried sweet potato, stewed tomato, pre- 
serves, lettuce, bread, butter, cakes, coffee. 

Tuesday, May 10, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fruit, farina, milk, sugar, baked potato,[coffee, bread, butter. 
Lunch. Egg omelette witli jelly, fried bacon, mashed potato, spinach, apple 

pudding, bread, butter, coffee. 
Dinner. Small fried sausage, boiled potato, rice custard, lettuce-orange salad, 

bread, butter, coffee, baked apples with cream. 

Wednesday, May 11, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana and cream, fried hominy, syrup, baked potato, coffee, 

bread, butter. 
Lunch. Cream of tomato soup, mashed potato, lima beans, bread, butter, 

prune souffle, coffee. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak made with much bread, boiled sweet potato, boiled 

onions, lettuce, lemon pie, bread, butter, coffee. 

Thursday, May 12, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fruit, baked potato, boiled Indian-meal, sugar, cream, coffee, rolls, 

butter. 
Lunch. Consomme, French fried potato, one egg on toast, rice pudding, apple 

sauce, coffee, bread, butter. 
Dinner. One chop, boiled or mashed potato, string beans, apple-lettuce salad, 

lemon pie, bread, butter, coffee. 

Friday, May 13, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana and cream, fried rice with syrup, rolls, butter, coffee. 
Lunch. Clam chowder, boiled potato, boiled onions, fried bacon, carrots, 

apple dumpling, bread, butter, coffee. 
Dinner. Split-pea soup (thick), frizzled beef, fried sweet potato, spinach, 

cranberry tart, bread, butter, coffee, cakes. 
24 



870 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Saturday, May 14, 1904. 

Breakfast. Baked apple and cream, boiled hominy, with sugar and cream, 

baked potato, coffee, rolls, butter. 
Lunch. Cream of celery soup, farina croquettes, with tomato ^auce, stewed 

corn, mashed potato, bread, butter, coffee, fruit. 
Dinner. Fish, boiled potato, boiled onions, bread pudding, preserves, lettuce. 

tomato salad, small cakes, bread, butter, coffee. 



Sunday, May 15, 1904. 

Breakfast. Fruit, baked potato, boiled oatmeal with sugar and cream, coffee, 

rolls, butter. 
Lunch. Consomme with croutons, fried rice with syrup, French fried potato, 

strawberry short-cake with whipped cream, bread,coffee. 
Dinner. Stewed chicken, fried sweet potato, cranberry sauce, celery, string 

beans, bread, butter, coffee, ice cream, cakes. 



Monday, May 16, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, griddle cakes and syrup, baked potato, coffee, rolls, 

butter. 
Lunch. Fried bacon, mashed potato, spinach, bread, butter, rice croquettes 

with preserves, apple pie, coffee. 
Dinner. Consomme, one lamb chop, mashed potato, string beans, boiled 

onions, orange-lettuce salad, bread, butter, tapioca pudding, coffee. 



Tuesday, May 17, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, farina, cream, sugar, baked potato, -rolls, butter, coffee. 
Lunch. Vegetable soup, French fried potato, one egg on toast, rice pudding, 

apple sauce, bread, butter, coffee. 
Dinner. Small fried sausage, boiled potato, lima beans, lettuce salad, bread, 

butter, baked apples with cream, rice custard, coffee. 



Wednesday, May 18, 1904. 

Breakfast. Sliced banana, fried rice, syrup, baked potato, bread, butter, 

coffee. 
Lunch. Cream of celery soup, farina croquettes, tomato sauce, fried sweet 

potato, string beans, bread, butter, prune souffle, coffee. 
Dinner. Split-pea soup, Hamburg steak made with much bread, mashed 

potato, spinach, bread, butter, lemon pie, coffee. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 371 



Thursday, May 19, 1904. 

Breakfast. Sliced banana, boiled hominy, cream, sugar, baked potato, bread, 

butter, coffee, 
unch. Egg omelette, jelly, French fried potato, boiled onions, fried hominy, 

syrup, bread, butter, apple pudding, coffee. 
Dinner. Tomato pure'e, baked macaroni, fried bacon, fried sweet potato, 

spinach, bread, butter, Indian-meal pudding, coffee. 



Friday, May 20, 1904. 

Breakfast. Sliced orange, fried hominy, syrup, baked potato, bread, butter, 

coffee. 
Lunch. Fish cakes, boiled sweet potato, mashed potato, lima beans (boiled), 

bread, butter, bread pudding, coffee. 
Dinner. Consomme, boiled halibut, mashed potato, string beans, bread, butter, 

rice croquettes, cranberry jam, coffee. 



Saturday, May 81, 1904. 

Breakfast. Sliced banana, cream, sugar, boiled Indian-meal, baked potato, 
bread, butter, coffee. 

Lunch. One lamb chop, potato croquettes, fried Indian-meal, syrup, stewed 
tomatoes, bread, butter, coffee, water ice. 

Dinner. Bean puree, scrambled egg, bacon, French fried potato, lettuce- 
orange salad, farina pudding, prunes, bread, butter, coffee. 



Sunday, May %%, 1904. 

Breakfast. Sliced orange, sugar, boiled oatmeal, cream, baked potato, bread, 

butter, coffee. 
Lunch. Boiled macaroni, fried rice, syrup, mashed potato, boiled onions, 

bread, butter, ice cream, cake, coffee. 
Dinner. Cream of celery soup, stewed chicken, French fried potato, mashed 

potato, spinach, Jbread, butter, cranberry sauce, strawberry short-cake, 

cream, coffee. 

Monday, May 23, 1904. 

Breakfast. Sliced banana, griddle cakes, syrup, baked potato, bread, butter, 
coffee. 

Lunch. One egg on toast, consomme, French fried potato, lettuce, rice cro- 
quettes, syrup, apple sauce, bread, butter, coffee. 

Dinner. Vegetable soup, baked macaroni, fried bacon, potato croquettes, 
string beans, bread, butter, water ice, coffee. 



372 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Tuesday, May 2k 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, boiled rice, cream, sugar, baked potato, bread, butter, 

coffee. 
Lunch. Cream of celery soup, farina croquettes, tomato sauce, boiled onions, 

mashed potato, bread, butter, stewed prunes, coffee. 
Dinner. Tomato pure'e, Hamburg steak made with much bread, French fried 

potato, spinach, farina croquettes, bread, butter, lemon pie, coffee. 



Wednesday, May 25, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, boiled hominy, cream, sugar, baked potato, bread, butter, 

coffee. 
Lunch. Small fried sausage, boiled potato, lettuce salad, fried hominy, syrup, 

bread, butter, apple sauce, coffee. 
Dinner. Consomme, scrambled eggs, French fried potato, lettuce-orange 

salad, lima beans, bread, butter, bread pudding, coffee. 



Thursday, May 26, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, boiled- oatmeal, sugar, cream, baked potato, rolls, butter, 

coffee. 
Lunch. One egg on toast, spinach, mashed potato, apple sauce, bread, butter, 

rice pudding, coffee. 
Dinner. Tomato puree, boiled macaroni, boiled onions, French fried potato, 

lettuce, bread, butter, tapioca pudding, coffee. 



Friday, May 27, 1904. 

Breakfast. Orange, boiled Indian-meal, sugar, cream, rolls, coffee. 

Lunch. Clam chowder, potato croquettes, lima beans, bread, butter, straw- 
berries, cream, coffee. 

Dinner. Bean soup, boiled halibut, mashed potato, string beans, rice cro- 
quettes, cranberry jam, bread, butter, water ice, coffee. 



Saturday, May 28, 1904- 

Breakfast. Banana, breakfast flakes, sugar, cream, baked potato, rolls, butter, 
coffee. 

Lunch. One boiled egg, French fried potato, stewed tomatoes, fried Indian- 
meal, syrup, bread, butter, coffee. 

Dinner. Split-pea soup, baked beans, Boston brown bread, lettuce-orange 
salad, stewed prunes, bread, butter, ice cream, coffee. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 373 



Sunday, May 29, 1904. 

Breakfast. Orange, boiled oatmeal, sugar, cream, baked potato, rolls, butter, 

coffee. 
Lunch. Boiled spaghetti, mashed potato, boiled onions, fried rice, syrup, 

bread, butter, strawberries, cake, coffee. 
Dinner. Cream of celery soup, stewed chicken, boiled potato, spinach, bread, 

butter, cranberry sauce, custard pie, coffee. 



Monday, May 30, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, boiled rice, sugar, cream, baked potato, rolls, butter, 

coffee. 
Lunch. Consomme, French fried potato, bacon, lettuce-orange salad, wheat 

griddle cakes, syrup, bread, butter, coffee. 
Dinner. Barley broth, one lamb chop, mashed potato, fried sweet potato, apple 

sauce, bread, butter, bread pudding, coffee. 



Tuesday, June 7, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, boiled rice, cream, sugar, baked potato, rolls, butter, 

coffee. 
Lunch. Vegetable soup, French fried potato, one egg on toast, apple sauce, 

rice pudding, bread, butter, tea. 
Dinner. One small fried sausage, boiled potato, lima beans, lettuce-orange 

salad, bread, butter, ice cream, cake, coffee. 



Wednesday, June 8, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, breakfast flakes, sugar, cream, baked potato, rolls, butter, 

coffee. 
Lunch. Cream of celery soup, potato croquettes, string beans, two slices 

bacon, bread, butter, bread pudding, coffee. 
Dinner. Split-pea soup, boiled halibut, mashed potato, asparagus, bread, 

butter, cream pie, coffee. 



TJiursday, June 9, 1904. 

Breakfast. Orange, boiled hominy, cream, sugar, baked potato, rolls, butter, 

coffee. 
Lunch. Egg omelette, jelly, French fried potato, boiled onions, bread, butter, 

wheat griddle cakes, syrup, coffee. 
Dinner. Tomato puree, baked macaroni, dried beef stewed with milk, boiled 

potato, spinach, bread, butter, Indian-meal pudding, coffee. 



374 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Friday, June 10, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, fried hominy, syrup, rolls, butter, coffee. 

Lunch. Clam chowder, mashed potato, boiled lima beans, bread, butter, 

tapioca pudding, coffee. 
Dinner. Consomme, bluefish (broiled), Lyonnaise potato, asparagus, bread, 

butter, cranberry jam, lemon pie, coffee. 



Saturday, June 11, 1901}.. 

Breakfast. Orange, boiled Indian-meal, cream, sugar, baked potato, rolls, 

butter, coffee. 
Lunch. Barley broth, corn fritters, mashed potato, two slices bacon, bread, 

butter, stewed tomatoes, strawberries, cream, coffee. 
Dinner. Bean puree, scrambled egg, rice croquettes, French fried potato, 

lettuce-orange salad, stewed prunes, bread, butter, farina pudding, coffee. 



Sunday, June 12, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana, boiled oatmeal, sugar, cream, baked potato, rolls, butter, 

coffee. 
Lunch. Boiled macaroni, string beans, mashed potato, farina croquettes, 

water ice, cake, coffee. 
Dinner. Cream of celery soup, stewed chicken, French fried potato, lettuce 

salad, bread, butter, strawberry short-cake, cream, coffee. 



Monday, June 13, 190$. 

Breakfast. Orange, breakfast flakes, sugar, cream, baked potato, rolls, butter, 
coffee. 

Lunch. Vegetable soup, one egg on toast, fried potatoes, apple sauce, rice 
croquettes, bread, butter, cottage pudding, tea. 

Dinner. Clam broth, beef stew, with potatoes, carrots and onions, boiled pota- 
toes, bread, butter, apple-lettuce salad, apple pie, cheese, coffee. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 375 



NITROGEN BALANCE. 

We may now consider whether these men, who had so 
greatly reduced the extent of their proteid metabolism, and 
who had apparently attained a condition of body equilibrium, 
were truly in nitrogenous equilibrium, or free from any daily 
loss of nitrogen. To test this point, a careful and exact com- 
parison of the nitrogen intake and output was made for a 
period of seven days, commencing on May 18. This was not 
easy to accomplish, as the men were still allowed freedom in 
the quantity of food eaten, and also in the choice of food, 
within the limits of the menu provided, so that a large num- 
ber of food analyses had to be made. A greater difficulty, 
however, in obtaining proof of equilibrium lay in the laudable 
ambition of the men to make a good showing, for they had 
all become interested in the main problem, and had acquired 
great faith in the efficiency of a low proteid ration, which 
led them to great caution in the matter of eating during the 
balance trial, thereby running the risk of diminishing in too 
great degree the fuel value of the food. 

The following data obtained with Donahue are self-explan- 
atory. The figures showing the quantities of food at each 
meal are instructive, as indicating the general makeup of the 
daily dietaiy, both as to quality and quantity. 



376 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



DONAHUE. 



Wednesday, May 18 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 141 grains, bread 60 grams, butter 15 grams, coffee 150 

grams, cream 80 grams, sugar 31 grams. 
Lunch. Soup 247 grams, string beans 65 grams, bread 21 grams, butter 30 

grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 21 grams, fried potato 222 grams. 
Dinner. Consomme 150 grams, bread 45 grams, butter 10 grams, mashed 

potato 150 grams, spinach 200 grams, apple pie 103 grams, coffee 150 

grams, cream 75 grams, sugar 28 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Banana . . 




141 


X 


0.23 


= 


0.324 grams. 


Butter . . 


15 + 30 + 10 = 


55 


X 


0.16 


= 


0.083 


Sugar . . . 


31 + 21 + 28 = 


80 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Cream . . 


. . 80 + 75 = 


155 


X 


0.46 





0.713 


Bread . . . 




60 


X 


1.66 





0.996 


Coffee . 150 + 150 + 150 = 


450 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.270 


Bread . . . 





21 


X 


1.60 





0.336 


Soup . . . 





247 


X 


0.41 





1.013 


Fried potato 




222 


X 


032 


- 


0.710 


String beans 




65 


X 


0.34 





0.221 


Consomme' 




150 


X 


0.38 





0.570 


Bread . . . 




45 


X 


1.80 





0.810 


Spinach . . 





200 


X 


0.53 





1.060 


Potato 




150 


X 


0.38 





0.570 


Pie. . 




103 


X 


0.43 


= 


0.443 




Total nitrogen 


in food 








8.119 grams. 




Total nitrogen 


in urine 


. 




. . . 


5.750 



Fuel value of the food .... 2676 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 377 



DONAHUE. 



Thursday, May 19, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 98 grams, boiled hominy 150 grams, bread 60 grams, 
butter 10 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 125 grams, sugar 45 grams. 

Lunch. Bread 61 grams, butter 19 grams, potato 100 grams, fried hominy 114 
grams, syrup 48 grams, boiled onion 139 grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 
21 grams. 

Dinner. Tomato puree 200 grams, bread 40 grams, fried sweet potato 77 
grams, macaroni 100 grams, spinach 100 grams, bacon 21 grams, bread 
pudding 100 grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 7 grams. 



Food. 



Grams. 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 



Banana . . 98 

Bread 60 

Butter . . . 10 + 19 - 29 

Sugar. . . 45 + 21 + 7 = 73 

Coffee . . 150 + 150 = 300 

Cream . . . .125+50 = 175 

Hominy 150 

Bread . 61 

Potato 100 

Fried hominy 114 

Syrup 48 

Onion 139 

Bread 40 

Tomato pure'e 200 

Fried sweet potato 77 

Macaroni 100 

Spinach . 100 

Bacon 21 

Pudding 100 

Total nitrogen in food . 

Total nitrogen in urine 



0.23 

1.54 

0.15 

0.00 

0.06 

0.47 

0.20 

1.60 

0.49 

0.67 

0.024 

0.27 

1.74 

0.53 

0.38 

0.93 

056 

3.00 

0.20 



0.225 grams. 

0.924 

0.044 

0.000 

0.180 

0.823 

0.300 

0976 

0.490 

0.764 

0.012 

0.375 



1.060 



0.560 



= 0.200 



9.482 grams. 
6.640 



Fuel value of the food .... 2753 calories. 



378 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



DONAHUE. 



Friday, May 20, 1904. 



Breakfast. Orange 70 grams, baked potato 87 grams, roll 59 grams, butter 32 

grams, sugar 7 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 67 grams, butter 15 grams, fish cake 88 grams, potato 150 grains, 

bread pudding 150 grams, cream 50 grams. 
Dinner. Consomme 150 grams, fish 70 grams, string beans 70 grams, potato 

155 grams, cranberry sauce 102 grams, bread 32 grams, coffee 100 grains, 

sugar 14 grams. 



Food. 



Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 



Orange 70 X 0.20 = 0.140 grams. 

Butter .... 32 + 15 = 47 X 0.15 = 0.071 

Roll 59 X 1.72 = 1.015 

Sugar 7 + 14 = 21 X 0.00 = 0.000 

Potato 87 X 0.40 = 0.348 

Bread 67 X 1.71 = 1.146 

Fish-cake 88 X 1.22 = 1.074 

Potato 150 X 0.30 = 0.450 

Bread pudding 150 X 0.99 = 1.485 

Cream 60 X 0.44 = 0.220 

Potato 155 X 0.34 = 0.527 

Consomme' 150 X 0.59 = 0.885 

Bread 32 X 1.97 = 0.630 

String beans 70 X 0.36 = 0.252 

Cranberry sauce 102 X 0.03 = 0.031 

Fish 70 X 3.18 = 2.226 

Coffee 100 X 0.06 = 0.060 

Total nitrogen in food 10.560 grams. 

Total nitrogen in urine 8.460 



Fuel value of the food .... 1911 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 379 



DONAHUE. 



Saturday, May 21, 190$. 



Breakfast. Banana 106 grams, boiled Indian-meal 150 grams, sugar 21 grams, 

cream 50 grams, bread 59 grams, butter 16 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 55 grams, butter 13 grams, lamb chop 37 grams, potato croquette 

105 grams, tomato 216 grams, sugar 14 grams, water ice 143 grams. 
Dinner. Bean soup 100 grams, fried egg 22 grams, bacon 10 grams, lettuce 

salad 63 grams, fried potato 100 grams, coffee 100 grams, cream 50 grams, 

sugar 21 grams, stewed prunes 247 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Bread. . . . 


59 


X 


1.66 


= 


0.974 grams. 


Butter . . . 


. 16 + 13 - 29 


X 


0.15 





0.044 


Banana . . . 


106 


X 


0.23 





0.244 


Boiled Indian-meal 150 


X 


0.17 





0.255 


Sugar . . . 


21 + 14 + 21 = 56 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


Cream .... 


. 50 + 50 = 100 


X 


0.43 





0.430 


Bread .... 


55 


X 


1.82 





1.001 


Potato croquette 


105 


X 


0.71 





0.746 


Lamb chop . . 


37 


X 


4.63 


= 


1.713 


Tomato . . . 


216 


X 


0.17 


= 


OL367 


Water ice . . 


143 


X 


0.012 





0.017 


Prunes . . . 


247 


X 


0.16 


= 


0.395 


Bean soup . . 


100 


X 


1.21 


= 


1.210 


Fried potato . 


100 


X 


0.60 


= 


0.600 


Egg .... 


22 


X 


2.27 


= 


0.499 


Bacon . . . 


10 


X 


3.05 





0.305 


Salad .... 


63 


X 


0.21 


= 


0.132 


Coffee . . . 


100 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.060 




Total nitrogen in food 








8.992 grams. 




Total nitrogen in urine 








. 8.640 



Fuel value of the food .... 2294 calories. 



380 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



DONAHUE. 



Sunday, May 8, 1904. 



Breakfast. Orange 60 grams, oatmeal 207 grams, roll 46 grams, butter 14 grams, 
coffee 150 grams, cream 150 grams, sugar 35 grams. 

Lunch. Potato 150 grams, boiled onions 145 grams, macaroni 130 grams, fried 
rice 138 grams, syrup 48 grams, ice cream 160 grams, cake 26 grams. 

Dinner. Celery soup 150 grams, spinach 100 grams, mashed potato 100 grams, 
bread 19 grams, coffee 100 grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 7 grams, straw- 
berry short-cake 169 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Orange . . . 


60 


X 


0.20 


= 


0.120 grams. 


Oatmeal . . . 


207 


X 


0.43 


= 


0.890 


Sugar .... 


. 35+ 7= 42 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Cream .... 


150 + 50= 200 


X 


0.45 





0.900 


Roll .... 


46 


X 


1.67 


= 


0.768 


Coffee .... 


. 160 -f 100 = 250 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.150 


Butter .... 


14 


X 


0.15 





0.021 


Potato . . . 


150 


X 


0.30 





0.450 


Onions . . . 


145 


X 


0.25 


= 


0.363 


Macaroni . . . 


130 


X 


0.46 





0.598 


Fried rice . . 


138 


X 


0.75 





1.035 


Syrup .... 


48 


X 


0.024 


= 


0.012 


Ice cream . . 


160 


X 


0.53 





0.848 


Cake .... 


26 


X 


1.20 





0.3121 


Bread .... 


19 


X 


1.57 


=r 


0.298 


Celery soup 


150 


X 


0.33 


= 


0.495 




100 


X 


0.55 


= 


0.550 


Short-cake . . 


169 


X 


0.60 


= 


0.845 


Mashed potato . 


100 


X 


0.37 


= 


0370 




Total nitrogen in food . 








9.025 grams. 




Total nitrogen in urine 








8.530 



Fuel value of the food . .2781 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 381 



DONAHUE. 



Monday, May 23, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 201 grams, cream 100 grains, sugar 28 grams, griddle cakes 

103 grams, syrup 48 grams. 
Lunch. Consomme 150 grams, rice croquette 140 grams, syrup 48 grams, fried 

potato 100 grams, bread 36 grams, butter 15 grams, apple sauce 90 grams, 

coffee 75 grams, sugar 7 grams. 
Dinner. Vegetable soup 100 grams, potato croquette 50 grams, string beans 

120 grams, macaroni 104 grams, bacon 20 grams, bread 26 grams, water 

ice 184 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Griddle cakes 103 

Banana 201 

Cream 100 

Sugar 28 + 7 = 35 

Syrup 48 + 48 = 96 

Consomme 150 

Rice croquette 140 

Butter 15 

Bread 36 

Apple sauce 90 

Fried potato 100 

Coffee 75 

Vegetable soup 100 

Bread 26 

Macaroni 104 

String beans 120 

Water ice 184 

Bacon ......... 20 

Potato croquette 50 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.91 





0.937 grams 


X 


0.23 





0.462 


X 


0.45 





0.450 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


X 


0.024 


rs 


0.023 


X 


0.65 





0.975 


X 


0.61 





0.854 


X 


0.15 


= 


0.023 


X 


1.75 


= 


0.630 


X 


0.020 





0.018 


X 


0.60 





0.600 


X 


0.06 


=: 


0.045 


X 


0.70 





0.700 


X 


1.75 





0.465 


X 


0.87 


s= 


0.905 


X 


0.22 


= 


0.264 


X 


0.006 





0.011 


X 


3.28 





0.656 


X 


0.77 


= 


0.385 








8.393 grams. 








7.690 



Fuel value of the food . . 2319 calories. 



382 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



DONAHUE. 



Tuesday, May &, 1904. 



Breakfast. Orange 80 grams, fried rice 186 grams, syrup 72 grams, coffee 100 

grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 21 grams. 
Lunch. Celery soup 125 grams, bread 34 grams, butter 19 grams, boiled onion 

127 grams, potato 150 grams, tomato sauce 50 grams, stewed prunes 189 

grams, cream 50 grams. 
Dinner. Tomato soup 125 grams, bread 20.5 grams, fried potato 100 grams, 

spinach 130 grams, coffee 100 grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 14 grams, 

cream pie 158 grams. 
Evening. Ginger ale 250 grams. 



Food. 
Rice . 
Syrup 
Coffee 



Grams. 

186 

72 

. 100 + 100 = 200 



Sugar 21+ 14 = 35 

Orange 80 

Cream . . . 50 + 60 + 50 = 150 

Bread 34 

Butter 19 

Celery soup 125 

Onion 127 

Prunes .189 

Potato 160 

Tomato sauce 50 

Tomato soup 125 

Bread 20.5 

Fried potato 100 

Spinach 130 

Cream pie 158 

Ginger ale 250 

Total nitrogen in food . 

Total nitrogen in urine 



Pei 


cent Nitre 


)gen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.36 


= 


0.670 grams. 


X 


0.024 


n: 


0.017 


X 


0.06 





0.120 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


X 


0.20 





0.160 


X 


0.45 





0.675 


X 


1.66 





0.564 


X 


0.15 





0.029 


X 


0.48 





0.600 


X 


0.30 





0.381 


X 


0.17 





0.321 


X 


0.26 





0.390 


X 


0.23 


= 


0.115 


X 


0.19 





0.238 


X 


1.82 





0.373 


X 


0.46 





0.460 


X 


0.54 





0.702 


X 


0.93 


= 


1.469 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 








7.284 grams. 








7.340 



Fuel value of the food .... 2422 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 383 



NITROGEN BALANCE Donahue. 





Nitrogen 
Taken in N 


itrogen in 


May 18 


8.119 grams. 


5.75, 


19 


9.482 


6.64 


20 


10.560 


8.45 


21 


8.992 


8.64 


22 


9.025 


8.53 


23 


8.393 


7.69 


24 


7.284 


7.34 



Output. 
e. Weight of Faeces* (dry). 



15 grams. 



89 
.24. 
128 grams contain 

6.40 %N. 



61.855 



53.04 + 8.192 grams nitrogen. 



61.855 grams nitrogen. 



61.232 grams nitrogen. 



Nitrogen balance for seven days = +0.623 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = +0.089 grams. 



Average Intake. 

Calories per day 2450. 

Nitrogen per day 8.83 grams. 



* The faeces of the period were separated as customary by the ingestion of 
lampblack. 



384 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

Examination of these data shows that the total amount of 
nitrogen ingested for the seven days was 61.855 grams, while 
there were eliminated in the urine 53.04 grams and through 
the faeces 8.192 grams of nitrogen, thus showing a plus bal- 
ance for the period of 0.623 gram of nitrogen. In other words, 
with an average daily intake of 8.83 grams of nitrogen and 
with an average fuel value of the food amounting to only 
2450 calories per day, the body was not only kept from loss, 
but was able to store up a little nitrogen for future needs. 
Surely, one could not ask for any better demonstration of 
physiological economy in nutrition than these data, for this 
seven days' period, afford. 

Further, it should be mentioned, as confirmatory of the view 
that this subject had long been in a condition of nitrogenous 
equilibrium on about this quantity of food, that the average 
daily excretion of metabolized nitrogen during this seven days' 
period was 7.57 grams, while the average daily excretion from 
April 13 to June 15 was 7.39 grams of nitrogen. Finally, at- 
tention may be called to the fact that the ingestion of 8.83 
grams of nitrogen corresponds to 55.18 grams of proteid food, 
while an excretion of 7.57 grams of nitrogen means the metab- 
olism of 47.3 grams of proteid matter. A saving of more 
than fifty per cent in proteid food and proteid metabolism, 
with maintenance of body and nitrogen equilibrium with its 
possible physiological gains is not to be ignored. 

With Jacobus, a similar trial for nitrogen balance gave the 
following results : 



HIYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 385 

I 
JACOBUS. 

, May IS, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 73 grams, fried rice 100 grams, srrup 68 grams, bread 49 

grams, batter 15 grants, coffee 160 grams, cream 118 grams, sugar $5 

grams. 
Lunch. Tomato soup 106 grams, sweet potato 61.6 grams, farina croquette 91 

grams, syrup 49 grams, bread 86 grams, butter 23 grams, coffee 150 grams, 

cream 46 grams, sugar 21 grams. 
Dinner. Consomtue 165 grams, Hamburg steak 6? grams, spinach SO grams. 

potato 150 grams, bread 27 grants, butter 8 grams, pie 110 grams, cream 

61 grams, sugar 10 grams. 



Butter . . . 16 + 83 + 8= 46 X 0.15 = a069 grams. 

Banana 78 X Oi23 = 0.168 

Fried rice 100 X 0.76 = 0.760 

Bread 48 X 1.66 = 0.797 

Cream . . 118 + 46 + 61= 226 X 046 = 1.086 

Sugar. . . 86 + 21 + 10= 66 X 0.00 = 0.000 

Coflee .... 150+160= 300 X 0.06 = 0.180 

Syrup .... 68+ 49= 107 X 0.024 = 0.026 

Tomato soup 106 X 0.41 = a481 

Bread 86 X 1.60 = 0.660 

Farina croquette 91 X 1.09 = 0.991 

Sweet potato 61.6 X 0,82 = 0.197 

Consomme 1 166 X 0.88 = 0.689 

Potato 160 X 0.88 = 0.670 

Hamburg steak 7 X 8.64 = 2.489 

Bread 87 X 1.80 = 0.488 

Spinach 80 X 0.68 = 0.169 

Ke 110 X 0.43 = 0.478 

Total nitrogen in fowl 9.920 grams. 

Total nitrogen in urine 

Fuel ralne of the food . 



STAlE [:.*; vi srHnm 



386 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



JACOBUS. 
Thursday, May 19, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana 105 grams, baked potato 79 grams, bread 40 grams, butter 
15 grams, coffee 225 grams, cream 85 grams, sugar 24 grams. 

Lunch. Omelette (plain) 60 grams, fried hominy 68 grams, syrup 48 grams, 
potato 100 grams, boiled onion 81 grams, bread 45 grams, butter 14.5 
grams, apple pudding 117 grams, sugar 10 grams, cream 40 grams. 

Dinner. Soup 100 grams, bacon 31 grams, baked macaroni 53 grams, fried 
sweet potato 55 grams, boiled Indian-meal 60 grams, bread 36 grams, 
butter 15 grams, coffee 155 grams, cream 96 grams, sugar 31 grams, 
chocolate 40 grams. 



Food. 
Banana . 




Grams. 
105 
40 
221 
380 
65 
79 
44.5 
45 
81 
68 
60 
100 
48 
117 
100 
35 
55 
31 
53 
60 
40 
in food 
in urine 


Pei 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


r cent Nitrogen. 
0.23 = 
1.54 = 
0.47 = 
0.06 - 
0.00 = 
0.49 = 
0.15 = 
1.60 = 
0.27 = 
0.67 = 
1.68 
0.49 
0.024 = 
0.28 = 
0.53 = 
1.74 = 
0.38 = 
3.00 = 
093 = 
0.20 = 
0.73 = 


Total Nitrogen. 
0.242 grams 
0.616 
1.038 
0.228 
0.000 
0.387 
0.067 
0.720 
0.219 
0.456 
0.948 
0.490 
0.012 
0.328 
0.530 
0.609 
0.209 
0.930 
0.493 
0.100 
0.292 

8.914 grams. 
6.270 


Bread 




Cream . . . 
Coffee . . . 
Sugar. . . . 
Potato 


85 + 40 + 96 = 
. 225 + 155 = 
10 + 24 + 31 = 


Butter . . 15 + 14.5 + 15 = 
Bread 


Fried hominy . 




Eggs (omelette) 
Potato 





Syrup . . . 
Apple pudding 
Soup 





Bread 
Fried sweet potato 
Bacon . . - 


Baked macaroni 
Boiled Indian-rm 
Chocolate . 


sal . 






Total nitrogen 
Total nitrogen 









Fuel value of the food .... 2831 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 387 



JACOBUS. 
Friday, May 20, 1904. 

Breakfast. Orange 70 grams, fried hominy 57 grams, syrup 48 grams, baked 

potato 113 grams, bread 34 grams, butter 16 grams, coffee 75 grams, 

cream 33 grams, sugar 10 grams. 
Lunch. Fish-cake 88 grams, fried hominy 61 grams, syrup 32 grams, potato 

100 grams, bread 45 grams, butter 22.5 grams, coffee 75 grams, cream 36 

grams, sugar 10 grams, bread pudding 81 grams. 
Dinner. Consomme 75 grams, boiled fish 99 grams, potato 132 grams, rice 

croquette 83 grams, syrup 50 grams, bread 49 grams, butter 19 grams, 

coffee 150 grams, cream 48 grams, sugar 20 grams. 
Evening. Beer 375 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Butter . . 16 + 22.5 + 19= 57.5 

Orange 70 

Coffee. . . 75+75 + 150= 300 

Cream . . 33 + 35+48= 116 

Sugar ... 10 + 10 + 20 = 40 

Potato 113 

Fried hominy 67 

Bread 34 

Syrup . . 48 + 32+ 50= 130 

Potato 100 

Bread 46 

Fried hominy 61 

Fish-cake 88 

Bread pudding 81 

Bread 49 

Fish 99 

Potato 132 

Rice croquette 83 

Beer 376 

Consomme 75 

Total nitrogen in food . 

Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.15 


= 


0.086 grams. 


X 


0.20 





0.140 


X 


0.06 





0.180 


X 


0.44 


= 


0.510 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


X 


0.40 


= 


0.452 


X 


0.74 





0.422 


X 


1.72 


ss 


0.685 


X 


0.024 





0.031 


X 


0.30 





0.300 


X 


1.71 





0.770 


X 


0.57 





0.348 


X 


1.22 


= 


1.074 


X 


0.99 





0.802 


X 


1.97 





0.965 


X 


3.18 





3.148 


X 


0.34 





0.449 


X 


1.06 


= 


0.880 


X 


0.069 





0.259 


X 


0.69 


= 


0.443 


. . 


. . . . 




. 11.844 grams. 








, 7.290 



Fuel value of the food .... 2914 calories. 



388 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



JACOBUS. 



Saturday, May 21, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 72 grams, roll 48 grams, butter 7 grams, boiled Indian- 
meal 100 grams, cream 90 grams, sugar 17 grams. 

Lunch. Lamb chop 49 grams, potato 95 grams, tomato 91 grams, beans 45 
grams, bread 49 grams, butter 13.6 grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 28 
grams, water ice 163 grams. 

Dinner. Soup 75 grams, bacon 12 grams, fried egg 50 grams, potato 100 grams, 
bread 40 grams, butter 9 grams, prunes 175 grams, coffee 76 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Butter . . 


. 7 + 13.5 + 9= 29.5 


X 


0.16 


= 


0.044 grams. 


Banana .. . 


72 


X 


0.23 





0.167 


Boiled Indian-meal 100 


X 


0.17 


= 


0.170 


Cream . . 


... 90 + 45> 135 


X 


0.43 





0.581 


Sugar . . . 


... 17 + 28 = 45 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


Roll . . . 


48 


X 


1.65 





0.792 


Bread. . 


49 


X 


1.82 


= 


0.892 


Lamb chop . 


49 


X 


4.63 


= 


2.269 


Potato 


95 


X 


0.71 





0.675 


Coffee 


150 + 76- 225 


X 


0.06 


_ 


0.135 


Tomato . . 


91 


X 


0.17 


= 


0.155 


Water Ice . 


163 


X 


0.012 





0.018 


Bread . . 


40 


X 


1.62 


= 


0.648 


Soup . . . 


75 


X 


1.21 





0.908 


Prunes . 


175 


X 


0.16 





0.280 


Potato 


100 


X 


0.60 





0.600 


Egg ... 


60 


X 


2.27 


55 


1.135 


Bacon . . 


12 


X 


3.05 


= 


0.366 




Total nitrogen in food , 








9.835 grams. 




Total nitrogen in urine 








7.070 



Fuel value of the food .... 2167 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 389 



JACOBUS. 



Sunday, May 00, 1904. 



Breakfast. Orange 44 grams, oatmeal 130 grams, roll 52 grams, coffee 160 

grams, cream 120 grams, sugar 30 grama. 
Lunch. Fried rice 72 grams, syrup 48 grams, boiled onions 70 grams, potato 

100 grams, bread 33 grams, butter 14.5 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 

45 grams, sugar 20 grams, ice cream 147 grams. 
Dinner. Soup 100 grams, chicken 75 grams, fried potato 50 grams, spinach 15 

grams, bread 48 grams, butter 12 grams, coffee 75 grams, cream 50 grams, 

sugar 14 grams, strawberry short-cake 201 grams. 



Pood. Grams. 

Orange 44 

Oatmeal 130 

Roll 52 

Cream . . 45 + 120 + 50= 215 
Sugar . . . 30 + 20 + 14 = 64 

Coffee . . 150+150 + 75= 375 

Bread 33 

Butter .... 14.6 + 12= 26.5 

Onions 70 

Potato 100 

Ice cream 147 

Fried rice 72 

Syrup 48 

Bread 48 

Soup 100 

Chicken 75 

Fried potato 50 

Spinach 15 

Strawberry short-cake .... 210 

Total nitrogen in food 

Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 



X 


0.20 





X 


0.43 





X 


1.67 





X 


0.45 





X 


0.00 


= 


X 


0.06 


= 


X 


1.67 





X 


0.15 





X 


0.25 


= 


X 


0.30 


= 


X 


0.63 


= 


X 


0.75 


5= 


X 


0.024 


= 


X 


1.91 


=: 


X 


0.30 


as 


X 


3.02 


= 


X 


0.37 





X 


0.55 


= 


X 


0.60 


- 









0.559 
0.868 



0.000 
0.225 
0.518 
0.040 
Ofl75 
0.300 
0.779 
0.640 
0.012 
0.917 
0.300 
2.265 
0.186 



1.005 

9.827 grams. 
7.620 



Fuel value of the food .... 2836 calories. 



390 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



JACOBUS. 



Monday, May 23, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 70 grams, roll 64 grams, butter 9 grams, coffee 75 grams, 

cream 85 grams, sugar 10 grams. 
Lunch. Boiled eggs 73 grams, fried potato 75 grams, bread 58 grams, butter 

11.5 grams, apple sauce 90 grams, coffee 75 grams, cream 35 grams, sugar 

21 grams. 
Dinner. Bacon 35 grams, potato croquette 47 grams, bread 39 grams, butter 

9.5 grams, chocolate 45 grams, coffee 100 grams, cream 60 grams, sugar 

15 grams, water ice 151 grams. 



Food. 



Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. 



Banana 70 X 0.23 = 

Butter . . 9 -f 11.5 + 9.5 = 30 X 0.15 = 

Cream . . 85 + 36 + 60 = 170 X 0.45 = 

Sugar . . 10 + 21 + 15 = 46 X 0.00 

Roll 64 X 1.63 = 

Coffee . . 72 + 76 + 100 = 250 X 0.06 

Fried potato 75 X 0.60 = 

Bread 68 X 1.64 = 

Eggs 73 X 2.07 

Apple sauce 90 X 0.02 = 

Potato croquette 47 X 0.77 = 

Bacon 35 X 3.28 = 

Bread 39 X 1.75 = 

Chocolate 45 X 0.73 = 

Water ice . . 151 X 0.006 = 



Total Nitrogen. 

0.161 grams. 

0.045 

0.765 

0.000 

1.043 

0.150 

0.450 

0.951 

1.611 

0.018 

0.362 

1.148 



Total nitrogen in food 7.625 grams 

Total nitrogen in urine 6.480 



Fuel value of the food .... 2041 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 391 



JACOBUS. 

Tuesday, May 24, 1904. 

Breakfast. Orange 80 grams, boiled rice 105 grams, roll 55 grams, butter 9 

grams, coffee 100 grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 30 grams. 
Lunch. Soup 100 grams, fried potato 80 grams, boiled onions 130 grams, bread 

44.5 grams, butter 12.5 grams, stewed prunes 108 grams, coffee 100 grams, 

cream 50 grams, sugar 21 grams. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak 84 grams, mashed potato 135 grams, bread 14 grams, 

butter 3 grams, cream pie 153 grams. 



Food. 



Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen 



Rice 105 X 0.36 = 0.378 grams. 

Coffee ... 100 + 100 = 200 X 0.06 = 0.120 

Orange 80 X 0.20 = 0.160 

Koll 55 X 1.64 = 0.902 

Butter . . 9 + 12.5 + 3 = 24.5 X 0.15 = 0.037 

Sugar . ... 80 + 21 = 61 X 0.00 = 0.000 

Cream. ... 50 + 50 ^ 100 X 0.45 = 0.450 

Bread 44.5 X 1.66 = 0.739 

Prunes 108 X 0.17 = 0.184 

Soup (celery) 100 X 0.48 = 0.480 

Onions 130 X 0.30 = 0.390 

Potato (fried) 80 X 0.25 = 0.200 

Potato (mashed) 135 X 0.46 = 0.621 

Hamburg steak 84 X 3.96 = 3.326 

Bread 14 X 1.82 = 0.255 

Cream pie 153 X 0.93 = 1.423 

Total nitrogen in food 9.665 grams. 

Total nitrogen in urine 7.640 



Fuel value of the food .... 2174 calories. 



392 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Jacobus. 

Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 

May 18 9.920 grams. 6.75 grams. 6.0 grams. 

19 8.914 6.27 10.0 

20 11.844 7.29 30.0 

21 9.836 7.07 28.3 

22 9.827 7.62 20.7 

23 7.625 6.48 18.8 

24 9.666 *7.64 32.0 



144.8 grams contain 

6.58 % N. 
67.630 49.12 -f 9.528 grams nitrogen 

67.630 grams nitrogen. 58.648 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for seven days = +8.982 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = +1.283 grams. 

Average Intake. 

Calories per day 2642. 

Nitrogen per day 9.661 grams. 



During this baknce period of seven days, 67.630 grams of 
nitrogen were taken in with the food, while 49.12 grams of 
nitrogen were excreted through the urine and 9.528 grams were 
passed out through the faeces. This means a large plus balance 
of 8.98 grams of nitrogen for the entire period, showing that 
the body was being supplied with considerably more proteid 
than was necessary for the establishment of nitrogen equilib- 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 393 

rium. The average daily intake of nitrogen was 9.661 grams, 
whereas this might have been reduced to 8.4 grams per day 
with perfect assurance of nitrogen equilibrium being main- 
tained. Further, it is to be noticed that the average daily 
intake of food for this period had a fuel value of only 2542 
calories. The average daily excretion of metabolized nitro- 
gen during the balance period was only 7.01 grams, while the 
average daily excretion for the last two months of the experi- 
ment amounted to 7.43 grams. 

With Schenker the following results were obtained : 



SCHENKEB. 



Wednesday, May 18, 1904. 

Breakfast. None. 

Lunch. Bread 53 grams, butter 22 grams, stewed potato 148 grams, string 

beans 110 grams. 
Dinner. Consomme 200 grams, bread 84 grams, butter 36 grams, Hamburg 

steak 119 grams, boiled potato 200 grams, spinach 100 grams, apple pie 

138 grams. 



Food. Gram; 

Bread 53 

Stewed potato 148 

Butter .... 22 + 36 = 57 

String beans 110 

Consomme 200 

Bread 84 

Hamburg steak 119 

Potato 200 

Spinach 100 

Apple pie 138 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 



X 


1.60 


= 


0.848 grams. 


X 


0.32 


=5 


0.474 


X 


0.16 





0.086 


X 


0.34 





0.374 


X 


0.38 


= 


0.760 


X 


1.80 


= 


1.512 


X 


3.64 





4.332 


X 


0.38 


ss 


0.760 


X 


0.63 


= 


0.630 


X 


0.43 


= 


0.593 
10.269 crams. 



Total nitrogen in food 

Total nitrogen in urine 8.770 



Fuel value of the food 



. 2006 calories. 



394 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



SCHENKER. 



Thursday, May 19, 1904. 



Breakfast. None. 

Lunch. Bread 82 grams, butter 32 grams, potato 232 grams, omelette 60 grams, 

apple-tapioca 180 grams. 
Dinner. Tomato soup 200 grams, bread 57 grams, butter 15 grams, macaroni 

107 grams, fried sweet potato 100 grams, bacon 28 grams. 



Bread . . . 
Butter . . . 
Potato . . 


. 32 + 15 = 


82 
47 
232 
60 
180 
67 
200 
107 
28 
100 

.n food , 
in urine 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


1.60 = 
0.15 
0.49 - 

1.58 r= 

0.28 
1.74 = 
0.53 
0.93 
3.00 = 
0.38 


Omelette 




Apple-tapioca . 




Bread . . . 
Tomato soup . 
Macaroni . . 
Bacon 







Fried sweet potato 

Total nitrogen i 
Total nitrogen 


. 





Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 

1.312 grams. 

0.071 

1.137 

0.948 

0.504 

0.992 

1.060 

0.995 

0-840 

0.380 



8.239 grams. 
8.730 



Fuel value of the food 



1900 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 395 



SCHENKER. 



Friday, May 20, 1904. 



Breakfast. Orange 70 grains, baked potato 142 grams, roll 84 grams, butter 

32.5 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 21 grams. 
Lunch. Fish-ball 85 grams, potato 175 grams, lima beans 60 grams, bread 

57 grams, butter 17 grams, bread pudding 336 grams. 
Dinner. Consomme 150 grams, halibut 110 grams, potato 186 grams, string 

beans 50 grams, bread 72 grams, butter 18 grams, cranberry sauce 163 

grams, sugar 19 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Orange - ... 70 

Butter . . 32.5 + 17 + 18 = 67.5 

Roll 84 

Coffee 150 

Cream 50 

Sugar 21 + 19 = 40 

Potato 142 

Potato 175 

Fish-ball 85 

Bread 57 

Bread pudding 336 

Lima beans 60 

Bread 72 

Potato 186 

Fish (halibut) 110 

String beans 50 

Cranberry sauce 163 

Consomme 150 

Total nitrogen in food 

Total nitrogen in urine 



Per 


cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.20 


= 


0.140 grams. 


X 


0.15 


r= 


0.101 


X 


1.72 





1.445 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.090 


X 


0.44 





0.220 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


X 


0.40 





0-568 


X 


0.30 





0.525 


X 


1.22 





1.037 


X 


171 





0.975 


X 


0.99 





3.326 


X 


0.76 





0.456 


X 


1.97 





1.418 


X 


0.34 


= 


0632 


X 


3.18 





3.498 


X 


0.36 





0.180 


X 


0.03 


= 


0.049 


X 


0.59 


= 


0.885 








15.545 grams. 


. . 


. . . 


. . 


12.480 



Fuel value of the food .... 2798 calories. 



396 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



SCHENKER. 



Saturday, May 21, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 184 grams, cream 80 grams, boiled Indian-meal 155 grams, 

baked potato 140.5 grams, butter 15 grams, sugar 7 grams. 
Lunch. Lamb chop 25 grams, tomato 148 grams, potato croquette 147 grams, 

fried Indian-meal 47.5 grams, syrup 48 grams, bread 35 grams, water ice 

162 grams. 
Dinner. Bean soup 150 grams, bread 25 grams, butter 19 grams, bacon 29 

grams, fried potato 150 grams, orange salad 67 grams, stewed prunes 208 

grams, cream 50 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Boiled Indian-meal 


155 


X 


0.17 


= 


0.264 grams. 


Banana 


184 


X 


0.23 


= 


0.423 


Cream 80 + 50 = 


130 


X 


0.43 





0.559 


Baked potato 


140.5 


X 


0.40 





0.562 


Sugar 


7 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Butter .... 15 + 19 = 


34 


X 


0.15 


= 


0.051 


Lamb chop 


25 


X 


4.63 


= 


1.158 


Tomato 


148 


X 


0.17 





0.252 


Potato croquette 


147 


X 


0.71 


= 


1.044 


Bread 


35 


X 


1.82 





0.637 


Fried Indian-meal 


47.5 


X 


1.09 


rr 


0.518 


Syrup ... 


48 


X 


0.024 


= 


0.012 


Water ice 


162 


X 


0.012 


= 


0.019 


Bread 


25 


X 


1.62 





0.405 


Orange salad 


67 


X 


0.21 


= 


0.141 


Stewed prunes 


208 


X 


0.16 





0.332 


Fried potato 


150 


X 


0.60 


= 


0.900 


Bacon 


29 


X 


3.05 


= 


0.885 


Bean soup 


150 


X 


1.21 


=. 


1.815 


Total nitrogen 


in food 








9.977 grams. 


Total nitrogen 


in urine 








8.760 



Fuel value of the food .... 2661 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 397 



SCHENKER. 



Sunday, 



, 1904. 



Breakfast. Orange 126 grams, baked potato 169 grams, roll 43 grams, butter 

15 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 53 grams, butter 15.5 grams, macaroni 165 grams, potato 150 

grams, fried rice 114 grams, syrup 48 grams, ice cream 148 grams, cake 

45 grams. 
Dinner. Celery soup 150 grams, fried potato 50 grams, spinach 40 grams, 

mashed potato 50 grams, chicken 85 grams, strawberry short-cake 213 

grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 
126 
43 
30.5 
169 
53 
165 
150 
45 
148 
114 
48 
50 
40 
85 
213 
150 
50 
in food 
in urine 


Per cent Nitrogen. 
X 0.20 = 
X 1.67 
X 0.15 = 
X 0.40 = 
X 1.57 = 
X 0.46 = 
X 0.30 = 
X 1.20 = 
X 0.53 = 
X 0.75 = 
X 0.024 = 
X 0.57 * = 
X 0.55 = 
X 3.02 
X 0.50 = 
X 0.33 = 
X 0.37 = 


Total Nitrogen. 
0.252 grams. 
0.718 
0.046 
0.676 
0.832 
0.759 
0.450 
0.540 
0.784 
0.855 
0.012 
0.285 
0.220 
2.567 
1.065 
0.495 
0.185 


Boll 


Butter .... 15 + 16.6 = 
Potato 
Bread 
Macaroni 
Potato . . , 
Cake 


Fried rice 
Syrup 
Fried potato 
Spinach 


Chicken 


Strawberry short-cake . . . 
Celery soup 
Mashed potato 


Total nitrogen 
Total nitrogen 


10.741 grams. 
9.980 



Fuel value of the food .... 2788 calories. 



398 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



SCHENKER. 



Monday, May 23, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 225 grams, griddle cakes 127 grams, syrup 96 grams, 

roll 62 grams, butter 9.5 grams. 
Lunch. Consomme' 100 grams, scrambled eggs 82 grams, fried potato 150 

grams, rice croquette 150 grams, syrup 72 grams, bread 24 grams, butter 

15 grams, apple sauce 125 grams. 
Dinner. Vegetable soup 100 grams, bread 51 grams, butter 17 grams, bacon 

59 grams, potato croquette 80 grams, macaroni 100 grams, water ice 184 

grams. 



Pood. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen 


Banana . . . 


225 


X 


0.23 


= 


0.518 grams. 


Griddle cakes 


127 


X 


0.91 


= 


1.156 


Butter . . . 9.5 + 15 + 17 = 41.5 


X 


0.15 


= 


0.062 


Roll .... 


62 


X 


1.63 


= 


1.011 


Syrup . . . 


. .96 + 72= 168 


X 


0.024 


= 


0.040 


Scrambled eggs 


82 


X 


2.07 


= 


1.697 


Fried potato . 


150 


X 


0.60 


= 


0.900 


Rice croquette 


150 


X 


0.61 





0.915 


Apple sauce . 


125 


X 


0.020 





0.025 




100 


X 


0.65 





0.650 


Bread . . . 


24 


X 


1.64 





0.394 


Bread . . .' 


51 


X 


1.75 





0.893 


Bacon . . . 


59 


X 


3.28 





1.935 


Potato croquette 


80 


X 


0.77 


= 


0.610 


Macaroni 


100 


X 


0.87 





0.870 


Water ice . 


184 


X 


0.006 





0.011 


Vegetable soup 


100 


X 


0.48 


= 


0.480 




Total nitrogen in food 








12.167 grams. 




Total nitrogen in urine 








10.040 



Fuel value of the food .... 3100 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 399 



SCHENKER. 



Tuesday, May % WO!,.. 

Breakfast. None. 

Lunch. Cream of celery soup 100 grams, bread 35 grams, butter 10 grams, 

farina croquette 88 grams, potato 150 grams, stewed prunes 176 grams. 
Dinner. Tomato soup 150 grams, Hamburg steak 77 grams, potato 150 grams, 

spinach 75 grams, farina croquette 107 grams, syrup 48 grams, bread 

30.5 grams, butter 7.5 grams, cream pie 162 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Bread . . 


35 


X 


1.64 


= 


0.574 grams. 


Butter . . . 


. .10 + 7.5= 17.5 


X 


0.15 


= 


0.026 


Farina croquette 


88 


X 


0.74 


= 


0.651 


Potato . . 


150 


X 


0.26 


= 


0.390 


Prunes . . . 


176 


X 


0.17 





0.299 


Cream of celery 


soup .... 100 


X 


0.48 


= 


0.480 


Tomato soup . 


150 


X 


0.19 


= 


0.285 


Hamburg steak 


77 


X 


3.96 


= 


3.049 


Potato (fried) . 


150 


X 


0.46 


= 


0.690 


Spinach . ^ 


75 


X 


0.64 


= 


0.405 


Bread . . . 


30.5 


X 


1.82 


= 


0.555 


Cream pie . . 


162 


X 


0.93 


= 


1.507 


Farina croquette 


107 


X 


0.76 


= 


0.813 


Syrup . . . 


48 


X 


0.024 


= 


0.012 




Total nitrogen in food 








9.736 grams. 




Total nitrogen in urine 








8.710 



Fuel value of the food .... 2161 calories. 



400 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Schenker. 



May 18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 



Nitrogen 
Taken in. 

10.269 grams. 



15.545 

9.977 

10.741 

12.167 

9.736 



Output. 
Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Fsecea (dry). 



8.77 grams. 


8.0 grams. 


8.73 


41.0 


12.48 


26.5 


8.76 


43.4 


9.98 


29.0 


10.04 


14.7 


8.71 


20.5 




11.0 




193.4 grams contain 




6.50 %N. 


67.47 + 


12.571 grams nitrogen. 



76.674 

76.674 grams nitrogen. 80.041 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for seven days = 3.367 grams. 

Nitrogen balance per day = 0.481 gram. 



Average Intake 



Calories per day 
Nitrogen per day 



2486. 

10.95 grams. 



In this seven days' balance trial, there were taken in with 
the food 76.674 grams of nitrogen, with an output of 67.47 
grams of nitrogen through the urine and 12.571 grams through 
the faeces, thus showing a minus balance of 3.367 grams of 
nitrogen for the seven days. The fuel 1 value of the food aver- 
aged 2486 calories per day, while the average daily excretion 
of metabolized nitrogen amounted to 9.63 grams. Schenker's 
daily nitrogen excretion for the last two months of the exper- 
iment averaged 9.82 grams. Presumably, the slight minus 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 401 

balance of nitrogen was due to the relatively small fuel value 
of the food, which doubtless was not quite sufficient for the 
body-weight, and the degree of bodily activity then prevailing. 

With G. W. Anderson, a plus balance was obtained as 
follows : 

G. W. ANDERSON. 
Wednesday May 18, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana 103 grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 42 grams, cream 125 
grams, fried rice 45 grams, baked potato 92 grams, roll 65 grams, butter 
11 grams. 

Lunch. Soup 150 grams, farina croquette 88 grams, sweet potato 206 grams, 
string beans 75 grams, bread 62 grams, butter 15.5 grams, coffee 150 grams, 
sugar 14 grams, cream 30 grams. 

Dinner. Consomme' 200 grams, bread 59 grams, butter 20 grams, Hamburg 
steak 109 grams, mashed potato 150 grams, coffee 200 grams, cream 30 
grams, sugar 24 grams, spinach 100 grams, apple pie 150 grams. 



Food. 



Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 



Butter . . 11 + 15.5 + 20 = 46.5 

Sugar . .42 + 24 +14 = 80.0 

Banana 103.0 

Cream . 125 + 30 + 80 = 185.0 

Fried rice 45.0 

Roll 65.0 

Potato 92.0 

Coffee . 150 + 150 + 200 = 500.0 

Bread 62.0 

Soup 150.0 

Farina croquette 88.0 

Sweet potato 206.0 

String beans 75.0 

Bread 59.0 

Soup (consomme) 200.0 

Hamburg steak 109.0 

Potato 150.0 

Spinach 100.0 

Apple pie 150.0 

Total nitrogen in food 

Total nitrogen in urine 



X 


0.15 


= 


0.070 grams. 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


X 


0.23 


= 


0.237 


X 


0.46 


ss 


0.851 


X 


0.75 





0.338 


X 


1.66 


;- 


1.079 


X 


0.39 





0.359 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.300 


X 


1.60 


= 


0.992 


X 


0.41 





0.615 


X 


1.09 





0.959 


X 


0.32 


= 


0.659 


X 


0.34 





0.255 


X 


1.80 


= 


1.062 


X 


0.38 





0.760 


X 


3.64 


= 


3.968 


X 


0.38 





0.570 


X 


0.63 





0.530 


X 


0.43 


= 


0.645 








14.249 grams. 








. 8.870 



Fuel value of the food 



3323 calories. 



2 



402 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



G. W. ANDERSON. 



Thursday, May 19, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 170 grams, cream 140 grams, sugar 28 grams, coffee 150 

grams, baked potato 127 grams, rolls 47 grams, butter 15 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 50 grams, butter 18 grams, fried potato 150 grams, fried hominy 

100 grams, syrup 48 grams, coffee 160 grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 14 

grams. 
Dinner. Soup 200 grams, fried sweet potato 70 grams, macaroni 125 grams, 

spinach 105 grams, bacon 13 grams, butter 15 grams, coffee 150 grams, 

sugar 14 grams, cream 40 grams. 



Food. Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 

Banana 170 X 0.23 = 0.391 grams. 

Cream . .140 + 50 + 40 = 230 X 0.46 = 1.058 

Sugar ... 28 + 14 + 14 = 56 X 0.00 = 0.000 

Butter . . 15 + 18 + 15 = 48 X 0.15 = 0.072 

Rolls 47 X 1.66 = 0.780 

Potato 127 X 0.39 = 0.495 

Coffee . 150 + 150 + 150 = 450 X 0.06 = 0.270 

Bread 50 X 1.60 = 0.800 

Fried potato 150 X 0.32 = 0.480 

Syrup 48 X 0.024 = 0.012 

Hominy 100 X 0.67 = 0.670 

Bread 46 X 1.74 = 0.800 

Soup 200 X 0.53 = 1.060 

Fried sweet potato 70 X 0.38 = 0.266 

Macaroni 125 X 0.93 = 1.163 

Spinach 105 X 0.56 - 0.588 

Bacon 13 X 3.00 = 0.390 

Total nitrogen in food 9.295 grams. 

Total nitrogen in urine 8.360 



Fuel value of the food . . 2932 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 403 



G. W. ANDERSON. 



Friday, May W, 1904. 



Breakfast. Orange 70 grams, roll 120 grams, butter 33 grams, coffee 160 

grams, sugar 28 grams, cream 50 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 48 grams, butter 19 grams, fish-cake 81 grams, potato 200 grams, 

lima beans 50 grams, fried hominy 118 grams, syrup 96 grams, coffee 150 

grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 14 grams. 
Dinner. Consomme 100 grams, boiled halibut 143 grams, mashed potato 177 

grams, string beans 90 grams, stewed cranberry 76 grams, bread 66 

grams, butter 16 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 14 

grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Butter . . 33 + 19 + 16 = 


68 


X 


0.16 


= 


0.102 grams. 


Orange 


70 


X 


0.20 


= 


0.140 


Rolls 


120 


X 


1.72 





2.064 


Coffee . 160 + 150 + 150 = 


450 


X 


0.06 





0.270 


Cream . 50 + 50 + 50 = 


150 


X 


0.44 


= 


0.660 


Bread 


48 


X 


1.71 





0.821 


Fish-cake 


81 


X 


1.22 





0.988 


Potato 


200 


X 


0.30 


BS 


0.600 


Lima beans . 


50 


X 


0.76 


= 


0.380 


Fried hominy 


118 


X 


0.57 


= 


0.673 


Syrup 


96 


X 


0.024 


S3 


0.023 


Bread' 


66 


X 


1.97 


E- 


1.104 


Consomme 


100 


X 


0.59 





0.590 


Halibut . 


143 


X 


3.18 





4.547 


Mashed potato 


177 


X 


0.34 


=: 


0.602 


Sugar . . 28 + 14 + 14 = 


56 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


String beans 


90 


X 


0.36 


= 


0.324 


Cranberry 


76 


X 


0.03 


= 


0.023 


Total nitrogen 


in food 








13.911 grams. 




9.950 



Fuel value of the food .... 3052 calories. 



404 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



G. W. ANDERSON. 



Saturday, May 1, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 157 grams, roll 61 grams, butter 15 grams, coffee 15Q grams, 
cream 150 grams, sugar 28 grams. 

Lunch. Bread 58 grams, butter 17 grams, lamb chop 33 grams, potato cro- 
quettes 138 grams, tomato 161 grams, water ice 162 grams, coffee 150 
grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 21 grams. 

Dinner. Soup 75 grams, bread 59 grams, butter 22.5 grams, bacon 15 grams, 
lettuce salad 64 grams, fried potato 100 grams, stewed prunes 283 grams, 
coffee 150 grams, cream 60 grams, sugar 14 grams. 



Food. 

Banana 157.0 

Roll 61.0 

Cream 150+ 50+50 = 250.0 
Butter 15+ 17+ 22.5 = 54.6 
Sugar 28+21+14 = 63.0 

Coffee 150 + 150 + 150 = 450.0 

Bread 58.0 

Lamb chop 33.0 

Potato croquettes 138.0 

Tomato 161.0 

Water ice 162.0 

Bread 59.0 

Soup 75.0 

Bacon 16.0 

Prunes ... 175 + 108 = 283.0 

Salad 64.0 

Fried potato 100.0 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



rams. Per cent Nitrogen. 



0.23 = 

1.65 = 

0.43 = 

0.15 = 

0.00 = 

0.06 = 

1.82 = 

4.63 = 

0.71 = 
0.17 

0.012 = 

1.62 = 

1.21 = 

3.05 = 

0.16 = 

0.21 = 

0.60 = 



Total Nitrogen. 
0.361 grams. 
1.007 
1.075 
0.082 
0.000 
0.270 
1.056 
1.528 



0.274 
0.019 
0.956 



0.458 
0.453 
0.134 
0.600 

10.161 grams. 
8.610 



Fuel value of the food .... 2826 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 405 



G. W. ANDERSON. 



Sunday, May 22, 1904. 



Breakfast. Orange 80 grams, oatmeal 100 grams, potato 103 grams, butter 16 

grams, roll 50 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 125 grams, sugar 35 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 47 grams, butter 14.5 grams, macaroni 116 grams, potato 150 

grams, fried rice 85 grams, syrup 48 grams, ice cream 169 grams, coffee 

150 grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 14 grams. 
Dinner. Soup 100 grams, bread 40.5 grams, butter 16 grams, fried potato 50 

grams, mashed potato 100 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 100 grams, 

sugar 21 grams, strawberry short-cake 214 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Pei 


: cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Orange 


80 


X 


0.20 


= 


0.160 grams. 


Butter ... 16 + 14.5 + 16 = 


46.5 


X 


0.15 


= 


0.070 


Oatmeal 


100 


X 


0.43 


= 


0.430 


Sugar. . 35 + 14 + 14 + 7 = 


70 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Potato 


103 


X 


0.40 


= 


0.412 


Cream . . 125 + 50 + 100 = 


275 


X 


0.45 


= 


1.238 


Roll 


50 


X 


1.67 





0.835 


Coffee . 150 + 150 + 150 = 


450 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.270 


Bread 


47 


X 


1.57 





0.738 


Macaroni 


116 


X 


0.46 


= 


0.534 


Potato 


150 


X 


0.30 





0.450 


Fried rice 


85 


X 


0.76 


= 


0.638 


Syrup 


48 


X 


0.024 


= 


0.012 


Ice cream 


169 


X 


0.53 





0.896 


Bread 


40.5 


X 


1.91 





0.774 


Celery soup 


100 


X 


0.33 


= 


0.330 


Fried potato 


50 


X 


0.57 


= 


0.285 


Mashed potato 


100 


X 


0.37, 


= 


0.370 


Strawberry short-cake .... 


214 


X 


0.50 


= 


1.070 


Total nitrogen in food 


9.512 grams. 


Total nitrogen 


in urine 








6.500 



Fuel value of the food .... 3429 calories. 



406 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



G. W. ANDERSON. 



Monday, May 23, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 211 grams, roll 59 grams, butter 15 grams, coffee 150 grams, 

cream 150 grams, sugar 28 grams. 
Lunch. Consomme 100 grams, bread 63 grams, butter 15 grams, rice 113 grams, 

syrup 48 grams, sugar 14 grams, fried potato 170 grams, apple sauce 

125 grams. 
Dinner. Vegetable soup 100 grams, bread 70 grams, butter 16 grams, bacon 

42 grams, potato croquettes 49 grams, macaroni 105 grams, string beans 

184 grams, water ice 148 grams. 



Food. 


, Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Banana . . . 


211 


X 


0.23 


= 


0.485 grams. 


Butter . . . 


15 + 15 + 16 - 46 


X 


0.15 





0.069 


Cream . . . 


150 


X 


0.45 





0.675 


Roll . . 


59 


X 


1.63 





0.962 


Sugar . . . 


28 + 14 - 42 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


Coffee 


150 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.090 


Bread .... 


63 


X 


1.64 


=> 


1.033 


Consomme . . 


100 


X 


0.65 


= 


0.650 


Apple sauce 


125 


X 


0.02 





0.025 


Fried rice . . 


113 


X 


0.61 


= 


0.689 


Syrup .... 


48 


X 


0.024 


= 


0.012 


Fried potato 


170 


X 


0.60 


= 


1.020 


Bread. . . . 


70 


X 


1.75 


= 


1.225 


Vegetable soup 


100 


X 


0.70 


= 


0.700 


Macaroni . . 


105 


X 


0.87 


= 


0.914 


Bacon . . . 


42 


X 


3.28 


= 


1.378 


Potato croquettf 


;s 149 


X 


0.77 


= 


1.147 


String beans . 


184 


X 


0.22 





0.405 


Water ice . . 


." 148 


X 


0.006 


= 


0.009 




Total nitrogen in food 








11.488 grams. 




Total nitrogen in urine 






. . 


6.900 



Fuel value of the food .... 3057 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 407 



G. W. ANDERSON. 



Tuesday, May &, 1904. 



Breakfast. Orange 80 grams, roll 55 grams, butter 16 grams, potato 91 grams, 

coffee 150 grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 21 grams. 
Lunch. Celery soup 160 grams, bread 62 grams, butter 19 grams, mashed 

potato 200 grams, farina croquettes 87 grams, syrup 48 grams, stewed 

prunes 138 grams. 
Dinner. Soup 150 grams, bread 43 grams, butter 15 grams, Hamburg steak 

82 grams, fried potato 150 grams, spinach 85 grams, rice croquettes 57 

grams, syrup 48 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 14 

grams, lemon pie 125 grams. 



Food. 
Butter . . . 
Orange . . . 
Roll .... 


Grams. 
16 + 19 + 15 = 50 
80 
55 


Per 

X 

X 

V 


cent Nitrogen. '. 
0.15 = 
0.20 
1.64 - 


Dotal Nitrogen. 
0.075 grams. 
0.160 
0.902 


Potato . . . 
Coffee .... 
Cream . . . 
Sugar .... 
Bread 


91 

. 150 + 150 = 300 
. . 50 + 50 = 100 
. . 21 + 14 = 35 
62 


X 

X 
X 
X 

V 


0.25 
0.06 = 
0.45 = 
0.00 = 
1.66 - 


0.228 
0.180 
0.450 
0.000 
1.029 




... 150 


V 


0.48 


0.720 


Mashed potato . 
Farina croquette 
Syrup .... 


200 
87 
. .48 + 48= 96 
138 


X 
X 

X 

V 


0.26 

0.74 = 
0.024 = 
0.17 - 


0.520 
0.644 
0.023 
0.235 




. 150 


V 


0.19 


0.285 


Bread 


43 


V 


1.82 


0.783 


Hamburg steak 
Fried potato 
Spinach . . . 
Rice croquettes 
Lemon pie . 


82 
150 
85 
57 
125 


X 
X 
X 
X 

V 


3.96 = 
0.46 = 
0.54 = 
0.76 = 
0.93 = 


3.247 
0.690 
0.459 
0.433 
1.163 




Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrosen in urine 






12.226 grama 
8.450 



Fuel value of the food .... 3022 calories. 



408 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

NITROGEN BALANCE. G. W.Anderson. 

Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry> 
May 18 14.249 grams. 8.87 grams. 

19 9.295 8.36 

20 13.911 9.95 12.0 granu. 

21 10.161 8.51 46.0 

22 9.512 6.50 89.0 

23 11.488 6.90 67.0 

24 12.226 8.45 

164.0 grams contain 

6.92% N. 
80.842 57.64 + 11.349 grams nitrogen. 



80.842 grains nitrogen. 68.889 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for seven days + 11.953 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = + 1.707 grams. 

Average Intake. 

Calories per day 3091 

Nitrogen per day 11.55 grams 

With G. W. Anderson, the balance trial was characterized by 
an intake of 80.842 grams of nitrogen, with an output for the 
seven days of 57.54 grams through the urine and 11.349 grams 
through the faeces, thus making a total excretion of 68.889 
grams of nitrogen, and showing a plus balance of 11.953 grams. 
In other words, the body of this subject, under the conditions 
prevailing, was storing up nitrogen for future use at the rate 
of 1.7 grams per day. This also means that a daily intake of 
9.8 grams of nitrogen would have been quite sufficient to 
maintain nitrogen equilibrium, certainly with the large fuel 
value of the food taken, i. e., 3091 calories per day as the 
average value. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 409 

The average daily excretion of metabolized nitrogen during 
the balance period amounted to 8.22 grams, while the average 
daily excretion for the last two months of the experiment was 
8.81 grams. 

With Stapleton, the following results were obtained, show- 
ing a distinct positive balance : 



STAPLETON. 
Wednesday, May 18, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana 118 grams, bread 29 grams, butter 11 grams, sugar 56 grams, 

cream 125 grams. 
Lunch. Tomato soup 247 grams, bread 37 grams, butter 9 grams, croquettes 

97 grams, potato 100 grams, string beans 46 grams, coffee 150 grams, 

cream 50 grams, sugar 21 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 109 grams, butter 40 grams, Hamburg steak 87 grams, potato 

150 grams, spinach 100 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 100 grams, sugar 

30 grams, apple pie 110 grams. 



Food. 
Banana . . . 
Butter . . . 
Bread 


Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. 
118 X 0.23 = 
11 + 9 + 40= 60 X 0.15 = 
29 X 166 


Total Nitrogen. 
0.271 grams. 
0.090 
0.481 
0.000 
1.265 
1.013 
0.592 
1.057 
0.320 
0.156 
0.180 
1.962 
3.167 
0.570 
0.530 
0.473 
12.127 grams. 
9.670 


Sugar. . . . 
Cream . . If 
Tomato soup . 
Bread .... 
Croquettes . . 


35 + 21 + 30 = 86 X 
25 + 50 + 100= 275 X 
247 X 
37 X 
97 X 


0.00 = 
0.46 = 
0.41 = 
1.60 = 
1.09 = 
0.32 = 
0.34 = 
0.06 = 
1.80 = 
3.64 
0.38 = 
0.53 = 
0.43 = 


100 X 




. . 46 X 


Coffee . . . 
Bread .... 
Hamburg steak 
Potato 


. 150 + 150= 300 X 
109 X 
87 X 
150 X 




100 X 


Apple pie . . 


110 X 
Total nitrogen in food . . 
Total nitrogen in urine . . 






Fuel value of the food .... 3109 calories. 



410 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



STAPLETON. 



Thursday, May 19, 1904. 

Breakfast. None. 

Lunch. Bread 48 grams, butter 14 grams, omelette 125 grams, boiled onion 63 

grams, fried sweet potato 100 grams, coffee 300 grams, cream 150 grams, 

sugar 66 grams, apple pudding 146 grams. 
Dinner. Tomato soup 200 grams, bread 42 grams, butter 9 grams, macaroni 

75 grams, potato 36 grams, spinach 70 grams, bacon 16 grams, coffee 150 

grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 21 grams. 



Food. 

Coffee . . . 
Butter . . . 
Bread 


Grams. 

300 + 150 = 450 

. 14 + 9 = 23 
48 


1 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


Omelette . . 
Onions . . . 
Sugar . . . 
Cream . . . 
Potato . . . 
Apple pudding 
Bread . . . 


125 
63 
. 66 + 21 = 77 
.150 + 60 = 200 
100 
146 
42 


Tomato soup . 


200 


Macaroni 75 
Fried sweet potato 36 
Spinach 70 
Bacon 1 R 




Total nitrogen in food . 
Total nitrogen in urine 



r cent Nit 


rogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


0.06 


= 


0.270 grams. 


0.15 





0.035 


1.60 





0.768 


1.58 





1.975 


0.27 


= 


0.170 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


0.47 





0940 


0.49 





0.490 


0.28 





0.409 


1.74 


= 


0.731 


0.53 





1.060 


0.93 





0.698 


0.38 





0.137 


0.56 





0.392 


3.00 


= 


0.480 






8 555 grams 






. 8.580 



Fuel value of the food .... 2072 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 411 



STAPLETON. 



Friday, May W, 1904. 



Breakfast. Orange 150 grams, roll 65 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 50 

grams, sugar 35 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 64 grams, butter 18 grams, fish-cake 72 grams, potato 150 

grams, lima beans 50 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 100 grams, sugar 21 

grams, bread pudding 150 grams. 
Dinner. Fish 113 grams, string beans 62 grains, potato 150 grams, rice cro- 

quettes 102 grams, syrup 48 grams, stewed cranberry 95 grams, bread 33 

grams, butter 16 grams, coffee 300 grams, cream 100 grams, sugar 42 

grams. 
Evening. Beer 750 grams. 



Pood. 



Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. 



Orange 150 X 

Sugar .. 35 + 21 + 42 = 98 X 

Roll 65 X 

Coffee . 150 + 150 + 300 = 600 X 

Cream . 50 + 100 + 100 = 250 X 

Bread 64 X 

Butter .... 18 + 16 = 34 X 

Fish-cake 72 X 

Potato 150 X 

Lima beans 50 X 

Bread pudding 150 X 

String beans 62 X 

Fish 113 X 

Bread 33 X 

Potato 160 X 

Rice croquettes 102 X 

Cranberry 95 X 

Syrup 48 X 

Beer 750 X 

Total Nitrogen in food . 

Total Nitrogen in urine . 



0.20 

0.00 

1.72 

0.06 

0.44 

1.71 

0.15 

1.22 

0.30 

0.76 

0.99 

0.36 

3.18 

1.97 

0.34 

1.06 

0.030 

0.024 

0.069 



Total Nitrogen. 

0.300 grams. 

0.000 

1.118 

0.360 

1.100 

1.094 

0.051 

0.878 

0.450 



1.485 
0.223 
3.593 
0.650 
0.610 
1.081 
0.029 
0.012 
0.518 

18.832 grams. 
9.510 



Fuel value of the food .... 2999 calories. 



412 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



STAPLETON. 



Saturday, May 21, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 74 grams, baked potato 95 grams, roll 71 grams, butter 18 

grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 100 grams, sugar 30 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 48 grams, butter 14 grams, lamb chop 27 grams, potato cro- 
quette 91 grams, tomato 105 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 50 grams, 
sugar 21 grams, water ice 185 grams- 
Dinner. Bean soup 150 grams, fried egg 127 grams, bacon 2 grams, fried 
potato 108 grams, bread 77 grams, butter 18 grams, coffee 150 grams, 
cream 50 grams, sugar 21 grams, jelly roll 56 grams. 
Evening. Beer 600 grams. 



Food. 



Banana 


74 


X 


0.23 





Roll 


71 


X 


1.65 


=: 


Coffee . 150 + 150 + 150 = 


450 


X 


0.06 


= 


Sugar . . 30 + 21 + 21 = 


72 


X 


0.00 


= 


Cream . .100 + 50 + 50 = 


200 


X 


0.43 


:= 


Potato 


95 


X 


0.40 


= 


Butter . . 18 + 14 + 18 = 


50 


X 


0.15 


= 


Bread 


48 


X 


1.82 





Lamb chop 


27 


X 


4.63 


= 


Croquette (potato) 


91 


X 


0.71 


= 


Tomato 


105 


X 


0.17 


ss 


Water ice 


185 


X 


0.012 


= 


Bread 


77 


X 


1.62 


= 


Bean soup 


150 


X 


1.21 


= 


Fried egg 


127 


X 


2.27 





Bacon 


2 


X 


3.05 


= 




108 


X 


0.60 





Jelly roll 


66 


X 


0.86 





Beer 


600 


X 


0.069 


= 


Total Nitrogen 


in food 








Total Nitrogen 


in urine 









Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 

0.170 grams. 

1.172 

0.270 

0.000 

0.860 

0.380 

0.075 

0.874 

1.250 

0.646 

0.179 

0.022 

1.247 

1.815 

2.883 

0.061 

0.648 

0.482 

0.414 



13.448 grams. 
9.640 



Fuel value of the food .... 2871 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 413 



STAPLETON. 



Sunday, May 22, 190J.. 



Breakfast. Orange 60 grams, oatmeal 150 grams, wheat roll 51 grams, butter 

17 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 100 grams, sugar 49 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 37 grams, butter 13 grams, potato 114 grams, macaroni 115 

grams, fried rice 92 grams, coffee 300 grams, cream 100 grams, sugar 42 

grams, ice cream 104 grams, cake 37.5 grams. 
Dinner. Chicken 89 grams, spinach 100 grams, fried potato 70 grams, bread 

46 grams, butter 12 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 100 grams, sugar 30 

grams, strawberry short-cake 195 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Koll 51 

Sugar . . 49 + 42+30 = 121 

Orange 60 

Oatmeal 150 

Coffee . 150 + 300 + 150 = 600 

Cream . 100 + 100 + 100 = 300 
Butter . . 17 + 13 + 12 = 42 

Potato 114 

Macaroni 115 

Bread 37 

Fried rice 92 

Ice cream 104 

Cake 37.5 

Spinach 100 

Chicken 89 

Fried potato 70 

Bread 46 

Short-cake 195 

Total Nitrogen in food 

Total Nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


1.67 


= 


0.862 grams. 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


X 


0.20 


-- 


0.120 


X 


0.43 





0.645 


X 


0.06 





0.360 


X 


0.45 


= 


1.350 


X 


0.15 





0.063 


X 


0.30 





0.342 


X 


0.46 





0.529 


X 


1.57 


= 


0.581 


X 


0.75 


= 


0.690 


X 


0.53 





0.561 


X 


1.20 





0.450 


X 


0.55 


= 


0.550 


X 


3.02 





2.688 


X 


0.57 





0.399 


X 


1.91 





0.879 


X 


0.50 


= 


0.975 








12.024 grams 


, , 


. . 




9.560 



Fuel value of the food .... 3442 calories. 



414 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



STAPLETON. 



Monday, May 23, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 98 grams, roll 68 grams, butter 15 grams, coffee 150 grams, 

cream 100 grams, sugar 40 grams. 
Lunch. Bread 63 grams, butter 17.5 grams, boiled eggs 101 grams, apple sauce 

130 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 17 grams. 
Dinner. Bread 28 grams, butter 7 grams, bacon 40 grams, macaroni 62 grams, 

potato croquette 69 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 21 

grams, water ice 116 grams. 



Food. 



Gr 



Banana 98 

Butter . 15 + 17.5 + 7 = 39.5 

Coffee 150 + 160 + 150 = 450 

Cream 100 + 50 + 50 = 200 
Sugar . 40 + 17 + 21 = 78 

Roll 68 

Bread 63 

Apple sauce 130 

Boiled eggs 101 

Bread 28 

Macaroni 62 

Bacon 40 

Potato croquette 69 

Water ice 116 



Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.23 


= 


0.225 grams. 


X 


0.16 





0.059 


X 


0.06 





0.270 


X 


0.45 


5= 


0.900 


X 


0.00 


55 


0.000 


X 


1.63 


= 


1.108 


X 


1.64 





0.869 


X 


0.02 





0.026 


X 


2.07 


=: 


2.091 


X 


1.75 





0.490 


X 


0.87 





0.539 


X 


3.28 





1.312 


X 


0.77 





0.531 


X 


0.006 


= 


0.007 



Total nitrogen in food 8.427 grams. 

Total nitrogen in urine 8.030 



Fuel value of the food .... 2346 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 415 



STAPLETON. 
Tuesday, May % 1904. 

Breakfast. Orange 80 grams, roll 118 grams, butter 23 grams, coffee 150 grams, 
cream 50 grams, sugar 25 grams. 

Lunch. Soup 100 grams, bread 59 grams, butter 15.5 grams, potato 100 grams, 
farina croquettes 109 grams, tomato sauce 75 grams, boiled onions 107 
grams, stewed prunes 105 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 100 grams, 
sugar 18 grams. 

Dinner. Celery soup 150 grams, Hamburg steak 63 grams, potato 100 grams, 
spinach 50 grams, bread 32 grams, butter 16 grams, coffee 150 grams, 
cream 50 grams, sugar 16 grams, cream pie 79 grams. 

Evening. Beer 750 grams. 



Food. 



Grams. 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 



Roll 118 X 

Orange 80 X 

Coffee 150 + 150 + 150 = 450 X 

Cream . 50 + 100 + 50 = 200 X 

Sugar . 25 + 18 + 16 = 59 X 

Butter .23 + 15.5 + 16 = 63.5 X 

Bread 59 X 

Tomato sauce 75 X 

Onions 107 X 

Celery soup 100 X 

Potato 100 X 

Farina croquettes .... 109 X 

Prunes 105 X 

Hamburg steak 63 X 

Potato 100 X 

Soup 150 X 

Bread 32 X 

Spinach 50 X 

Cream pie 79 X 

Beer 750 X 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine . 



1.64 
0.20 
0.06 
0.45 
0.00 
0.15 
1.66 
0.23 
0.30 
0.48 
0.26 
0.74 
0.17 
3.96 
0.46 
0.19 
1.82 
0.54 



1.935 grams. 

0.160 

0.270 

0.900 

0.000 

0.080 

0.979 

0.173 

0.321 

0.480 

0.260 

0.807 

0.179 

2.495 

0.460 

0.285 

0.582 

0.270 

0.735 

0.518 

11.889 grams. 
9.040 



Fuel value of the food .... 2822 calories. 



416 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Stapleton. 



Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 



May 18 
19 
20 
21 



12.127 grams. 


9.67 grams. 


39.6 grams. 


8.555 


8.58 


34.6 


13.832 


9.51 


65.3 


13.448 


9.64 


17.8 


12.024 


9.56 


11.4 


8.427 


8.03 


27.7 


11.889 


9.04 








196.3 grams contain 






7.08 %N. 


80.302 


64.03 + 


13.898 grams nitrogen. 



80.302 grams nitrogen. 77.928 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for seven days = + 2.374 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = + 0.339 gram. 

Average Intake. 

Calories per day 2809. 

Nitrogen per day 11.47 



With this subject, the total intake of nitrogen for the 
seven days' period was 80.302 grams. The output of nitro- 
gen through the urine amounted to 64.03 grams, while 13.898 
grams were passed out through the faeces, making a total out- 
put of 77.928 grams of nitrogen. This shows a plus balance 
of 2.374 grams of nitrogen for the seven days, indicating a 
gain to the body of 0.339 gram per day. The fuel value of 
the food averaged 2809 calories per day, while the daily excre- 
tion of metabolized nitrogen averaged 9.14 grams. This is in 
close agreement with the average daily excretion of nitrogen 
through the urine of this subject for the last two months of 
the experiment, viz., 9.00 grams of nitrogen. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 417 

With W. L. Anderson, the following results were obtained: 

W. L. ANDERSON. 
Wednesday, May 18, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana 90 grams, fried rice 150 grams, syrup 50 grams, wheat roll 

64 grams, butter 11 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 125 grams, sugar 21 

grams. 
Lunch. Tomato soup 247 grams, bread 19 grams, butter 16.5 grams, sweet 

potato 105 -grams, farina croquette 115 grams, syrup 60 grams, coffee 150 

grams, milk 50 grams, sugar 14 grams. 
Dinner. Consomme 250 grams, bread 52 grams, butter 20 grams, Hamburg 

steak 117 grams, boiled potato 150 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 50 

grams, sugar 14 grams. 



Pood. Grams. 
Banana 90 


V 


Per cent Ni 
0.23 


trogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 
0.207 grams. 


Cream .125 + 50 + 50 = 225 
Sugar . 21 + 14 + 14 = 49 
Coffee 150 + 150+150 = 450 
Roll 64 


X 
X 
X 

x 


0.46 
0.00 
0.06 
1.66 


= 


1.035 
0.000 
0.270 
1.063 


Butter 11 + 16.5 + 20 = 47.5 
Rice 150 


X 
V 


0.15 
0.76 


= 


0.071 
1.125 


Syrup ... 50 + 60 = 110 
Tomato soup . . 247 


X 

V 


0.024 
0.41 


= 


0.026 
1.013 


Bread 19 
Sweet potato 105 


X 

V 


1.60 
0.32 


= 


0.304 
0.336 


Farina croquette .... 115 
Bread 52 
Consomme 250 
Hamburg steak .... 117 
Potato 150 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


1.09 
1.80 
0.38 
3.64 
0.38 


= 


1.690 
0.936 
0.950 
4.259 
0.570 










13.855 grams 


Total nitrosren in urin 


R . 






, 10.030 



Fuel value of the food .... 2946 calories. 



27 



418 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



W. L. ANDERSON. 



Thursday, May 19, 



Breakfast Banana 158 grams, roll 122 grams, butter 15 grams, boiled hominy 
150 grams, syrup 48 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 100 grams, sugar 28 
grams. 

Lunch. Bread 50 grams, butter 12 grams, fried hominy 100 grams, syrup 48 
grams, boiled onions 80 grams, omelette 60 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 
50 grams, sugar 14 grams. % 

Dinner. Tomato soup 200 grams, bread 43 grams, butter 10 grams, potato 50 
grams, baked macaroni 202 grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 14 grams, 
cream 25 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Roll 122 

Boiled hominy 150 

Butter ... 15 + 12 + 10 = 37 

Banana 158 

Sugar. ... 28 + 14 + 14= 56 

Cream . . 100 + 50 + 25= 175 

Coffee . . . 150 + 150 + 150 = 450 

Syrup 48 + 48= 96 

Bread 60 

Potato 150 

Fried hominy 100 

Onions 80 

Omelette 60 

Tomato soup 200 

Bread 43 

Potato 60 

Baked macaroni 202 

Total nitrogen in food . 

Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 
X 


1.54 
0.20 


= 


1.879 grams. 
0.300 


X 


0.15 





0.056 


X 


0.23 


= 


0.363 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


X 


0.47 


= 


0.823 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.270 


X 


0.024 


= 


0.023 


X 


1.60 





0.800 


X 


0.49 


= 


0.735 


X 


0.67 


= 


0.670 


X 


0.27 





0.216 


X 


1.58 


= 


0.948 


X 


0.53 





1.060 


X 


1.74 


= 


0.748 


X 


0.38 


= 


0.190 


X 


0.93 


= 


1.879 





. . . 





10.960 grams. 
10.160 



Fuel value of the food .... 3013 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 419 



W. L. ANDERSON. 



Friday, May 20, 1904. 



Breakfast. Coffee 150 grams, cream 25 grams, sugar 14 grams, roll 70 grams, 

butter 9 grams. 
Lunch. Potato 100 grams, butter 3 grams, lima beans 50 grams, hominy 69 

grams, syrup 48 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 25 grams, sugar 14 grams. 
Dinner. Consomme 150 grams, bread 28 grams, butter 15 grams, string beans 

56 grams, potato 200 grams, rice croquette 65 grams, syrup 48 grams, 

coffee 150 grams, sugar 14 grams, cream 25 grams. 
Evening. Beer 450 grams. 



Food. 




Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Coffee . 150 + 150 + 150 = 


450 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.270 grams. 


Cream . . 


25+ 25+ 25 = 


75 


X 


0.44 


= 


0.330 


Sugar . . . 


14 + 14 + 14- 


42 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Koll . . . 





70 


X 


1.72 


= 


1.204 


Butter . . 


. . 9 + 3 + 15 - 


27 


X 


0.15 


= 


0.041 


Potato . . 





100 


X 


0.30 





0.300 


Limn beans . 




50 


x 


0.76 





0.380 


Fried hominy 





69 


X 


0.57 





0.393 


Syrup . . . 


. . . 48 + 48 = 


96 


X 


0.024 


= 


0.023 


Consointne 




150 


x 


0.59 


^_ 


0885 


String beans 




56 


x 


0.36 





0.202 


Potato 




200 


x 


0.34 





0.680 


Bread 




28 


x 


1.97 





0.552 


Hice croauettes 


65 


x 


1.06 





0.689 


Beer 


450 


x 


0.069 


_ 


0.311 




Total nitrogen 


in food 








6.260 grams 




Total nitrogen 


in urine 








8.640 



Fuel value of the food .... 1748 calories. 



420 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



W. L. ANDERSON. 



Saturday, May 81, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 73 grams, bread 63 grams, butter 7 grams, coffee 150 

grams, cream 50 grams, sugar 28 grams. 
Lunch. Potato 150 grams, tomato 145 grams, fried Indian-meal 81 grams, 

syrup 48 grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 21 grams, cream 25 grams, 

water ice 165 grams. 
Dinner. Bean soup 150 grams, bread 29 grams, butter 16 grams, bacon 15 

grams, fried potato 150 grams, cake 36 grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 14 

grams, cream 45 grams. 
Evening. Beer 600 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Banana . . 


73 


X 


0.23 


= 


0.168 grams. 


Sugar . . . 


. 28 + 21 + 14 = 63 


X 


0.00 


=5 


0.000 


Cream . . 


50 + 25 + 45= 120 


X 


0.43 





0.516 


Bread . . . 


63 


X 


1.65 


55 


1.040 


Butter . . , 


, ... 7 + 16= 23 


X 


0.15 





0.035 


Coffee . . 


150 + 150 + 150 = 450 


X 


0.06 





0.270 


Potato . . 


150 


X 


0.71 





1.065 


Tomato . 


145 


x 


0.17 





0.247 


Fried Indiari- 


meal . 81 


X 


1.09 




0.883 


Syrup 


48 


X 


0.024 




0.012 


Water ice . 


165 


X 


0.012 




0.020 


Bean soup 


150 


X 


1.21 




1.815 


Bread 


29 


X 


1.62 




0.470 


Bacon . 


. . . 15 


x 


3.05 




0.458 


Fried potato 


150 


X 


0.60 




0.900 


Cake . . . 


36 


X 


0.86 




0.310 


Beer . 


600 


X 


0.069 




0.414 




Total nitrogen in food 








8.623 grams. 




Total nitrogen in urine 








8.460 



Fuel value of the food .... 2393 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 421 



W. L. ANDERSON. 



Sunday, May 00, 1904. 



Breakfast. Oatmeal 200 grams, sugar 28'grams, coffee 150 grams, roll 60 grams, 

butter 6 grams. 
Lunch. Fried rice 140 grams, syrup 48 grams, potato 100 grams, macaroni 

155 grams, boiled onions 80 grams, butter 5 grams, coffee 150 grams, 

cream 25 grams, sugar 14 grams, ice cream 185 grams, cake 34 grams. 
Dinner. Cream of celery soup 150 grams, mashed potato 134 grams, butter 11 

grams, spinach 100 grams, strawberry short-cake 185 grams, cream 70 

grams, sugar 28 grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Boll 60 

Oatmeal 200 

Sugar .... 28 -f- 14 + 28 = 70 

Coffee . .150 + 150+150= 450 
Butter ... 6 + 5 + 11= 22 

Potato 100 

Macaroni 156 

Cream 25 + 70 = 95 

Onions 80 

Fried rice 140 

Ice cream 185 

Cake 34 

Syrup 48 

Cream of celery soup .... 150 

Mashed potato 134 

Short-cake 185 

Spinach 100 

Total nitrogen in food 

Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


1.67 


= 


1.002 grams. 


X 


0.43 


= 


0.860 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


X 


0.06 





0.270 


X 


0.16 





0.033 


X 


0.30 


= 


0.300 


X 


0.46 





0.713 


X 


0.45 


= 


0.428 


X 


0.26 


= 


0.200 


X 


0.75 





1.050 


X 


0.63 





0.981 


X 


1.20 





0.408 


X 


0.024 


= 


0.012 


X 


0.33 


rr 


0.495 


X 


0.37 


= 


0.496 


X 


0.60 


= 


0.925 


X 


0.66 


= 


0.650 








8.723 grams. 








7.960 



Fuel value of the food .... 2812 calories. 



422 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



W. L. ANDERSON. 



Monday, May 23, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 115 grams, wheat griddle cakes 87 grams, syrup 48 grams, 
butter 7 grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 28 grams, cream 50 grams. 

Lunch. Fried potato 100 grams, rice croquette 115 grams, syrup 48 grams, 
apple sauce 125 grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 14 grams. 

Dinner. Macaroni 270 grams, potato croquette 184 grams, coffee 150 grams, 
sugar 14 grams, water ice 154 grams. 



Food. 



Grams. 



Banana 115 

Coffee . . . 150 + 150 + 160 = 450 
Sugar. .. 28+ 14+ 14= 66 

Cream 60 

Griddle cakes 87 

Syrup 48 + 48 = 96 

Butter 7 

Apple sauce 125 

Rice croquette 115 

Fried potato 100 

Macaroni 270 

Potato croquette 134 

Water ice 154 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.23 


= 


0.265 grams. 


X 


0.06 





0.270 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


X 


0.45 


= 


0.225 


X 


0.91 





0.792 


X 


0024 





0.023 


X 


0.15 





0.011 


X 


0.020 


= 


0.025 


X 


0.61 





0.702 


X 


0.60 


=r 


0.600 


X 


0.87 





2.349 


X 


0.77 





1.032 


X 


0.006 


= 


0.009 








6.303 grams. 








7.490 



Fuel value of the food .... 2224 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 423 

W. L. ANDERSON. 

Tuesday, May 24, 1904. 



Breakfast. Fried rice 115 grams, syrup 48 grams, roll 60 grams, butter 14 

grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 14 grams. 
Lunch. Celery soup 150 grams, farina croquette 108 grams, syrup 48 grams, 

fried potato 200 grams, bread 22 grams, butter 7 grams, coffee 150 grams, 

sugar 14 grams. 
Dinner. Fried potato 200 grams, cream pie 167 grams, coffee 150 grams, 

cream 25 grams, sugar 14 grams. 



Food. 



Grams. 



Fried rice 115 

Coffee . 150 + 150 +150 = 450 

Roll 60 

Butter 14 + 7 = 21 

Sugar. . . 14+14 + 14 = 42 

Syrup 48 + 48 - 96 

Celery soup 150 

Farina croquette 108 

Fried potato 200 

Bread 22 

Fried potato 200 

Cream pie 167 

Cream 25 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



Pei 


cent Nitre 


>gen. 1 


Petal Nitrogen. 


X 


0.36 





0.414 grams. 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.270 


X 


1.64 


= 


0.984 


X 


0.15 





0.032 


X 


0.00 





0.000 


X 


0.024 


= 


0.023 


X 


0.48 


= 


0.720 


X 


0.74 


= 


0.799 


X 


0.26 


= 


0.520 


X 


1.66 


= 


0.365 


X 


0.46 





0.920 


X 


0.93 


=: 


1.553 


X 


0.45 


= 


0.113 




. . . , 


, . . 


6.713 grams. 








6.600 



Fuel value of the food .... 2324 calories. 



424 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



NITROGEN BALANCE. W. L. Anderson. 

Nitrogen Output. 

Taken in. Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faces (dry). 

May 18 13.855 grams. 10.03 grams. 42.3 grams. 

19 10.960 10.15 

20 6.260 

21 8.623 

22 8.723 



24 6.713 



8.64 


17.5 


8.46 




7.96 


42.7 


7.49 


41.0 


6.60 


29.2 




172.7 grams contain 




6.30 % N. 


59.33 * 


10.880 grams nitrogen 



61.437 

61.437 grams nitrogen. 70.210 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for seven days = 8.773 grams. 
Nitrogen balance per day = 1.253 grams. 

Average Intake. 

Calories per day 2494. 

Nitrogen per day 8.777 grams. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 425 

Here, we find a minus balance of 8.773 grams of nitrogen 
for the seven days' period. The total intake of nitrogen 
amounted to 61.437 grams, while there were excreted through 
the urine 59.33 grams, and through the faeces 10.880 grams 
of nitrogen, making a total output of 70.210 grams as con- 
trasted with an intake of 61.437 grams of nitrogen. This 
loss of body material is to be attributed to the small fuel 
value of the food, only 2494 calories as the day's average, 
though perhaps in part to the relatively small intake of 
nitrogen. In this connection it is to be noted that the average 
daily excretion of metabolized nitrogen for the seven days' 
period amounted to only 8.777 grams, while the average daily 
excretion for the last two months of the experiment was as 
high as 10.07 grams. Undoubtedly, the subject did not eat 
as much food during the week of this balance trial as was 
needed to maintain equilibrium, under the conditions of bodily 
activity then prevailing. 

The same statement applies to Mr. Bellis, whose balance 
trial likewise shows a deficiency of ingested nitrogen over 
the nitrogen output. Here, however, the deficiency is more 
manifestly due to the small fuel value of the daily food, which 
averaged only 2174 calories. Bellis showed an average daily 
excretion of metabolized nitrogen amounting to 8.45 grams 
for the last six weeks of the experiment, while in the balance 
period the excretion of metabolized nitrogen was 8.19 grams 
per day. The daily intake of nitrogen in the food, however, 
averaged only 7.76 grams, obviously too small a quantity to 
meet the wants of the body, especially with the low fuel value 
of the food. It is quite plain that during the week of this 
balance trial, the amount of food consumed was not equal to 
the necessities of the body, neither was it equal in nitrogen 
or fuel value to what the subject had been taking during the 
last few months of the experiment, and on which he had prac- 
tically maintained body-weight for at least the last month of 
the experiment. It is further noticeable that during the bal- 
ance week the body-weight dropped off somewhat. 



426 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

Owing to the absence of Dr. Callahan from New Haven 
during this period, no attempt was made to determine exper- 
imentally whether he was in nitrogen equilibrium or not. 

The following tables give the data in the experiment with 
Bellis : 

BELLIS. 
Wednesday, May 18, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 94 grams, wheat roll 53 grams, butter 11 grams, coffee 

150 grams, cream 75 grams, sugar 21 grams. 
Lunch. Soup 150 grams, farina croquette 100 grams, syrup 50 grams, string 

beans 75 grams, fried sweet potato 117 grams, bread 36 grams, butter 7 

grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 14 grams. 
Dinner. Hamburg steak 53 grams, potato 250 grams, spinach 100 grams, bread 

55 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 75 grams, sugar 21 

grams, apple pie 142 grams. 



Food. 



Per cent Nitrogen. Total Nitrogen. 



Cream .... 75 + 75 = 


150 


/\ 

X 


0.46 


_ 


0.690 


Sugar . . 21 + 14 + 21 = 


56 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Coffee . 150 + 150 + 150 = 


450 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.270 


Roll (wheat) 


53 


X 


1.66 





0.880 


Butter . . .11 + 7 + 10 = 


28 


X 


0.15 


ss 


0.042 


Soup 


150 


X 


0.41 


= 


0.615 


Farina croquette . 


100 


x 


1.09 





1.090 


Fried sweet potato 


117 


X 


0.32 


- 


0.374 


String beans 


75 


x 


0.34 





0.255 


Syrup 


50 


x 


0.024 


_ 


0.012 


Bread . 


36 


x 


1.60 


_ 


0.576 


Hamburg steak 


53 


x 


3.64 





1.929 


Potato 


250 


X 


0.38 





0.950 


Spinach 


100 




0.53 


^ 


530 


Bread 


55 


x 


1.80 


_ 


0.990 


Apple pie 


142 


x 


0.43 


_ 


0.611 


Total nitrogen 


in food . 








. 10 030 grams. 


Total nitrosren in urine 


. 8.350 



Fuel value of the food . . 2686 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 427 



BELLIS. 



Thursday, May 19, 1904. 

Breakfast. Banana 155 grams, roll 53 grams, butter 10 grams, coffee 150 

grams, sugar 28 grams, cream 70 grams. 
Lunch. Fried hominy 60 grams, syrup 48 grams, potato 100 grams, boiled 

onion 82 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 35 grams, sugar 21 grams, 

bread pudding 134 grams. 
Dinner. Tomato soup 200 grams, macaroni 75 grams, mashed potato 54 

grams, spinach 70 grams, boiled Indian-meal 100 grams, coffee 150 grams, 

cream 80 grams, sugar 21 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Roll 


53 


X 


1.54 


= 


0.816 grams. 


Banana 


155 


X 


0.23 





0.357 


Butter 


10 


X 


0.15 





0.015 


Coffee . 150 + 150+150 = 


450 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.270 


Sugar . . 28 + 21 + 21 = 


70 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Cream . 70 + 35 + 80 - 


185 


X 


0.47 


= 


0.870 


Potato 


100 


X 


0.49 





0.490 


Fried hominy 


60 


X 


0.67 


=: 


0.402 


Boiled onion 


82 


X 


0.27 


= 


0.221 


Bread pudding 


134 


X 


0.28 


= 


0.375 


Syrup 


48 


X 


0.024 


= 


0.012 


Tomato soup 


200 


X 


0.53 


= 


1.060 


Macaroni 


75 


X 


0.93 


= 


0.698 


Mashed potato 


54 


X 


0.38 


= 


0.205 


Spinach 


70 


X 


0.56 


= 


0.392 


Boiled Indian-meal 


100 


X 


0.20 


= 


0.200 


Total nitrogen 


in food 








6.383 grams 


Total nitrogen 


in urine 








9.600 



value of the food .... 2075 calories. 



428 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



BELLIS. 



Friday, May 20, 1904. 



Breakfast. Orange 150 grams, roll 57 grams, butter 17 grams, coffee 159 

grams, sugar 14 grams. 
Lunch. Fried, farina 74 grams, syrup 48 grams, potato 250 grams, lima beans 

50 grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 14 grams. 
Dinner. Rice croquette 92 grams, syrup 48 grams, string beans 93 grams, 

mashed potato 352 grams, bread 40 grams, butter 8 grams, coffee 150 

grams, sugar 14 grams. 
Evening. Beer 450 grams. 



Food. 


Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Orange . . . 




150 


X 


0.20 


= 


0.300 grams. 


Roll .... 




57 


X 


1.72 


= 


0.980 


Coffee . 150 -f- 150 + 150 = 


450 


X 


0.06 





0.270 


Sugar . 14+ 14+ 14 = 


42 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Butter . . . 


.17+ 8 = 


25 


X 


0.15 


= 


0.038 


Potato . 




250 


X 


0.30 





0.750 


Lima beans 




50 


X 


0.76 





0.380 


Fried farina . 




74 


X 


0.57 


= 


0.422 


Syrup . . . 


. 48+48 = 


96 


X 


0.024 


= 


0.023 


String beans . 





93 


X 


0.36 


= 


0.335 


Bread . . . 




40 


X 


1.97 





0.788 


Mashed potato 




352 


X 


0.34 


= 


1.197 


Rice croquette 




92 


X 


1.06 


= 


0.975 


Beer .... 





450 


X 


0.069 


= 


0.311 


Total nitrogen in food 


6.769 grams. 


Total nitrogen in urine 


10.670 



Fuel value of the food . . . 1980 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 429 



BELLIS. 



Saturday, May %1, 1904. 



Breakfast Banana 69 grams, baked potato 57 grams, bread 59 grams, butter 

8 grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 14 grams. 
Lunch. Fried Indian-meal 80 grams, syrup 48 grams, potato croquette 152 

grams, tomato 147 grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 14 grams, water ice 

163 grams. 
Dinner. Bean soup 150 grains, bacon 13 grams, fried egg 50 grams, fried 

potato 206 grams, lettuce salad 45 grams, bread 38 grams, butter 8 

grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 14 grams. 
Evening. Beer 600 grams. 



Food. Grams. 


Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Banana 


69 


x 


0.23 





0.159 grams. 


Bread 


59 


X 


1.65 


- 


0.974 


Coffee . 150 + 150 + 150 = 


450 


X 


0.06 





0.270 


Sugar . . 14 + 14 + 14 = 


42 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Baked potato 


57 


x 


0.40 





0.228 


Butter .... 8 + 8 = 


16 


X 


0.15 





0.024 


Potato croquette 


152 


X 


0.71 


= 


1.079 


Tomato 


147 


x 


0.17 


= 


0.250 


Fried Indian-meal 


80 


X 


1.09 





0.872 


Syrup 


48 


X 


0.024 


= 


0.012 


Water ice 


163 


x 


0.012 





0.020 


Bread 


38 


x 


1.62 


= 


0.616 


Bacon 


13 


X 


3.05 


= 


0.397 


Fried egg 


50 


X 


2.27 


= 


1.135 


Bean soup 


150 


X 


1.21 


= 


1.815 


Lettuce salad . .... 


45 


x 


0.21 





0.095 


Fried potato 


206 


x 


0.60 


_ 


1.236 


Beer 


600 


x 


0.069 


_ 


0.414 


Total nitrogen 


in fnnrl 








9.596 grams. 




8.460 



Fuel value of the food .... 2071 calories. 



430 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



BELLIS. 



Sunday, May 2%, 1904. 



Breakfast. Orange 100 grams, oatmeal 100 grams, roll 50 grams, butter 8 

grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 40 grams, sugar 21 grams. 
Lunch. Macaroni 112 grams, potato 200 grams, onions 143 grams, coffee 150 

grams, sugar 7 grams, ice cream 170 grams, cake 31 grams. 
Dinner. Cream of' celery soup 150 grams, mashed potato 182 grams, spinach 

100 grams, coffee 150 grams, sugar 7 grams, strawberry short-cake 97 

grams. 



Food. Grams. 

Orange 100 

Koll 50 

Butter 8 

Oatmeal 100 

Coffee . 150 + 150 + 150 = 450 
Sugar. . 21+ 7+ 7 = 35 

Cream 40 

Macaroni 112 

Potato 200 

Onions 143 

Ice cream 170 

Cake 31 

Cream of Celery soup .... 160 

Mashed potato 182 

Spinach 100 

Strawberry short-cake .... 97 

Total nitrogen in food 
Total nitrogen in urine 



Per Cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.20 


= 


0.200 grams. 


X 


1.67 





0.835 


X 


0.15 





0.012 


X 


0.43 





0.430 


X 


0.06 





0.270 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


X 


0.46 





0.180 


X 


0.46 





0.515 


X 


0.30 


= 


0.600 


X 


0.25 





0.358 


X 


0.63 


BS 


0.901 


X 


1.20 





0.372 


X 


0.33 





0.495 


X 


0.37 





0.673 


X 


0.65 





0.550 


X 


0.50 


= 


0.485 








6 876 grams 








7.710 



Fuel value of the food .... 1929 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 431 



BELLIS. 



Monday, May 23, 1904. 



Breakfast. Banana 219 grams, coffee 150 grams, cream 80 grams, sugar 28 

grams. 
Lunch. Rice croquette 143 grams, syrup 45 grams, potato 200 grams, coffee 

150 grams, sugar 7 grams, apple sauce 250 grams. 
Dinner. Vegetable soup 150 grams, bacon 37 grams, string beans 100 grams, 

potato 101 grams, macaroni 86 grams, coffee 150 grams, water ice 184 

grams. 



Food. 


Grams. Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


Banana . 


219 


X 


0.23 


= 


0.504 grams. 


Cream . . . 


80 


X 


0.45 


=. 


0.360 


Sugar . . . 


. 28 + 7 = 35 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


Coffee . 150 + 150 + 150 = 450 


X 


0.06 


= 


0.270 


Apple sauce . 


250 


X 


0.02 


= 


0.050 


Rice croquette 


143 


X 


0.61 


= 


0.872 


Syrup. . . . 


45 


X 


0.024 


= 


0.011 


Potato . . . 


200 


X 


0.60 


= 


1.200 


Macaroni . . 


86 


X 


0.87 





0.748 


Vegetable soup 


150 


X 


0.70 


= 


1.050 


Bacon . . . 


37 


X 


3.28 


= 


1.214 


String beans . 


100 


X 


0.22 


= 


0.220 


Potato croquette 


101 


X 


0.77 


= 


0.778 


Water ice . . 


184 


X 


0.006 


= 


0011 




Total nitrogen in food . 








.7.288 grams 




Total nitrogen in urine 








5.980 



Fuel value of the food .... 2226 calories. 



432 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

BELLIS. 

Tuesday, May 4, 1904. 



Breakfast. Orange 100 grams, baked potato 138 grams, butter 5 grams, coffee 

150 grams, sugar 14 grams. 
Lunch. Celery soup 150 grams, farina croquette 91 grams, syrup 48 grams, 

boiled onions 110 grams, potato 200 grams, stewed prunes 113 grains. 
Dinner. Tomato soup 150 grams, farina croquette 107 grams, syrup 48 grams, 

potato 200 grams, spinach 180 grams, cream pie 140 grams. 



Food. 



Grams. 



Orange ......... 100 

Baked potato ....... 138 

Coffee .......... 150 

Sugar .......... 14 

Butter ......... 5 

Boiled onions ....... 110 

Celery soup ....... 150 

Potato. ......... 200 

Farina croquette ...... 91 

Syrup . ... 48 + 48 - 96 

Stewed prunes ...... 113 

Spinach ......... 180 

Tomato soup ....... 150 

Potato ......... 200 

Farina croquette ...... 107 

Cream pie ........ 140 

Total nitrogen in food . 

Total nitrogen in urine 



Per cent Nitrogen. 


Total Nitrogen. 


X 


0.20 





0.200 grams. 


X 


0.25 





0.345 


X 


0.06 





0.090 


X 


0.00 


= 


0.000 


X 


0.15 





0.008 


X 


0.30 


= 


0.330 


X 


0.48 





0.720 


X 


0.26 


= 


0.520 


X 


0.74 





0.673 


X 


0.024 


- 


0.023 


X 


0.17 





0.192 


X 


0.54 





0.972 


X 


0.19 





0.285 


X 


0.46 


= 


0.920 


X 


0.76 


r: 


0.813 


X 


0.93 


= 


1.302 








7.393 grams. 








6.610 



Fuel value of the food . . 2254 calories. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 433 



NITROGEN BALANCE. Bellis. 



May 18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 



Nitrogen 
Taken in. 



Output. 
Nitrogen in Urine. Weight of Faeces (dry). 



10.030 grams. 8.35 grams. 

6.383 9.60 

6.769 10.67 

9.596 8.46 

6.876 7.71 

7.288 5.98 

7.393 6.61 



57.38 



51.0 grams. 

46.0 

27.2 

67.5 
181.7 grams contain 

6.38% N. 
11.592 grams nitrogen 



64.335 

54.335 grams nitrogen. 68.972 grams nitrogen. 

Nitrogen balance for seven days = 14.637 grams. 

Nitrogen balance per day = -2.091 grams. 



Average Intake. 



Calories per day . 
Nitrogen per day . 



2174. 

7.762 grams. 



434 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

THE PHYSICAL CONDITION OF THE SUBJECTS. 

Having considered the marked decline in the extent of pro- 
teid metabolism which these subjects have exhibited for a 
period of five months, and having shown the possibility of 
their maintaining body-weight and nitrogen equilibrium on a 
low proteid intake, coupled with a relatively small amount 
(low fuel value) of non-nitrogenous food, it is appropriate to 
consider next their physical condition under this changed 
mode of living. So much has been written upon the necessity 
of a rich proteid diet, with a corresponding rate of proteid 
metabolism, for the maintenance of bodily strength and vigor, 
that it becomes a question of vital importance to obtain data 
bearing upon the effect of a lowered proteid intake upon 
bodily strength. If, as is so widely believed, diminishing the 
daily proportion of proteid food below the standards set by 
Voit and other physiologists will result in a weakening of the 
muscles of the body, in decreasing the strength, vigor, and 
endurance of the individual, then obviously physiological 
economy in this direction would in the long run be uneconom- 
ical, and indeed injurious. The maintenance of body-weight 
and of nitrogen equilibrium on a small amount of proteid 
food would count for little, when compared with a gradual loss 
of bodily strength and vigor. 

It was truly a great surprise when the systematic strength 
tests applied month after month to the soldiers indicated a 
marked gain in muscular power, which seemingly increased 
as the rate of proteid metabolism diminished, coincident with 
the decrease in the amount of proteid food fed. The dyna- 
mometer tests were applied primarily to make sure there was 
no falling off in strength, and when the marked gains already 
referred to were recorded, it was thought at first that they 
must be the result mainly of the systematic training the sol- 
diers were undergoing in the gymnasium. Undoubtedly, this 
daily training, with the more regular and systematic methods 
of living, did contribute in some measure to the beneficial re- 
sults obtained, but as the improvement and general gain in 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 435 

strength became more and more apparent, it was equally clear 
there were other factors involved than mere training. 

The opportunity presented by the present subjects therefore 
was particularly desirable. These men had been in training 
for many months, some of them for several years, and natu- 
rally had acquired a high degree of proficiency in all kinds of 
athletic work, in the handling of themselves and in the hand- 
ling of the apparatus, by use of which the strength tests 
are made. 

The tests, etc., were applied exactly in the same manner as 
in the case of the soldier detail, description of which will be 
found on pages 259 and 260. 

The following tables give the results of the tests made at 
the Yale Gymnasium, and reported by Dr. Anderson from 
January to June, for the eight men. It will be noted, how- 
ever, that the record of Mr. Bellis is incomplete. This was 
owing to an injury to his hand, which prevented his working 
with the apparatus during the months of May and June. 

The results presented by these tables are very important and 
suggestive. Every man, without exception, showed a decided 
improvement in his muscular power as measured by the 
strength tests. With many of the men the gain was progres- 
sive, with others there was noticeable as in the case of W. 
L. Anderson and G. W. Anderson in the March test a drop 
in some one test. This could generally be explained by some 
temporary cause. Thus, the March test taken by W. L. 
Anderson was at a time when he was under great strain in 
connection with an intercollegiate meet, etc. However, it is 
clear from the figures presented that all these men, though 
living on a greatly reduced amount of proteid food, and with 
certainly no increase in the quantity of non-nitrogenous food, 
showed at the end of the experiment a decided gain in muscu- 
lar power. Note for example the great gain in strength shown 
by Schenker ; in January his dynamometer tests, etc., indicated 
a total of 5728, while at the close of the experiment in June 
his record was 7135. Again, Bellis increased from 5993 to 
8165, and W. L. Anderson from 6016 to 9472. Further, the 



430 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



STRENGTH OR DYNANOMETER TESTS. 



ANDERSON, G. W. 




J 


$ 


1 


i 


1 


, 


1 


1 


! 


Vault and 
Ladder. 


a 


1 


j 


Jan. 20 


163 


500 


108 


97 


85 


425 


900 


8 


11 


E 


1.05 


3300 


4913 


Feb. 20 


163 


535 


109 


105 


70 


380 


670 


10 


14 


E 


1.07 


3972 


5206 


Mar. 20 


159 


530 


110 


103 


75 


410 


720 


10 


9 


E 


1.07 


3021 


4439 


Apr. 20 


161 


500 


101 


97 


85 


490 


810 


13 


11 




1.05 


3864 


5387 


May 26 


159 


532 


120 


100 


80 


476 


885 


9 


15 


. . 




3816 


5476 


June 17 


157 


530 


100 


90 


80 


530 


840 


12 


14 






4082 


5722 


ANDERSON, W. L. 


Jan. 20 


139 


420 


95 


88 


145 


410 


625 


13 


20 


E 


0.48 


4553 


6016 


Feb. 20 


136, 


440 


95 


80 


137 


650 


560 


15 


25 


E 


0.45 


5520 


6942 


Mar. 20 


136 


430 


95 


85 


140 


510 


670 


11 


15 


E 


0.47 


3510 


4890 


Apr. 20 


138 


460 


93 


75 


165 


650 


730 


12 


30 




1.04 


5806 


7519 


May 26 


134 


450 


90 


70 


155 


570 


880 


25 


31 






7504 


9267 


June 17 


137 


450 


95 


85 


160 


600 


860 


30 


26 






7672 


9472 


BELLIS. 


Jan. 20 


180 


550 


130 


130 


155 


650 


825 


10 


13 


E 


1.06 


4653 


5993 


Feb. 20 


174 


500 


155 


135 


135 


580 


925 


11 


15 


E 


1.08 


4615 


6445 


Mar. 20 


176 


550 


150 


135 


155 


500 


900 


12 


20 


E 


1.08 


5728 


7568 


Apr. 20 


177 


510 


160 


150 


150 


560 


1111 


13 


21 






6035 


8165 


CALLAHAN. 


Jan. 20 


204 


565 


105 


110 


145 


450 


620 


2 


1 


D 


1.20 


724 


2154 


Feb. 20 


193 


560 


120 


120 


145 


440 


690 


4 


3 


F 


1.18 


1365 


2780 


Mar. 20 


185 


565 


125 


115 


145 


420 


650 


5 


4 


E 


1.15 


1692 


3142 


Apr. 20 


181 


580 


120 


120 


145 


530 


685 


5 


4 




1.16 


1629 


3229 


June 18 


184 




120 


115 


140 


520 


890 


7 


5 




1.14 


2208 


3983 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 437 



DONAHUE. 




| 


s* 


1 


I 








* 


0. 


Is 




,. 






3 


** 


I 


43 


1 


i 


! 


1 


1 


>^ 


1 


1 


1 


Jan. 20 


142 


320 


95 


100 


74 


330 


500 


12 


12 


E 


1.04 


3480 


4584 


Feb. 20 


136 


345 


105 


115 


95 


340 


490 


13 


14 


E 


1.04 


3753 


4905 


Mar. 20 


137 


400 


110 


95 


100 


340 


710 


16 


16 


E 


1.06 


4309 


5664 


May 1 


138 


420 


95 


80 


115 


360 


650 


17 


16 






4554 


5854 


May 26 


137 


425 


103 


90 


135 


430 


570 


17 


16 






4589 


5917 


JACOBUS. 


Jan. 20 


126 


350 


97 


93 


96 


250 


300 


14 


14 


E 


1.00 


3712 


4548 


Feb. 20 


124 


380 


97 


97 


75 


460 


470 


15 


15 


E 


1.02 


3683 


4883 


Mar. 20 


125 


370 


95 


95 


80 


430 


490 


15 


15 


E 


1.03 


3810 


5000 


May 2 


124 


350 


85 


90 


100 


350 


510 


15 


14 




1.03 


3610 


4740 


May 26 


125 


fWO 


95 


95 


110 


360 


600 


14 


17 






3875 


5135 


June 16 


125 


375 




85 


T>0 


100 


700 


15 


IP 






4267 


5667 






























SCHENKER. 


Jan. 20 


161 


485 


112 


90 


135 


410 


440 


14 


14 


E 


1.06 


4771 


5728 


Feb. 20 


159 


490 


115 


90 


125 


530 


730 


14 


15 


E 


1.07 


4748 


6338 


Mar. 20 


158 


500 


100 


95 


120 


550 


780 


15 


15 


E 


1.12 


4830 


6475 


Apr. 20 


164 


490 


90 


90 


127 


410 


580 


17 


15 




1.10 


5248 


6545 


May 26 


'159 


500 


125 


105 


155 


470 


850 


16 


15 




1.08 


5104 


6809 


June 9 


160 


500 


110 


110 


155 


570 


910 


17 


16 






5280 


7135 


STAPLETON. 


Jan. 20 


170 


520 


105 


105 


155 


455 


670 


11 


12 


E 


1.21 


3961 


6351 


Feb. 20 


167 


520 


105 


110 


160 


550 


690 


6 


10 


E 


1.22 


2704 


4319 


Mar. 20 


170 


500 


100 


100 


145 


350 


600 


7 


12 


E 


. . 


3268 


4563 


Apr. 20 


162 


500 


100 


105 


155 


410 


670 


9 


14 


. . 


. . . 


3726 


5886 


May 26 


164 


515 


100 


95 


150 


470 


770 


12 


20 






5248 


6833 



438 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

men all agree in the good effect the changed conditions have 
had upon them, and they have, without exception, been able to 
do their athletic work and maintain their athletic supremacy. 

Naturally, in the case of these men the gain in strength 
recorded cannot be assigned to systematic training. The only 
change in their mode of living which can in any sense be con- 
sidered as responsible for the improvement is the change in 
diet. The main fact to be emphasized, however, is that these 
men trained athletes, accustomed to living on relatively 
large amounts of proteid food for a period of five months 
reduced their intake of proteid food more than fifty per cent 
without loss of bodily strength, but, on the contrary, with a 
marked improvement in their muscular power. 

Most striking is this gain in strength when compared with 
the very marked decline in the rate of proteid metabolism. 
Thus, in the case of Jacobus, the excretion of metabolized 
nitrogen was reduced to 7.43 grams per day as the average for 
the last two months of the experiment, yet his strength test 
showed an increase from 4548 in January to 5667 for June. 
Further, it must be recalled that an excretion of 7.43 grams of 
nitrogen means the metabolism of only 46.4 grams of proteid 
matter. Similarly, in the case of Donahue, a very active man 
whose work on the Varsity basket-ball team called for vigor- 
ous exercise, his strength test rose from 4584 to 5917 on a 
daily diet which led to the metabolism of only 7.39 grams of 
nitrogen per day, or about 46 grams of proteid matter. Fur- 
ther, Donahue frequently referred to the far greater freedom 
from fatigue he experienced on the low proteid diet, and he 
was clearly conscious of a distinct improvement in his physical 
condition. 

The following letter from Dr. Anderson, the Director of the 
Yale Gymnasium, gives his estimate of the men at the end of 
the first three months of the experiment : 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 439 

YALE UNIVERSITY GYMNASIUM, NEW HAVEN, CONN., 
April 12, 1904. 

Professor RUSSELL H. CHITTENDEN, 
Director of the Sheffield Scientific 
School, Yale University. 

DEAR SIR, Herewith find a brief report of. the physical con- 
dition and ability of the eight Yale students who are taking the 
special diet while engaged in active exercise. 

These men, with one exception, Dr. Callahan, are experts in 
their special lines of avocation. 

Mr. G-. W. ANDERSON is a foot-ball, base-ball, and basket-ball 
player, as well as a crew man (not Varsity), well built and 
an all round athlete. 

Mr. W. L. ANDERSON, a " Y" athlete (hurdler), the captain of 
the Yale Gymnastic Team, University Gymnastic Champion, 
and American Collegiate Gymnastic Champion. 

Mr. H. S. BELLIS, a member of the Y. G. A., a gymnast and 
acrobat and in constant training. 

Dr. W. H. CALLAHAN, Medical Assistant at the Gymnasium, 
in daily practice in the gymnasium ; bowling, hand-ball, 
and running. 

Mr. M. DONAHUE, a very muscular and versatile athlete, a foot- 
ball player and a Varsity basket-ball player. 

Mr. C. S. JACOBUS, a " Y" athlete, a noted long-distance man, 
and one of the best University runners. 

Mr. H. R. SCHENKER, an active member of the Y. G. A., a 
point winner and intercollegiate competitor in gymnastics. 

Mr. JOHN STAPLETON, a wrestler and gymnast. A professional, 
a man of large body and great strength. 

These eight men are in constant practice and in the " pink of 
condition." They were in "training form" when they began the 
changed diet. All have lost in weight, especially Dr. Callahan, 
who has dropped from 204 pounds to 185 pounds in two mouths. 
Dr. Callahan is not an athlete, but is a vigorous worker in the 
gymnasium, being in daily and constant practice. He is liberally 
supplied with adipose tissue and can well afford to drop in 
weight. 



440 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

As to the loss of weight in the other cases, it would not be wise 
to attribute this to the diet alone. We find that most athletes who 
represent the University in the big contests lose in body-weight, 
but I attribute this loss as much to worry and responsibility as to 
strict bodily activity. 

These students are in a different class from the soldiers, first, 
because they are well educated young men, secondly, because their 
development was towards a specific end, the attainment of strength 
and skill as representative Yale athletes, and thirdly, on account 
of college requirements of fifteen hours per week, which time 
stands for study and laboratory attendance aside from the recita- 
tions. We have here a double drain on the body energy. All 
mental work is expensive, hence the demand upon the corporeal 
machinery has been very constant and strenuous. 

I notice little change in the condition of the men over that of a 
year ago, when I had most of them with me and under like physical 
training. 

In the case of W. L. Anderson, captain of the Yale Gymnastic 
Association, there was a noticeable falling off in the strength tests 
in February and March, but I believe the worry incident to the 
intercollegiate contests, the steady training, and the business 
cares of the Association went far towards producing a fatigued 
state. W. L. Anderson is only a freshman in the Medical School ; 
he did his studying at night, and this combined with his youth 
doubtless caused the loss of weight as much as any change in diet. 
He has shown the same symptoms before this year. At this writ- 
ing he is in good physical condition. I speak with certainty in his 
case because I have had good opportunity to study him at home. 
It was while under the restricted diet that he won both champion- 
ships, these being the Collegiate and All-around Intercollegiate 
Championship of America* 

Schenker won points for the first time in the intercollegiate 
contests while on the diet ; he showed no falling off, rather to the 
contrary, made a steady gain in ability. 

Jacobus complained of a pain in his side but in spite of this he 
has entered a number of events, has kept up his training and is 
in good condition. Jacobus is a long-distance runner; great 
endurance is required for these events, and this endurance he has 



* Italics inserted by R. H. C. 



W. L. ANDERSON BELLIS 

Photographs taken prior to the experiment. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 441 

kept up. He tells me his stomach is in better condition than it 
has been during his three years of work at Yale. 

Donahue has steadily improved in ability. He has kept his 
position on the Varsity Basket Ball Team, and has put up strong 
and aggressive games, and says he is as well as ever. 

Stapleton shows no falling off at all. He keeps up wrestling, 
which is a drastic exercise; he works at heavy gymnastics and 
gains steadily. 

One matter must be reported in reference to the strength tests. 
The first trial was made when all members of the squad were 
present. College men are very sensitive to competition, hence the 
great exertion put forth. The other trials were made when the 
men were by themselves. The "spur" was missing. 

I have watched the efforts of these men with interest and care, 
especially as two of them live in my own family. I fail to see 
any falling off in strength, the case of W. L. Anderson excepted. 
The fellows report being in satisfactory shape and claim that the 
" ups and downs " are no more in evidence this year than in the 
past. 

These picked men, representing several kinds of competitive 
sports, have gained in ability and skill on the more limited diet 
they are now using, and are not showing any signs of deterioration 
from the diminished intake of proteid food. I pronounce them, 
from a physical standpoint, in good shape. 
Respectfully yours, 

(Signed) WILLIAM G. ANDERSON. 

It must be remembered that this letter from Dr. Anderson 
was written after the March strength test was taken, and prior 
to the test of April 20. Dr. Anderson was not in New Haven 
at the close of the experiment, consequently it was not pos- 
sible to obtain his estimate of the men at that date, but there 
can bp no question that there was a distinct improvement 
from the middle of April to the middle of June ; certainly as 
marked as the improvement from the beginning of the experi- 
ment in January, to April 12, the date of Dr. Anderson's 
letter. 

Finally, attention may be called to the photographs of 
Messrs. Stapleton, Bellis, and W. L. Anderson, which are in- 



442 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

traduced primarily to show the physical make-up and mus- 
cular development of the men composing this student group. 
The photographs of Stapleton were taken in April, 1904, after 
he had been under experiment for three months. The photo- 
graphs of Bellis and W. L. Anderson were taken prior to the 
experiment. They all afford a good illustration of the highly 
developed muscular mechanism of different types, with a cor- 
responding adaptability for different lines of muscular effort. 

REACTION TIME. 

Through the courtesy and kind co-operation of Dr. Charles 
H. Judd, in charge of the Yale Psychological Laboratory, these 
students were subjected to the same careful tests during the 
five months of their experiment as were applied to the soldier 
detail. The results which are presented in the following re- 
port, kindly prepared by Dr. Judd, indicate quite clearly that 
there was no general nervous change in the reactors as a 
result of the low proteid diet. The data presented by Dr. 
Judd in this connection will be found in the accompanying 
tables, which, while indicating no noticeable improvement in 
the nervous condition of the men, make it quite plain that 
no deterioration whatever occurred as the result of the lowered 
proteid metabolism. 

REPORT ON REACTION 

Reaction tests with the group of University students were 
conducted in essentially the same way as were the reaction tests 
with the soldiers. Details in regard to the method and apparatus 
employed need not be repeated. They can be found on pages 
274 to 276. 

Two new tests were added to the regular reaction determina- 
tions. One of these consisted in taking a record of the number 
of taps which could be executed in ten seconds. The reactor was 
seated before a table on which was fastened a telegraph key. He 
held the key between his thumb and first two fingers, and at a 
given signal began tapping as rapidly as possible until told to 
stop. Each time he tapped he closed an electric circuit. The 




W. L. ANDERSON BELLIS 

Photographs taken prior to the experiment. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 443 

current thus made was carried through a marker which indicated 
ou a smoked paper each make and break at the key. A time line 
from a rod vibrating "at the rate of once every twentieth of a 
second was traced on the smoked paper parallel with the marker 
record. By a comparison of the time line with the marker record, 
it was easy to determine the number of taps made in ten seconds. 
At first, the number of taps per second were counted, but the re- 
sults showed such uniformity from second to second on a given 
day that only the net results for the whole ten seconds are given 
in the tables. 

The second test added to the reaction tests was undertaken to 
determine the steadiness of the subjects. Two brass rods 40 cm. 
long were held in a vertical position at a distance of 7 mm. from 
each other. The subject took in his right hand a brass rod 40 cm. 
long and 5 mm. in diameter and tried to pass the end of this rod 
up and down between the vertical rods without touching them. 
The subject's relation to the vertical rods may be further defined 
by saying that he stood directly in front of them and reached out 
nearly at arm's length. The vertical rods were at about the height 
of his chest. In order to get a record of the accuracy with which 
the subject moved the hand-rod up and down without touching the 
vertical rods, the vertical rods and the hand-rod were connected 
with the two poles of an electric circuit. Whenever they touched 
they closed the circuit, and a marker placed in the same circuit 
recorded the fact on a smoked paper record. The time was 
recorded in parallel with this record, so that any long continued 
contact could be measured. For the most part, contacts were only 
of very brief duration. In reporting the results of this test, every 
contact made while passing the rod once downward and once up- 
ward is counted as at least one. Continued contacts are recorded 
as two, three or more, according to the period of duration. Where 
there are such added counts because of continued contacts, a 
second quantity is given in the tables after the first. This second, 
quantity, which is enclosed in parenthesis, indicates merely the 
number of contacts without reference to whether they are long or 
short. 

No special comments are necessary to explain the tables. 
Tables 1-5 report in sigmas, or thousandths of a second, the 
average time of ten reactions on the date, and for the subject, 



444 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

indicated. In the third column, is the mean variation for the series 
of ten reactions. 

Table 6 shows the general averages by the month for a given 
individual, and in the sixth column the general average of all the 
determinations for each reactor. The fourth column in each of 
the earlier tables shows how much the results of a given day vary 
from the final general average. All the tables give, at the bottom, 
group averages whenever the full series is present. 

Table 7 gives the number of taps executed in ten seconds at 
each successive test. The dates are not given in detail, but are 
the same as those of the reaction tests. 

Table 8 gives the monthly averages of taps. 

Table 9 presents the results of the steadiness tests. 

The three sets of results, namely, those from reaction, tap- 
ping, and steadiness, differ from each other. On the whole, the 
reactions grow longer ; the tapping varies, but shows neither de- 
cided improvement nor deterioration ; while steadiness improves 
very decidedly. 

The comment made on the results obtained with the soldiers 
applies here so far as the reaction tests are concerned. These 
tests were not repeated with sufficient frequency to reduce the 
reaction to automatic performance. 

The tapping is such a simple performance that improvement is 
not to be expected. The absence of any general improvement or 
deterioration argues for an absence of any general nervous change 
in the reactors. 

The improvement in steadiness is in part at least, probably in 
very large measure, due to the fact that the subjects became more 
familiar with the test and approached it with less of the embarrass- 
ment which attends a new and unfamiliar test. 

The lengthening of the reaction times indicates a less intense 
concentration of the subject upon the work in hand. The slightest 
relaxation of attention puts the subject behind in responding to 
the signal. It was clear to superficial observation, especially in 
certain individual cases, that the subject was giving less attention 
in the later experiments. This lack of concentration is not obvi- 
ously related to the changes in diet. Indeed, the fact that no 
corresponding falling off appears in the tapping would seem to 
argue that the lack of attention in the reaction tests was not due 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 445 

to deep-seated nervous conditions, so much as to growing impa- 
tience on the part of the reactors with the ordeal of being tested. 
The tapping experiment is less likely to be affected by lack of 
interest on the part of the subject, because here the subject is 
called upon to be constantly active, and there is no such oppor- 
tunity for attention to lapse as is furnished by the intervals which 
intervene between successive reactions. The tapping is accord- 
ingly perhaps the best series on which to base final judgment as to 
the nervous condition of the men. Here, there appear the varia- 
tions which show in any ordinary series, but there is no steady im- 
provement through growing familiarity with the test, nor any 
laxness of attention to produce relatively unfavorable results. 

Mr. Steele and Dr. McAllister are largely responsible for the 
actual collection of the data on which this report is based. 

(Signed) C. H. JUDD. 



TABLE 1. FEBRUARY, 1904. 



Name. 


I 


Avg. 


M.v. 


Var. 
from 
G.A. 


I 


Avg. 


M.v. 


Var. 
from 
G.A. 


I. Anderson, G. W. ... 


19 


153.5 


13.8 


31.4 


26 


192.2 


19.4 


7.3 


II. Anderson, W. L 


18 


261.0 


82.6 


32.5 


27 


293.6 


71.0 


65.1 


III. Bellis 
IV. Donahue 


16 

17 


189.3 
173.6 


40.0 
430 


8.2 
384 


26 
24 


182.3 
182.7 


18.5 
14.5 


0.5 
193 


V. Jacobus 


17 


197.3 


14.7 


27.6 


24 


178.2 


18.3 


46.7 


VI. Schenker 
VII. Stapleton . 


17 

10 


162.3 
1851 


29.7 
316 


67.6 
23.9 


24 


209.8 


46.6 


20.1 




















Group averages . . . . 




188.8 














VIII. Callahan* . 


IS 


1562 


104 


37.0 


36 


210.8 


27.2 


17.6 





















* Kept separate because series of tests is not complete. 



446 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



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PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 447 



TABLE 3. APRIL, 1904. 



Name. 


Date. 


Avg. 


M. V. 


Var. 
from 
G. A. 


Date. 


Avg. 


M. V. 


Var. 
from 
G. A. 


I. Anderson, G. W. 
II. Anderson, W. L. 
III. Bellis .... 


22 


202.8 


10.6 


17.9 


29 
29 
26 


182.9 
195.0 
182.6 


6.7 
20.3 
18.2 


2.0 
33.5 
0.7 


19 


193.0 


27.2 


11.2 


IV. Donahue . . . 


20 


198.4 


7.0 


36 


27 


191.6 


37.6 


10.4 


V. Jacobus . . . 


20 


253.1 


70.7 


28.2 


27 


221.3 


14.7 


3.6 


VI. Schenker . . . 
VII. Stapleton . . 


21 


229.4 


33.0 


0.5 


28 
29 


250.1 
217.1 


78.3 
80.5 


20.2 
8.1 










Group averages 




205.8 






VIII. Callahan 


21 


205.5 


12.5 


12.3 





448 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



*K 


oo a >o 


5 


IQ 

a 


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n 




> 


-! c 5 . w 

2 35 S 


oS 


CV 


s" 




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I 1 5 


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*v 


s a s 


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(-; ' 

T}i Tli 


3 


o 
o 


3 2 




8 


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2 


q 


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o | ob 


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I. Anderson, G. W. 
II. Anderson, W. L. 
III. Bellis .... 


I IV. Donahue . . . 


V. Jacobus . . . 


IVI. Schenker 
VII. Stapleton . . . 





PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 449 



TABLE 5. JUNE, 1904. 



Name. 


Date. 


Avg. 


M. v. 


Var. from 
G. A. 


I. Anderson, G. W 
II. Anderson, W. L 
Ill Bellis 


3 

7 
7 


197.4 
226.8 
1620 


16.8 
20.3 
84 


12.5 
1.7 
198 


IV. Donahue ... 


1 


208.4 


31.7 


6.4 




1 


284.6 


45.6 


59.7 


VI. Schenker 


3 


228.6 


43.3 


1.3 


VII. Stapleton 


7 


210.4 


34.2 


1.4 
















216.9 

















450 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



TABLE 6. 





February. 


March. 


AprU. 


May. 


June. 




Name. 


Lvg. of all Tests 
or the Month. 


ivg. of all Tests 
for the Month. 


vg. of all Tests 
for the Month. 


ivg. of all Tests 
for the Month. 


ivg. of all Tests 
for the Mouth. 


reneral Avg. of 
all Tests. 
















I. Anderson, G. W. . . 


177.9 


177.8 


192.9 


190.5 


197.4 


184.9 


II. Anderson, W. L. . . 


277.3 


210.7 


195.0 


224.3 


226.8 


228.5 


III. Bellis 


185.8 


182.3 


187.8 


178.5 


162.0 


181.8 


IV. Donahue 


178.1 


213.4 


195.0 


212.2 


208.4 


202.0 


V. Jacobus 
VI Schenker 


187.8 
186.1 


208.4 
200.7 


237.2 
2398 


238.9 
215.2 


284.6 
2286 


224.9 

229.9 


VII. Stapleton 


185.0 


208.3 


217.1 


214.4 


210.4 


209.0 


Monthly averages . . . 


196.8 


200.2 


209.3 


210.6 


216.9 




VIII. Callahan 


183.5 


194.9 


205.5 






193.2 

















PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 451 







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452 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



TABLE 8. 



Name. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


Avg. of all 
Determina- 
tions for 
the Month. 


Avg. of all 
Determina- 
tions for 
the Month. 


Avg. of all 
Determina- 
tions for 
the Month. 


Avg. of all 
Determina- 
tions for 
the Month. 


Avg. of all 
Determina- 
tions for 
the Mouth. 


I. Anderson, G. W. 


83 


71 


75 


74 


76 


II. Anderson, W. L. 


84 


79 


83 


81 


78 


III. Bellis .... 


87 


78 


69 


74 


72 


IV. Donahue . . . 


85 


83 


85 


90 


88 


V. Jacobus . . . 


76 


74 


78 


80 


74 


VI. Schenker . . . 


64 


66 


65 


69 


74 


VII. Stapleton . . . 


87 


70 


79 


78 


74 


Monthly averages . 


81 


74 


76 


81 


75 


VIII. Callahan . . . 


79 


85 


86 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 453 










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454 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

GENERAL SUMMARY. 

It is quite evident from a study of the results obtained in 
the foregoing experiments that young, vigorous men of the 
type under observation, trained in athletics, accustomed to 
the doing of vigorous muscular work, can satisfy all the true 
physiological needs of their bodies and maintain their physi- 
cal strength and vigor, as well as their capacity for mental 
work, with an amount of proteid food equal to one-half, or 
one-third, that ordinarily consumed by men of this stamp. As 
the results show, all these men reduced their rate of proteid 
metabolism in such degree that the amount of nitrogen ex- 
creted daily during the period of the experiment averaged 8.8 
grams, implying a metabolism of about 55 grams of proteid 
matter per day. 

In other words, these athletes were able to reduce their 
nitrogenous metabolism to as low a level as many of the men 
of the professional group and of the soldier group, and this 
with not only maintenance of health and strength, but with a 
decided increase in their muscular power. 

Metabolized nitrogen per kilo of body-weight for all these 
men, with one exception, during the experiment amounted to 
0.108 to 0.134 gram per day, fully as low as was obtained with 
the members of the soldier detail on their prescribed diet. It 
is clear, therefore, that physiological economy in nutrition is 
as safe for men in athletics as for men not accustomed to vigo- 
rous exercise. There is obviously no physiological ground for 
the use of such quantity of proteid food, or of total nutrients, 
as the prevalent dietary standards call for. 

The athlete, as well as the less active man (physically), 
or the professional man, can meet all his ordinary require- 
ments with an intake of proteid food far below the quan- 
tities generally consumed, and this without increasing in any 
measure the amount of non-nitrogenous food. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 455 ' 



IV. THE SYSTEMIC VALUE OF PHYSIOLOGICAL 
ECONOMY IN NUTRITION. 

It is one of the axioms of physiology that the majority of 
the diseases of mankind are due to, or are connected with, per- 
versions of nutrition. General or local disturbances of metab- 
olism are broadly responsible for disease, and with a due 
recognition of this fact it may be well to consider more spe- 
cifically whether greater economy in the consumption of food, 
i. e., a restriction of the daily diet to amounts more commen- 
surate with the physiological needs of the body, may not be of 
value in preventing disease, or prove of use in combating dis- 
ease when the latter has manifested itself. 

Broadly speaking, the extent and character of the metabolic 
processes of the body are dependent in large measure upon the 
amount and character of the diet. Further, it is equally cer- 
tain that the chemical composition of the blood and lymph is 
quickly affected by the amount and character of the food 
materials absorbed from the alimentary canal. Even in the 
matter of secretion of the digestive juices, we have learned, 
through the recent experiments of Pawlow, that the chemical 
composition and solvent action of these fluids may be modi- 
fied by the amount and character of the food fed. How much 
more, then, may we expect the intricate processes of cell and 
tissue metabolism to be modified by changes in the chemical 
composition of the blood and lymph that bathe them. 

Further, recognizing as we must the extreme sensitive- 
ness of the central and peripheral parts of the nervous system 
to changes in the composition of the blood, we see suggested 
indirect ways by which metabolism, both general and local, 
may be modified by influences exerted upon the nervous sys- 
tem, whereby the nutritive condition of individual structures 
may undergo change. Vasomotor influences, controlled as 
they are by nerve fibres, which in turn are sensitive to the 
conditions of their environment, likewise indirectly affect the 



456 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

rate and character of tissue metabolism ; a fact which may 
serve to emphasize the many ways whereby the metabolism of 
an organ or tissue may be modified through the primary influ- 
ence of a diet which, controlling in a measure the volume and 
character of the circulating blood and lymph, must of necessity 
exert an influence more or less extended. 

The one factor above all others that tends to increase the 
extent of proteid katabolism is the amount of proteid food in- 
gested. Increase in the amount of the albuminous foodstuffs 
is at once, or speedily, followed by an increase in the output 
of nitrogenous waste products, the latter constituting a good 
measure of the extent of proteid metabolism going on in the 
body. We have been taught to believe that the healthy adult 
under ordinary conditions of life needs for the maintenance of 
health, strength, bodily and mental vigor, about 118 grams of 
proteid food daily. This amount of albuminous food, if 
metabolized, means at least 16 grams of nitrogen in the urine, 
in the form of urea, uric acid, creatinin, purin bases, and other 
nitrogenous products more or less closely related. Under the 
stress of modern conditions and following the dictates of an 
acquired taste, the daily intake of proteid food in many indi- 
viduals at least far exceeds the above figures, with an increase 
of proteid katabolism equal to 18 or more grams of nitrogen 
in the 24 hours' urine. 

When we recall that these 18 grams, or more, of nitrogen in 
the urine reach the final stage of urea, etc., only by passing 
through a series of stages, each one of which means the using 
up of a certain amount of energy, to say nothing of the energy 
made use of in digestion, absorption, etc., we can easily picture 
to ourselves the amount of physiological labor which the 
daily handling by the body of such amounts of proteid food 
entails. Further, it needs very little imagination to see that 
a large amount of energy is used up in passing on these ni- 
trogenous waste products from organ to organ, or from tissue 
to tissue, on the way to elimination, and we can fancy that 
liver and kidneys must at times rebel at the excessive labor 
they are called upon to perform. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 457 

Moreover, the thought suggests itself that possibly these 
waste products of proteid metabolism, the leucomaines so 
abundantly formed in the breaking down of proteid material, 
are not wh611y free from objectionable features. If so, an ex- 
cess of such products might be advantageously dispensed with. 
Indeed, we have what seems abundant evidence tending to 
show that many of the nitrogenous waste products elaborated 
in the body through the breaking down of proteid materials 
are possessed of more or less physiological action. Even 
that direct antecedent of urea, ammonium carbamate, which 
we have reason to believe is formed more or less generally 
throughout the tissues of the body, is not above suspicion. 
To be sure, Nature has provided a mechanism in the hepatic 
cells whereby it is quickly transformed into the harmless urea, 
but it is only necessary to join the portal vein to the hepatic 
vein, thereby throwing the liver out of the circuit, in order 
to see the effect of an excess of proteid food. Under such 
conditions, this is followed by the appearance of all the symp- 
toms of poisoning with ammonium carbamate, i. e., convulsions 
ending in death.* 

Further, we may refer to the observations of Mallet f with 
creatin and creatinin, two conspicuous nitrogenous bases pres- 
ent in muscle, which show unmistakably that these bodies tend 
to retard slightly the action of the heart. This seems to be 
their most decided physiological effect, although large doses 
likewise cause a slight frontal headache, with some general 
nervous agitation. Attention may also be called to the ex- 
tremely important experiments of Minkowski, J in which he 
found that adenin one of the purin bases formed in the 
breaking down of cell nuclei has a most marked toxic action, 
both on man and on dogs. Adenin affects the circulatory ap- 



* See Hahn, Massen, Nencki, und Pawlow : Archiv f. exper. Pathol. u. 
Pharm. Band XXXII. (1893), p. 161. Also, Nencki, Pawlow, und Zaleski : 
Ibid. Band XXXVII., p. 26. 

t The physiological effect of creatin and creatinin, etc. Bulletin No. 66 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations. 

t Untersuchungen zur Physiologic und Patliologie der Harnsaure bei 
Saugethieren. Archiv f. exper. Pathol. u. Pharm. Band XLL, p. 406. 



458 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

paratus very strikingly, increasing the heart's action, etc. ; it 
acts on the mucous membrane of the duodenum, causing an 
acute inflammation, thus leading to continuous vomiting, and 
in addition it has a local action on the kidneys, giving rise to 
a deposition in the kidney itself of spheroliths of uric acid, or 
urates, which leads to an acute nephritis with albuminuria, 
from which the animal speedily dies. 

The alloxuric bases likewise cause fever when injected into 
the circulation or taken per os,* and according to the recent 
observations of Mandel f there is a very noticeable relationship 
between the amount of alloxuric bases eliminated through 
the urine and the temperature of the body in cases of aseptic 
fevers, indicating that these substances, with possibly other 
incomplete products of tissue metabolism, are important factors 
in the production of febrile temperatures. 

Reference may also be made to our general knowledge re- 
garding the relationship between uric acid and gouty affec- 
tions, including rheumatism, to say nothing of the possible 
relationship between uric acid and many other diseases less 
clearly established. The broader question deserving atten- 
tion just here, however, is that all of the so-called leuco- 
maines which, as Gautier states, are being formed continu- 
ously in the animal tissues side by side with the formation of 
urea and carbonic acid, and at the expense of the nitrogenous 
elements or proteid matter, are more or less toxic in their 
properties, at least under certain conditions of the body. It 
is perfectly clear that there are a large number of leuco- 
maines, or nitrogenous waste products, which are indissolubly 
connected with the metabolism of cell protoplasm, and the 
formation of these substances is augmented by a diet rich in 
proteid matter. 

It is well understood that the excretions of all li ving organ- 
isms, both plant and animal, are more or less poisonous to the 



* See Burian and Schur., Archiv f. die gesammte Physiologie. Band 
LXXXVIL, p. 239. 

t The alloxuric bases in aseptic fevers. Amer. Journal of Physiology 
Vol. X., p. 452. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 459 

organisms which produce and excrete them. The substances 
so formed originate in the metabolic changes by which com- 
plex organic molecules are broken down into simpler com- 
pounds. As stated by Vaughan and Novy,* " we have good 
reason for believing that the proteid molecule has certain 
lines of cleavage along which it breaks when certain forces 
are applied, and that the resulting fragments have also lines 
of cleavage along which they break under certain influences, 
and so on until the end-products, urea, ammonia, water, and 
carbon-dioxide, are reached; also that some of these inter- 
mediate products are highly poisonous has been abundantly 
demonstrated." It would therefore seem self-evident that 
the nitrogenous waste products of the body, i. e., the prod- 
ucts of proteid katabolism, may be more or less dangerous 
to the welfare of the body, and consequently there would 
seem to be reason in the assumption that greater freedom 
from disease especially from the so-called autogenous dis- 
eases might be expected where greater care is exercised in 
the amount of proteid food consumed. 

It is generally understood, or at least is frequently stated 
by medical writers, that certain febrile conditions are autog- 
enous, and Brunton has made the assertion that the condi- 
tion termed " biliousness," and which is most prone to occur 
in persons who eat largely of proteid foods, is due to the for- 
mation of poisonous alkaloidal-like substances which might 
well be classified under the broad term of leucomaines. To 
repeat, there are a great many observations and some facts 
which warrant the view that the nitrogenous waste products 
of the body the products of proteid katabolism are more 
or less dangerous to the well-being of the organism, and hence 
there seems justification for the belief that there is greater 
safety for health and longevity in adopting dietetic habits 
that are more in accord with the real needs of the body. 

The writer's opinion upon this question has been greatly 
strengthened by the large numbers of letters he has received 

* Ptomaines and Leucomaines, or the Chemical Factors in the Causation 
of Disease. Third Edition, 1896. Lea Brothers, p. 560. 



460 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

during the course of this inquiry from persons all over 
the world, many of whom in their search for health and 
strength have adopted more frugal methods of living, and 
who have found relief in an abstemiousness which, compared 
with ordinary dietetic standards, would seem quite inadequate 
to support life, yet they have recovered health and strength, 
and by the judicious practice of physiological economy in 
their diet have maintained health and vigor, with capability 
for work that has proved a perpetual surprise to themselves 
and their friends. The writer's faith in these spontaneous 
statements made by persons wholly unknown to him has been 
augmented by his personal knowledge of people suffering with 
various troubles, who have found relief by the simple use of 
reason and judgment in the taking of food, with a view to 
lowering the rate of proteid metabolism. There is no ques- 
tion in the mind of the writer that excessive proteid decom- 
position within the body entails possible danger. 

If it is true, on the other hand, that the healthy organism 
needs a daily intake of 118 grams of proteid food more or less, 
in order to maintain physiological equilibrium, to keep up 
physical and mental vigor, and to preserve the normal power 
of resistance to the incursions of disease, then we must con- 
sider that the good overbalances the evil, and that evil exists 
in order that good may be accomplished. We are certainly 
justified, however, in saying, on the basis of our daily obser- 
vations made on a large number of individuals and extending 
over many months, that there is no apparent need for any- 
such amount of proteid food as is ordinarily consumed by the 
average individual. 

We can point to various persons who, for periods ranging 
from six months to a year, have metabolized daily 5.5 to 7.5 
grams of nitrogen instead of 16 to 18 grams, i. e., they have 
subsisted quite satisfactorily on an amount of proteid food 
daily, equal to one-third or one-half the amount ordinarily 
considered as necessary for the maintenance of health and 
strength, and this without unduly increasing the amount of 
non-nitrogenous food. Further, our observations have shown 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 461 

that with this great reduction in the consumption of proteid 
food, with corresponding diminution of proteid katabolism, 
body-weight can be maintained at a stationary figure, after the 
body has once adjusted itself to the new conditions. More- 
over, there is marked increase in physical strength as demon- 
strated by repeated dynamometer tests on many individuals, 
which may perhaps be ascribed to the greater freedom of 
blood and lymph, as well as of muscle-plasma, from nitrogen- 
ous extractives. Lastly, we have failed to find any falling off 
in physical or mental vigor, any change in the haemoglobin- 
content of the blood, or in the number of erythrocytes. In 
fact, all our observations agree in showing that it is quite 
possible to reduce with safety the extent of proteid katabolism 
to one-third or one-half that generally considered as essential 
to life and strength. In other words, there is perfect safety 
in a lowered proteid metabolism, and we are inclined to raise 
the question whether a daily diet containing one-half, or eA r en 
less, the amount of proteid food ordinarily consumed does not 
come nearer to the normal and natural requirements of the 
healthy body than the more elaborate standards we have 
gradually adopted. 

Here, then, we have suggested a radical change in diet 
which experiment shows is perfectly safe, and we are disposed 
to urge that there is great systemic value, both in health and 
in many forms of disease, in such a change. It is obvious, as 
previously stated, that the smallest amount of food that will 
serve to maintain bodily and mental vigor, keep up bodily 
strength, and preserve the normal powers of resistance to 
disease, is the ideal diet. Any excess over and above what 
is really needed for these purposes imposes just so much of 
an unnecessary strain upon the organism. It entails a waste- 
ful expenditure of energy that might better be preserved for 
future emergencies. It imposes upon the excretory organs 
the needless labor of removing waste products which could 
well be dispensed with, to say nothing of the possible physi- 
ological action of these products as they circulate through 
the body. 



462 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

Dr. Walker Hall,* in his interesting article in " The Practi- 
tioner " on " Metabolism in Gout," states that " under normal 
circumstances a man weighing eleven stone and performing 
average work requires twenty grams of nitrogen and three 
hundred grams of carbon per day." This statement is in per- 
fect harmony with generally accepted views, but I should like 
to emphasize the fact that all of the twenty-six men we have 
been experimenting with at New Haven, representing different 
types, ages, and degrees of activity, have been able to main- 
tain health, strength, and vigor, from six months to a year 
on a daily quantity of nitrogen equal to one-half, one-third, 
and even one-quarter the amount of this so-called necessary 
twenty grams. Further, nitrogenous equilibrium was easily 
maintained on such quantities of proteid food, and, as before 
stated, there was great gain in physical strength. Are we not 
justified, therefore, in raising the broad question whether such 
a radical change in diet as these facts suggest might not be of 
systemic value in gout, and especially in cases where there 
is a predisposition to gout. Speaking as a physiologist, the 
writer is strongly of the opinion, based in part upon his own 
observations and in part upon both the voluntary and uncon- 
scious testimony of others, that there is possible great gain to 
the gouty and rheumatic individual by a practice of physio- 
logical economy in nutrition. 

Physiological economy, as the writer defines it, is not pro- 
hibition, but temperance. Moderation in diet, especially in 
the taking of proteid foods, means a great saving in the wear 
and tear of the body machinery. It must presumably mean 
greater freedom from many diseases in which individual 
organs, such as the liver and kidneys, are frequently in- 
volved. It suggests, likewise, greater freedom from many 
disturbances of general metabolism which eventually terminate 
in a perversion of nutrition, so marked as to constitute a 
serious condition of disease. More specifically, lowered pro- 
teid metabolism means diminished introduction and diminished 



* The Practitioner. London. July, 1903. p. 61. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 463 

formation of nitrogenous products of the purin type, such as 
xanthin, hypoxanthin, guanin, adenin, etc., as well as of other 
nitrogenous bodies less clearly denned. Consequently, we 
have as one of the results of such a systemic change in diet 
a decreased formation of uric acid, or at least a diminished 
output of uric acid through the urine. 

Obviously, a lowered proteid intake means, in some measure 
at least, a decreased consumption of meat and similar products 
more or less rich in free and combined purin bases. This 
quite plainly must result in a diminished production of uric 
acid, but the writer is strongly of the opinion that we do not 
as yet possess sufficiently full knowledge regarding all the 
ways in which uric acid results in the body. It is true, we 
differentiate between endogenous and exogenous uric acid, 
and further, we understand quite clearly that variations in 
the intake of free and combined purin bases exercise a potent 
influence upon the output of uric acid through the urine. 
We still lack, however, concise information as to the various 
ways in which uric acid may be produced, and its ultimate 
fate in the body. This is well illustrated by a recent paper 
from the Marburg laboratory, in which Kutscher and Seemann* 
point out the possibility of a production of uric acid in the 
animal body synthetically, and likewise suggest that uric acid 
may be utilized for the formation of nuclein bases, i. e., a 
reversal of the oxidative process by which uric acid results 
from the ingestion of free or combined nuclein bases, suggest- 
ing indeed the possibility of uric acid and the nuclein bases 
being produced from each other, according to the circum- 
stances. Thus, when nucleins or free purin bases are taken 
with the food, the organism may utilize this material at once 
in the synthesis of nucleins for the use of the body cells. 
There is no need of a reduction of the formed uric acid to 
nuclein bases, and consequently there is an increased excretion 
of uric acid through the urine, but this does not result from 
a direct transformation of the ingested purin material into uric 



* Centralblatt fiir Physiologic. Band XVII, p. 715. 1904. 



464 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

acid, but is the result of a sparing of the already formed uric 
acid. The nuclein bases thus act as sparers of uric acid. 
This view explains, according to Kutscher and Seemann, 
why feeding with nuclein bases increases the output of uric 
acid, and feeding with uric acid a sudden overflow of 
uric acid into the circulation is followed, as a rule, by an 
increased elimination of urea, the uric acid being thus trans- 
formed by energetic oxidation. This hypothesis is brought 
forward not merely because it is an interesting suggestion, 
but mainly because it illustrates that we do not as yet know 
fully all the steps in the production of uric acid, nor do we 
know how far the uric acid we find and determine in the 
urine is a measure of the formation of uric acid in the 
body. 

Taking our knowledge on these matters as it stands to-day, 
however, we find by experiment that lowering the intake of 
proteid food, with its consequent corresponding diminution in 
proteid katabolism, is followed at once by a marked decrease 
in the output of uric acid. Let us consider a few of the data 
obtained in our experiments. The first case I will refer to is 
that of a college athlete (Callahan). For a period of ten days 
on his ordinary diet, the average amount of nitrogen in the 
urine per day was 22.8 grams, equal to the metabolism of 
142.5 grams of proteid food. During this same period the 
average daily output of uric acid was 1.103 grams. For the 
following four months and a half, on a more restricted diet, 
with a marked cutting down of the proteid food, but with no 
exclusion of meat, the average daily output of nitrogen through 
the urine was 9.04 grams. In other words, for this period of 
over four months the extent of proteid katabolism was reduced 
considerably more than 50 per cent. The average daily 
output of uric acid for this same period was 0.624 gram, 
equal to a reduction of about 40 per cent from his normal 
excretion. 

Another college athlete (Stapleton), on his normal diet, 
showed an average excretion of nitrogen through the urine 
per day, for ten days, of 19.70 grams, while the daily average 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 465 

excretion of uric acid for the same period was 0.893 gram. 
On a more restricted diet, with diminished proteid katabolism, 
the daily average excretion of nitrogen through the urine for 
a period of over four months was 11.06 grams, while the 
daily average excretion of uric acid for the same period 
fell to 0.699 gram. In the first of these two cases the average 
daily ratio of uric acid to total nitrogen during the period of 
lowered proteid metabolism was 1 : 14. In the second case 
the ratio was 1 : 16. 

A third college student (G. W. Anderson), on his ordinary 
diet, excreted through the urine for a period of nine days 17.17 
grams of nitrogen as the daily average, while the average daily 
output of uric acid for the same period was 0.956 gram. 
On the more restricted diet of the next four or five months his 
average daily excretion of nitrogen fell to 9.37 grams per day, 
while the average daily excretion of uric acid was reduced to 
0.632 gram. On his ordinary diet, the ratio of uric acid to 
nitrogen was 1 : 18, while later with the diminished proteid 
metabolism the ratio was 1 : 14. 

Turning to another class, viz., professional men, reference 
may be made to the writer, whose average daily nitrogen ex- 
cretion through the urine for a period of nearly nine months 
was 5.699 grams, corresponding to the metabolism of 35.6 
grams of proteid per day. During this same period of nearly 
nine months the average daily excretion of uric acid amounted 
to 0.392 gram, the ratio of uric acid to total nitrogen being 
1 : 14. In passing, it may be repeated that the subject of this 
experiment succeeded in maintaining a constant body-weight, 
and he further avers that in physical and mental vigor he can 
find no evidence of deterioration, although the amount of pro- 
teid food consumed daily during this long period was less than 
40 grams per day. Further, he was in nitrogenous equilibrium 
during this period, although the nitrogen metabolized daily 
amounted to only 99 milligrams per kilo of body-weight. 
Another case in this same group may be mentioned, princi- 
pally because the subject for over a year became a vegetarian, 
abstaining from all meat. During the last nine months, this 
30 



466 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

man (Beers) eliminated 8.28 grams of nitrogen through the 
urine as the daily average, indicating a metabolism of 51 grams 
of proteid material per day. During this same period, the 
average daily excretion of uric acid was 0.349 gram, the ratio 
of uric acid to total nitrogen being 1 : 23. 

The main point to be emphasized in these results is that they 
show quite conclusively how greatly the daily output of uric 
acid may be reduced by diminishing the intake of proteid food, 
and thereby restricting the extent of the proteid metabolism. 
The ratio of uric acid to the total nitrogen excreted may or 
may not be altered ; this will depend in large measure upon 
the character of the diet, the relative proportion of free and 
combined purin bases introduced with the food, etc. As 
already stated, we do not know with certainty how far the ex- 
creted uric acid represents the formation of uric acid in the 
body, but presumably there is a more or less close relationship, 
and hence we are doubtless warranted in saying that the for- 
mation of uric acid is diminished, in essentially the same pro- 
portion as its excretion is reduced, with a lowered proteid 
intake. Certain it is that several of the persons under obser- 
vation, who had troubles of a gouty and rheumatic nature in 
the past, have during the course of the experiment experienced 
relief, with complete and permanent abeyance of all symp- 
toms. The writer is ffrmly of the opinion that ordinary gout 
and rheumatism are entirely preventable by reasonable care 
and judgment in the matter of diet. Whether, when once 
firmly established, in aggravated form, they will prove amen- 
able to dietetic treatment is not so certain, but undoubtedly 
mild cases will respond to the beneficial influences of a rational 
diet, reinforced by treatment adapted to the removal of urates 
already deposited. In any event, due regard for the well 
known deleterious effects of purin-containing foods as a source 
of exogenous uric acid, and with restriction of proteid metab- 
olism to the true necessities of the body, should serve as an 
effective means of preventing all those troubles for which uric 
acid is generally held responsible. 

The two following tables give a summary of results bearing 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 467 



upon the excretion of uric acid and its relation to nitrogen 
and body- weight, for all the subjects belonging to the " profes- 
sional group" and the " student group." Emphasis should be 
laid upon the fact that these figures represent the average daily 
excretion for the different individuals through the entire period 
of the experiment. 

AVERAGE DAILY EXCRETION THROUGH THE URINE FOR 
SEVEN-NINE MONTHS. PROFESSIONAL GROUP. 



Name. 


Body- 
weight. 


Total 
Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


Ratio of 
Uric Acid 
to 
Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid 
per kilo 
of Body- 
weight. 


Phosphoric 
Acid P,0 5 . 




kilos 


grams 


gram 




grams 


grams 


Chittenden . . 


57.0 


5.69 


0.392 


1 : 14 


0.0068 


0.90 


Mendel . . . 


70.0 


6.53 


0.419 


1:15 


0.0060 


1.46 


Underbill . . . 


65.0 


7.43 


0.616 


1 :14 


0.0079 


1.28 


Dean .... 


65.0 


8.99 


0.386 


1:23 


0.0059 


1.73 


Beers .... 


61.5 


8.58 


0.365 


1 :23 


0.0059 


1.49 



AVERAGE DAILY EXCRETION THROUGH THE URINE FOR 
FOUR-FIVE MONTHS. STUDENT GROUP. 



Name., 


Body- 
weight. 


Total 
Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid. 


Ratio of 
Uric Acid 
to 

Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid 
per kilo 
of Body- 
weight. 


Phosphoric 
Acid P 2 6 . 


Anderson, G. W. 


kilos 
71.0 


grams 
9.37 


gram 
0.632 


1:14 


grams 
0.0089 


grams 
1.75 


Anderson, W. L. 


61.0 


10.41 


0.516 


1 20 


0.0084 


2.14 


Bellis .... 


78.0 


8.88 


0.531 


1 16 


0.0068 


1.98 


Callahan . . . 


83.0 


9.04 


0.624 


1 14 


0.0075 


1.74 


Donahue . . . 


62.0 


7.47 


0.395 


1 19 


0.0063 


1.79 


Jacobus . . . 


56.0 


7.58 


0.423 


1 17 


0.0075 


1.67 


Schenker . . . 


73.0 


10.09 


0.624 


1 16 


0.0085 


2.20 


Stapleton . . 


75.0 


11.06 


0.699 


1 16 


0.0093 


2.64 



468 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



Turning now to the third group of men, i. e., the soldier 
detail, under observation for a period of six months, during 
five months of which time they lived on a prescribed diet with 
diminished content of proteid food, but with no exclusion of 
animal food, the following average results are to be noted : 

AVERAGE DAILY EXCRETION THROUGH THE URINE FOR 
FIVE MONTHS SOLDIER DETAIL. 



Name. 


Body- 
weight. 


Total 
Nitrogen. 


Uric 
Acid. 


Ratio of 
Uric Acid 
to 
Nitrogen. 


Uric Acid 
per kilo 
of Body- 
weight. 


Phosphoric 
Acid 
? 2 5 . 




kilos 


grams 


gram 




gram 


grams 


Oakman . . 


62 


7.42 


0.405 


1:18 


0.0065 


1.39 


Morris 


59 


7.03 


0.450 


1 : 15 


0.0076 


1.25 


Broyles . . 


60 


7.26 


0.398 


1 : 18 


0.0066 


1.41 


Coffman . . 


58 


8.17 


0.379 


1:21 


0.0065 


1.23 


Sliney . . 


60 


8.39 


0.647 


1 : 13 


0.0107 


1.32 


Steltz . . . 


53 


7.13 


0.416 


1 : 17 


0.0078 


1.24 


Henderson 


71 


8.91 


0.488 


1:18 


0.0068 


1.42 


Fritz . . . 


72 


7.84 


0.642 


1:12 


0.0089 


1.58 


Cohn . . . 


62 


8.05 


0.512 


1 : 15 


0.0082 


1.28 


Loewenthal 


59 


7.38 


0.372 


1:19 


0.0063 


1.28 


Zooman . 


55 


8.25 


0.457 


1:18 


0.0083 


1.19 


Bates . . . 


65 


8.08 


0.387 


1 :20 


0.0059 


1.23 


Davis . . . 


57 


8.61 


0.414 


1 :20 


0.0072 


1.42 



These figures are interesting in many ways. First, they 
make clear that on the diet prescribed, these men were manu- 
facturing or excreting about the same amount of uric acid per 
kilo of body-weight as the men of the two preceding groups, 
living more or less with free cho. : ce of food. In other words, 
all these men, with one and possibly two exceptions, were 
practically throwing out only uric acid of endogenous origin, 
i. e., that which came from the breaking down of the man's 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 469 

own tissue cells. Second, it is to be noted that the ratio of 
uric acid to nitrogen in the men of this group varies only 
within narrow limits. 

It is very evident from these figures, reinforced by those of 
the previous groups, that we can diminish greatly the output 
of uric acid by simply restricting the extent of proteid katab- 
olism, through reduction in the amount of proteid food. Fur- 
ther, we now know that this general lowering of proteid 
metabolism can be accomplished not only without danger 
to the body, but with a distinct betterment of the physical 
condition. 

Just here I should like to emphasize one point that appears 
to me of primary importance in any consideration of the influ- 
ence of diet in gouty affections, and in so doing I merely echo 
a statement made by Sir Dyce Duckworth*, viz., "that the 
subject of gout, either by inheritance or acquirement, is so far 
peculiar in his constitution that he reacts differently to vari- 
ous agencies, such as climate, food, etc., from persons not so 
disposed." In this connection, let me refer again to the fore- 
going table of results obtained with the soldier detachment, 
remembering that these thirteen men were living under ex- 
actly the same conditions and consuming the same kind of 
food each day, and in essentially the same amounts. Yet 
notice the striking variation in the output of uric acid by one 
of these men (Sliney), a variation which shows itself 
especially when the uric acid is calculated per kilo of body- 
weight. How can this variation be accounted for except on 
the assumption that there may be personal idiosyncrasies, 
personal coefficients of nutrition, natural or acquired, that 
modify to some extent the production of uric acid, the oxida- 
tion of uric acid, or the elimination of uric acid from the 
body? 

Lastly, in advocating the possible systemic value of a 
lowered proteid metabolism as of value in the prevention of 
gout, and of other disorders which have their origin in per- 



* The Practitioner, July, 1903, p. 83. 



470 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

verted nutrition, I am inclined to emphasize the desirability 
of using common-sense in the application of dietetic rules, 
remembering that man is an omnivorous animal, and that 
Nature evidently never intended him to subsist solely on a 
" cereal diet," or on any specific form of food to the exclusion 
of all others. On matters of diet every man should be a law 
unto himself, using judgment and knowledge to the best of his 
ability, reinforced by his own personal experiences. Vegeta- 
rianism may have its virtues, as too great indulgence in flesh 
foods may have its serious side, but there would seem to be no 
sound physiological reason for the complete exclusion of any 
one class of food stuffs, under ordinary conditions of life. 
Far more rational is temperance in place of prohibition, and 
I am inclined to emphasize the systemic value of a daily diet 
so reduced in quantity that the metabolic processes may be 
largely decreased, in closer harmony with true physiological 
needs, especially those which involve the breaking down of 
proteid matter ; and in making this suggestion I can add the 
assurance, based upon these observations on many individuals, 
that there is not only perfect safety but gain to the body, in 
diminishing proteid metabolism to a level somewhere near the 
actual requirements of the individual. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 471 



V. ECONOMIC AND SOCIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE 
OF THE RESULTS. 

The importance of the foregoing results from an economic 
and sociological standpoint is perhaps worthy of a brief con- 
sideration. We have learned that a much smaller amount of 
albuminous or proteid food than is ordinarily consumed will 
suffice for the daily needs of the body. It remains to be 
seen whether this fact will gain the popular recognition it 
would seem to deserve. Ignoring for the time the matter 
of physiological economy and its possible bearing upon health 
and strength, it is a fair question to ask why should people 
indulge in such wasteful extravagance in the matter of diet 
when there is no real physiological need for it ? Why not 
accustom the body to a smaller consumption of food, thereby 
saving for other purposes the expenditure which this excess 
of food involves? 

The question of the daily diet is one of the most important 
for the family of small means, and there is no reason why the 
family treasury should be so heavily drained for this imaginary 
need. Simplicity of living might well be given more careful 
consideration, and now that we have convincing proof of much 
smaller dietetic requirements on the part of the body, it might 
be well to consider the practical application these results nat- 
urally suggest. It is obvious from our data, that it is quite 
safe to diminish by one-half the amount of albuminous or 
proteid food ordinarily consumed, and this without any appa- 
rent detriment to health, and Avith even gain to the economy. 
The ordinary forms of proteid food are, as a rule, the most 
costly of dietetic articles, and since this restriction of albumi- 
nous food calls for no great increase in the amount of non- 
nitrogenous food, it is quite apparent that a great saving in 
the daily expenditure can be accomplished. 

Obviously, however, there must be a decided change in the 
attitude of the public on this question before any great im- 



472 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

provement can be hoped for. Habit and sentiment play such 
a part in our lives that it is too much to expect any sudden 
change of custom. By a proper system of education com- 
menced early in life it may, however, be possible to establish 
new standards, which in tii le may prevail and eventually lead 
to more enlightened methods of living, whereby there will be 
less drain upon the resources of the people. With habits firmly 
fixed and palates calling for new sensations, reinforced by 
the prevalent opinion that by hearty eating lies the road to 
health and strength, it is easy to foresee difficulty in the 
advance of new doctrines along the lines indicated. The 
pleasure of eating is not to be minimized. The palate serves 
as the gateway through which food passes, and its sensitive- 
ness and power of appreciation are not to be despised. 

Simplicity of diet, however, does not diminish but rather in- 
creases the pleasure of eating, especially when daily restriction 
in diet indulged in until a new habit is formed has 
created a greater keenness of appetite, since under such condi- 
tions the palate takes on a new sensitiveness, and manifests 
a fuller appreciation of the variations of even a simple die- 
tary. There is therefore no hardship, nor curtailment of the 
pleasure of eating in the restriction of the diet to the real 
needs of the body. Neither is there implied any cessation 
of that kindly hospitality that delights in the 'breaking of 
bread ' with one's friends. With enlightened methods of liv- 
ing, on the other hand, will come a truer appreciation of 
the dignity of the body, and a lessened desire to manifest one's 
feelings of hospitality by a lavish intemperance that is as un- 
physiological as it is wasteful. 

For the rich, as well as for the poor, there is need for care- 
ful consideration of this question of intemperance in the 
daily dietary. Were this the proper place, it would be easy 
to adduce figures showing the great waste which the con- 
sumption of food beyond the physiological requirements of 
the body entails. It needs no great imagination to picture 
the enormous saving per capita, in dollars and cents, by a 
reduction of the daily food to a true physiological basis. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 473 

Tlie saving to the community, to the family, might well 
amount to enough to constitute the difference between 
pauperism and affluence. The resources of a community, 
as well as the resources of the family, are not to be lightly 
thrown away. We count the cost of this or that necessity, of 
this or that luxury, with jareful consideration of the relative 
need and expense, but in the matter of living we pay little 
heed except it may be to exclude certain dietetic luxuries 
which seem beyond our purse. We are prone to fancy that 
health and strength are fostered by great liberality in the 
amount and variety of the daily food provided, and we are apt 
to express great concern if all the family and our guests do not 
avail themselves to the utmost of the foods so lavishly spread 
before them. The poorer man emulates his richer neighbors 
as soon as his circumstances will permit, and resources that 
could be much more advantageously expended for the good 
of the family and the home life are practically wasted to 
say nothing of possible injury to health under the mistaken 
idea that this more generous method of living is the surest 
road to health and strength. 

Further, there is ground for thought in the possible economy 
of time which an improved condition of health would result 
in for the working members of the family. If greater economy 
in diet will diminish the number of sick days in the year, 
thereby increasing the working power of the wage earner, 
and if greater strength and efficiency can be acquired at the 
same time, the economic value of the proposition is at once 
apparent. 

Finally, happiness and contentment, which usually appear 
in direct proportion to the health and prosperity of the indi- 
vidual, may be counted upon as becoming more conspicuous in 
the life of the community. So we see suggested various ways 
in which the application of the principles herein kid down, 
if consistently adopted and followed, may lead to a better- 
ment of economic and sociological conditions. The writer, 
however, leaves to others, more familiar with sociological 
problems, the fuller development of this line of thought. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



VI. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS. 

When this investigation, the results of which have been 
detailed in the foregoing pages was first planned, it was in-' 
tended to be simply a physiological study of the minimal pro- 
teid requirement of the healthy man, extended over sufficient 
time to render the results of scientific and practical value. 
There were no special theories involved, no special system of 
dietetics in view, but the object was simply to ascertain 
experimentally the minimum amount of proteid or albuminous 
food necessary for the maintenance of health and strength, 
under ordinary conditions of life. The impression in the 
mind of the writer was that there was no satisfactory scientific 
evidence to support the views held by most, if not all, physi- 
ologists regarding the needs of the body for food, especially 
nitrogenous or proteid food, and that the dietary standards 
universally adopted by scientific men were of very question- 
able accuracy, being founded mainly upon the customs and 
habits of mankind rather than upon any systematic study of 
what the actual necessities of the body are. 

The results attained have certainly thrown a great deal of 
light upon this question of minimal proteid requirement, and 
the experimental study has been throughout a purely physio- 
logical one, but as the work has progressed the writer has 
been more and more impressed with the importance and sig- 
nificance of the results in their bearing upon the broader 
problem of general physiological economy in nutrition. There 
is no question, in view of our results, that people ordinarily 
consume much more food than there is any real physiological 
necessity for, and it is more than probable that this excess of 
food is in the long run detrimental to health, weakening rather 
than strengthening the body, and defeating the very objects 
aimed at. 

Confining our conclusions to general statements, it may be 
said that our results, obtained with a great diversity of sub- 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 475 

jects, justify the conviction that the minimal proteid require- 
ment of the healthy man under ordinary conditions of life 
is far below the generally accepted dietary standards, and far 
below the amounts called for by the acquired taste of the 
generality of mankind. Expressed in different language, the 
amount of proteid or albuminous food needed daily for 
the actual physiological wants of the body is not more than 
one-half that ordinarily consumed by the average man. Body- 
weight (when once adjusted to the new level), health, strength, 
mental and physical vigor, and endurance can be maintained 
with at least one-half of the proteid food ordinarily consumed; 
a kind of physiological economy which, if once entered upon 
intelligently, entails no hardship, but brings with it an actual 
betterment of the physical condition of the body. It holds 
out the promise of greater physical strength, increased endur- 
ance, greater freedom from fatigue, and a condition of well- 
being that is full of suggestion for the betterment of 
health. 

Physiological economy in nutrition means temperance, and 
not prohibition. It means full freedom of choice in the 
selection of food. It is not cereal diet nor vegetarianism, 
but it is the judicious application of scientific truth to the 
art of living, in which man is called upon to apply to himself 
that same care and judgment in the protection of his bodily 
machinery that he applies to the mechanical products of his 
skill and creative power. 

Food requirements must of necessity vary with changing 
conditions, but with due recognition of this fundamental 
principle, all the results so far obtained in this investigation, 
with a great variety of persons, point to the conclusion that 
the real demands of the body for proteid food do not exceed 
fifty per cent of the amount generally consumed. One-half of 
the 118 grams of proteid food called for daily by the ordinary 
dietary standards is quite sufficient to meet all the real physio- 
logical needs of the body, certainly under ordinary conditions 
of life ; and with most individuals, especially persons not lead- 
ing an active out-of-door life, even smaller amounts will suf- 



476 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

fice. Excess means waste, but of far greater importance is 
the unnecessary strain placed upon the body by this uncalled- 
for excess of food material, which must be gotten rid of at the 
expense of energy that might better be conserved for more 
useful purposes. 

Further, the total consumption of food by the average in- 
dividual, non-nitrogenous as well as nitrogenous, is consider- 
ably greater than the real needs of the body demand, although 
here we must give closer heed to the varying requirements of 
the body incidental to varying degrees of activity. The man 
whose work is mainly mental has no real need for high fuel 
values in his daily ration. For such a man, a high potential 
energy in the daily intake of food is an incubus and not a 
gain. Body equilibrium can be maintained on far less than 
3000 calories per day by the brain worker, and in the interest 
of health, strength, and vigor, as well as scientific truth, why 
teach the doctrine that a healthy man needs, on an average, 
foodstuffs to furnish 3000 calories or more per day, with 16 to 
18 grams of nitrogen in the form of proteid? Moreover, as 
our experiments have clearly indicated, even the man who is 
called upon to perform considerable physical work has no 
apparent need for a fuel value- in his food of 3000 calories per 
day. No doubt, the man who works at hard labor for ten or 
twelve hours a day will require a larger intake of fats and 
carbo-hydrates, sufficient to yield even more than 3000 cal- 
ories, but this is not true of the moderate worker, nor of the 
average man whose work is in large measure mental rather 
than physical. 

Finally, the writer may be permitted to express the hope 
that the outcome of this experimental work will serve to 
arouse scientific and intelligent interest in a subject which 
promises fruitful results for the individual, and for the 
community. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 477 



VII. DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Photographs of the soldiers were taken a few days prior to 
the close of the experiment, just before the men left New 
Haven at the termination of their work. Consequently, the 
pictures show the physical condition of the men after their 
long period of low nitrogen diet. Study of these photographs, 
especially those of the individuals, gives a correct idea of the 
appearance of the men, and shows the character of their 
muscular development at the close of their experimental 
work. 

In considering these photographs, it must be remembered 
that the men as a class, as stated by Dr. Anderson in his Re- 
port, were not particularly well set up. It is evident, how- 
ever, that the subjects were in good physical condition and 
had not lost any undue amount of flesh or fat. The two 
photographs of Fritz, facing pages 198 and 203, show him to 
have been in fine physical condition, with even a superabun- 
dance of fat. Steltz, on the other hand, whose photograph is 
shown facing page 211, was somewhat fine. This man, how- 
ever, is of quite different build from his companion, Coffman, 
and was in excellent physical condition for certain lines of 
gymnastic work. 

It may be well at this point to refer the reader to the 
photographs of W. L. Anderson and Bellis, facing pages 440 
and 442. These men, typical Yale athletes, were in prime 
physical condition, and the photographs were taken prior to 
the experiment, at a time when they were consuming their 
ordinary, rich proteid diet. It is plain, by a comparison of 
these photographs, that Steltz was not trained to a much 
finer point than W. L. Anderson, although he does lack the 
full muscular development characteristic of the Yale athlete. 

Sliney, whose photograph is found facing page 272, was 
likewise in a somewhat fine condition. He, however, like 
Steltz, was in splendid physical shape, so far as can be judged 
by his general health, spirits and aptitude for work. The 



478 PHYSIOLOGICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 

other men of the soldier group, whose photographs are shown, 
were not trained down to quite the same degree. Both Sliney 
and Steltz, however, had essentially the same body-weight at 
the close of the experiment, as on their arrival in New Haven. 
Steltz, indeed, weighed a trifle more in April, 1904, than he 
did in October, 1903. Sliney, on the other hand, had lost 
about one pound in weight. It is obvious, therefore, that 
these two men do not owe their spare condition to the low 
proteid diet. 

The photographs facing pages 136, 261, 284 and 296 illus- 
trate some of the methods employed in attempts to improve 
the bodily movements of the soldiers. 

Among the group of University athletes, the photographs 
of Stapleton, facing pages 328 and 366, show the muscular 
development of a typical athlete endowed with more than the 
usual amount of muscular tissue. These two photographs of 
Stapleton were taken in April, after the subject had been for 
several months on a low proteid diet. There is in the photo- 
graphs certainly no suggestion of any loss of muscle tissue, 
and no evidence of physical weakness. Stapleton, as has been 
previously stated, was an expert in wrestling and events of 
that character, for which his heavy muscular build well fitted 
him. 

The photographs of W. L. Anderson and Bellis, facing 
pages 440 and 442, show, on the other hand, two athletes 
whose characteristic build is indicative of ability as gymnasts. 
More graceful in form, with smaller joints, and less heavy 
musculature, these men, at the time the photographs were 
taken, were in the pink of condition, and in a high degree of 
training for their special fields of athletic work. Emphasis 
should be laid upon the fact that at the time these two photo- 
graphs were taken, the men in question had not commenced 
to lower their daily amount of proteid food. These two pho- 
tographs are introduced especially to illustrate the general 
physical makeup of the men belonging to the group of Uni- 
versity athletes made use of in the experiments. 



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